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An economic-environmental analysis of selected barrier coating materials used in packaging food products: A Swedish case study
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6293-8657
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
Stora Enso.
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0674-4356
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1483-1497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of a barrier coating in food packaging is primarily to increase the shelf life of the foodstuff contained within the packaging, preserve its colour, odour, taste and quality, and thereby reduce food wastage (both at retail outlets and households). While most publications hitherto have compared packaging and barrier-coating materials on the basis of their environmental impacts alone, this paper adopts a more holistic approach by factoring in the economic aspect as well. Four barrier material alternatives—starch, polyethylene, EVOH + kaolin and latex + kaolin are analysed. Two well-defined end-of-life handling scenarios, relevant to Sweden, are: one in which everything except starch is recycled, with starch being composted, and the other in which everything is incinerated. Among the several environmental impact categories which can be analysed, this paper considers only global warming. Two approaches are tested to combine the economic and environmental aspects—normalisation, weighting and aggregating on the one hand, and using the carbon tax to internalise the externality caused by GHG emissions on the other. For the set of weighting factors obtained thanks to a survey conducted by the authors (40.6% for environmental and 59.4% for economic), starch emerges as the most sustainable alternative, followed by polyethylene for both the end-of-life handling scenarios. This tallies with the result obtained by using the carbon tax for internalisation of the externality. The case study, methodology and results presented in this paper, will hopefully be a springboard for more detailed studies of this nature, under the umbrella of sustainability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Dordrecht: Springer, 2018. Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1483-1497
Nyckelord [en]
Barrier coatings, Starch, Kaolin, Latex, EVOH Polyethylene, Environmental LCA, Sustainability, Economic
Nationell ämneskategori
Polymerteknologi Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Kemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47463DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9948-2ISI: 000437438300003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-47463DiVA, id: diva2:1055714
Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-13 Skapad: 2016-12-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Structure-Performance Relations of Oxygen Barriers for Food Packaging
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Structure-Performance Relations of Oxygen Barriers for Food Packaging
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Food packaging should ensure the safety and quality of food, minimize spoilage and provide an easy way of storing and handling it. Barrier coatings are generally used to meet the demands placed on fibre-based food packages, as these have the ability to regulate the amount of gases that can enter them. Some gases are detrimental to food quality: oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods. Using both experimental data and computer modelling, this thesis explains some aspects of how the structure of barrier coatings influences the mass transport of oxygen with the aim of obtaining essential knowledge that can be used to optimize the performance of barriers.

Barrier coatings are produced from polyvinyl alcohol and kaolin blends that are coated onto a polymeric support. The chemical and physical structures of these barriers were characterized according to their influence on permeability in various climates. At a low concentration of kaolin, the crystallinity of polyvinyl alcohol decreased; in the thinner films, the kaolin particles were orientated in the basal plane of the barrier coating. The experimental results indicated a complex interplay between the polymer and the filler with respect to permeability.

A computer model for permeability incorporating theories for the filled polymeric layer to include the polymer crystallinity, addition of filler, filler aspect ratio and surrounding moisture was developed. The model shows that mass transport was affected by the aspect ratio of the clay in combination with the clay concentration, as well as the polymer crystallinity. The combined model agreed with the experiments, showing that it is possible to combine different theories into one model that can be used to predict the mass transport.

Four barrier coatings: polyethylene, ethylene vinyl alcohol + kaolin, latex + kaolin and starch were evaluated using the parameters of greenhouse gas emissions and product costs. After the production of the barrier material, the coating process and the end-of-life handling scenarios were analysed, it emerged that starch had the lowest environmental impact and latex + kaolin had the highest.

Abstract [en]

Food packaging is required to secure the safety and quality of food, as well as minimize spoilage and simplify handling. Barrier coatings are generally used to meet the demands placed on fibre-based food packages, as these have the ability to regulate the amount of gases that can enter them. Some gases are detrimental to food quality: oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods.

This thesis focuses on the mass transport of oxygen in order to gain deeper knowledge of, and thereby optimise, the performance of barrier coatings. This experimental study, together with computer modelling, characterized the structure of barrier materials with respect to the mass transport process. The performance of the barriers was evaluated based on the parameters of environmental impact and product costs. As the long-term aim is to use non-petroleum-based barrier coatings for packaging, these should be evaluated by assessing the properties of the material in question, its functionality and its environmental impact to provide more insight into which materials are desirable as well as to develop technology.

The results from this study indicate that several parameters (the orientation, concentration and aspect ratio of the clay and the polymer crystallinity) influence the properties of a barrier. Using this knowledge, researchers and food packaging engineers can work toward improving and customising renewable barriers.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. s. 100
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:3
Nyckelord
Barrier coating, Permeability, Dynamic Mass Transport, Modelling, Diffusion, Polymer, Dispersion, Kaolin, LCA, Starch, Hemicellulose
Nationell ämneskategori
Polymerteknologi Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial Beräkningsmatematik Livsmedelsteknik Kompositmaterial och -teknik Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Forskningsämne
Materialvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47496 (URN)978-91-7063-738-4 (ISBN)978-91-7063-739-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-02-10, Eva Eriksson, 21A342, Karlstad, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Projekt
VIPP
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen, 20100268Stora Enso
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-24 Skapad: 2016-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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