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Tools for Achieving Usable Ex Post Transparency: A Survey
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). (Privacy and Security, PRISEC)
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). (Privacy and Security, PRISEC)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6938-4466
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, s. 22965-22991Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Transparency of personal data processing is a basic privacy principle and a right that is well acknowledged by data protection legislation, such as the EU general data protection regulation (GDPR). The objective of ex post transparency enhancing tools (TETs) is to provide users with insight about what data have been processed about them and what possible consequences might arise after their data have been revealed, that is, ex post. This survey assesses the state of the art in scientific literature of the usability of ex post TETs enhancing privacy and discusses them in terms of their common features and unique characteristics. The article first defines the scope of usable transparency in terms of relevant privacy principles for providing transparency by taking the GDPR as a point of reference, and usability principles that are important for achieving transparency. These principles for usable transparency serve as a reference for classifying and assessing the surveyed TETs. The retrieval and screening process of the publications is then described, as is the process for deriving the subsequent classification of the characteristics of the TETs. The survey not only looks into what is made transparent by the TETs but also how transparency is actually achieved. A main contribution of this survey is a proposed classification that assesses the TETs based on their functionality, implementation and evaluation as described in the literature. It concludes by discussing the trends and limitations of the surveyed TETs in regard to the defined scope of usable TETs and shows possible directions of future research for addressing these gaps. This survey provides researchers and developers of privacy enhancing technologies an overview of the characteristics of state of the art ex post TETs, on which they can base their work.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2017. Vol. 5, s. 22965-22991
Nyckelord [en]
GDPR, HCI, privacy, transparency, usability, visualization
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65290DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2765539ISI: 000415170200021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-65290DiVA, id: diva2:1161221
Projekt
Privacy&Us
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horisont 2020Tillgänglig från: 2017-11-29 Skapad: 2017-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-09-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation
2019 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation grants data subjects the legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Ex post transparency provides users of data services with insight into how their personal data have been processed, and potentially clarifies what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data. Technological artefacts, ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) convey such information to data subjects, provided the TETs are designed to suit the predisposition of their audience. Despite being a prerequisite for transparency, however, many of the TETs available to date lack usability in that their capabilities do not reflect the needs of their final users.

The objective of this thesis is therefore to systematically apply the concept of human-centred design to ascertain design principles that demonstrably lead to the implementation of a TET that facilitates ex post transparency and supports intervenability. To this end, we classify the state of the art of usable ex post TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our findings in the domain of fitness tracking, we investigate to what extent individualisation can help accommodate the needs of users of online mobile health services. We introduce the notion of privacy notifications as a means to inform data subjects about incidences worthy of their attention and examine how far privacy personas reflect the preferences of distinctive groups of recipients. We suggest a catalogue of design guidelines that can serve as a basis for specifying context-sensitive requirements for the implementation of a TET that leverages privacy notifications to facilitate ex post transparency, and which also serve as criteria for the evaluation of a future prototype.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. s. 140
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:8
Nyckelord
Data transparency, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign) Interaktionsteknik Medieteknik
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71120 (URN)978-91-7867-003-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-008-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-05-23, 1B309, Karlstad university, Karlstad, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horisont 2020, 675730
Anmärkning

Paper 2 ingick som manuskript i avhandlingen, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-02 Skapad: 2019-02-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-18Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Information at Your Fingertips: Facilitating Usable Transparency via Privacy Notifications
2020 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The General Data Protection Regulation stipulates legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Transparency provides data subjects with insight into how their personal data have been processed, clarifying what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data, whereas intervenability enables them to intervene in the process. Technological artefacts, transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) serve the purpose of conveying respective information precisely and intelligibily. However, despite being a prerequisite for transparency, many TETs available today lack usability in that they do not stringently reflect the needs of their users, which raises the question as to whether individual TETs fulfil their designated purpose.

The objective of this dissertation is to systematically apply principles pertaining to human-centred design to ascertain the qualities necessary to design TETs that facilitate transparency and advise means of intervenability with regard to the needs of their target audience. We classify the state of the art of usable TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our research in the domain of personal health tracking, we investigate to what extent customisation can help accommodate the needs of users of TETs. We introduce privacy notifications as a conceptual means to inform data subjects about facts worthy of their attention, and examine the immanent properties required to accomplish actual usability. We categorise the characteristics of privacy notifications in terms of what insight they convey, and how respective facts need to be presented to facilitate informed decision-making on the recipient's part. Based on findings obtained via quantitative and qualitative user studies, we elicit concomitant factors related to the parameterisation of privacy notifications. We present the prototypical implementation of TETs whose iterative evaluation provides us with a catalogue of design requirements that demonstrably reflect the needs of their users.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstads universitet, 2020. s. 55
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2020:28
Nyckelord
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Human-centred design, Human-computer interaction (HCI), Information privacy, Intervenability, Mobile health (mhealth), Personal health tracking, Privacy notification, Transparency, Transparency-enhancing tool (TET), Usability
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-80075 (URN)978-91-7867-144-1 (ISBN)978-91-7867-148-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2020-10-28, 21E415A, Sjökvistsalen, Karlstad, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Artikel 6 del av avhandlingen som manuskript, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2020-10-07 Skapad: 2020-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-07-02Bibliografiskt granskad

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