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Eliciting Design Guidelines for Privacy Notifications in mHealth Environments
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, ISSN 1942-390X, E-ISSN 1942-3918, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 66-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibilities of employing mobile health (mhealth) devices for the purpose of self-quantification and fitness tracking are increasing, yet few users of online mhealth services possess proven knowledge of how their personal data are processed once the data have been disclosed. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) can provide such insight and guide users in making informed decisions with respect to intervening with the processing of their personal data. At present, however, there are no suitable guidelines that aid designers of TETs in implementing privacy notifications that reflect their recipients’ needs in terms of what they want to be notified about and the level of guidance required to audit their data effectively. Based on an analysis of gaps related to TETs, the findings of a study on privacy notification preferences, and the findings on notifications and privacy notices discussed in the literature, this paper proposes a set of guidelines for the human-centred design of privacy notifications that facilitate ex post transparency.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IGI Global, 2019. Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 66-83
Nyckelord [en]
Data transparency, Human-Centred Design, Individualisation, Intervenability, Mobile Health (mHealth), Notification, Privacy, Transparency-Enhancing Tool (TET), Usability
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71119DOI: 10.4018/IJMHCI.2019100106ISI: 000501306200007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-71119DiVA, id: diva2:1289392
Anmärkning

Artikeln ingick som manuskript i Murmanns (2019) licentiatuppsats Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-18 Skapad: 2019-02-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-09-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
2019 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation grants data subjects the legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Ex post transparency provides users of data services with insight into how their personal data have been processed, and potentially clarifies what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data. Technological artefacts, ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) convey such information to data subjects, provided the TETs are designed to suit the predisposition of their audience. Despite being a prerequisite for transparency, however, many of the TETs available to date lack usability in that their capabilities do not reflect the needs of their final users.

The objective of this thesis is therefore to systematically apply the concept of human-centred design to ascertain design principles that demonstrably lead to the implementation of a TET that facilitates ex post transparency and supports intervenability. To this end, we classify the state of the art of usable ex post TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our findings in the domain of fitness tracking, we investigate to what extent individualisation can help accommodate the needs of users of online mobile health services. We introduce the notion of privacy notifications as a means to inform data subjects about incidences worthy of their attention and examine how far privacy personas reflect the preferences of distinctive groups of recipients. We suggest a catalogue of design guidelines that can serve as a basis for specifying context-sensitive requirements for the implementation of a TET that leverages privacy notifications to facilitate ex post transparency, and which also serve as criteria for the evaluation of a future prototype.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. s. 140
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:8
Nyckelord
Data transparency, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign) Interaktionsteknik Medieteknik
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71120 (URN)978-91-7867-003-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-008-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-05-23, 1B309, Karlstad university, Karlstad, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horisont 2020, 675730
Anmärkning

Paper 2 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-02 Skapad: 2019-02-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-18Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
2020 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation stipulates legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Transparency provides data subjects with insight into how their personal data have been processed, clarifying what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data, whereas intervenability enables them to intervene in the process. Technological artefacts, transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) serve the purpose of conveying respective information precisely and intelligibily. However, despite being a prerequisite for transparency, many TETs available today lack usability in that they do not stringently reflect the needs of their users, which raises the question as to whether individual TETs fulfil their designated purpose.

The objective of this dissertation is to systematically apply principles pertaining to human-centred design to ascertain the qualities necessary to design TETs that facilitate transparency and advise means of intervenability with regard to the needs of their target audience. We classify the state of the art of usable TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our research in the domain of personal health tracking, we investigate to what extent customisation can help accommodate the needs of users of TETs. We introduce privacy notifications as a conceptual means to inform data subjects about facts worthy of their attention, and examine the immanent properties required to accomplish actual usability. We categorise the characteristics of privacy notifications in terms of what insight they convey, and how respective facts need to be presented to facilitate informed decision-making on the recipient's part. Based on findings obtained via quantitative and qualitative user studies, we elicit concomitant factors related to the parameterisation of privacy notifications. We present the prototypical implementation of TETs whose iterative evaluation provides us with a catalogue of design requirements that demonstrably reflect the needs of their users.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstads universitet, 2020. s. 55
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2020:28
Nyckelord
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Personal health tracking, Privacy notification, Transparency, Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-80075 (URN)978-91-7867-144-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-148-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2020-10-28, 21E415A, Sjökvistsalen, Karlstad, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Artikel 6 del av avhandlingen som manuskript, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2020-10-07 Skapad: 2020-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-07-02Bibliografiskt granskad

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