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Materials and Device Engineering for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4745-1074
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Polymer solar cells form a promising technology for converting sunlight into electricity, and have reached record efficiencies over 10% and lifetimes of several years. The performance of polymer solar cells depends strongly on the distribution of electron donor and acceptor materials in the active layer. To achieve longer lifetimes, degradation processes in the materials have to be understood. In this thesis, a set of complementary spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, among which soft X-ray techniques have been used to determine the morphology of polymer:fullerene based active layers. We have found that the morphology of TQ1:PC70BM films is strongly influenced by the processing solvent and the use of solvent additives. We have also found, by using soft X-ray techniques, that not only the light-absorbing polymer TQ1, but also the fullerene is susceptible to photo-degradation in air. Moreover, the fullerene degradation is accelerated in the presence of the polymer. Additionally, this thesis addresses the role of the interfacial layers for device performance and stability. The commonly used hole transport material PEDOT:PSS has the advantage of being solution processable at room temperature, but this layer is also known to contribute to the device degradation. We have found that low-temperature processed NiOx is a promising alternative to PEDOT:PSS, leading to improved device performance. Even for encapsulated polymer solar cells, some photo-induced degradation of the electrical performance is observed and is found to depend on the nature of the hole transport material. We found a better initial stability for solar cells with MoO3 hole transport layers than with PEDOT:PSS. In the pursuit of understanding the initial decrease in electrical performance of PEDOT:PSS-based devices, simulations were performed, from which a number of degradation sources could be excluded.

Abstract [en]

With the increasing global demand for energy, solar cells provide a clean method for converting the abundant sunlight to electricity. Polymer solar cells can be made from a large variety of light-harvesting and electrically conducting molecules and are inexpensive to produce. They have additional advantages, like their mechanical flexibility and low weight, which opens opportunities for novel applications. In order for polymer solar cells to be more competitive, however, both the power conversion efficiencies and lifetimes need to further improve. One way to achieve this is to optimize the morphology of the active layer. The active layer of a polymer solar cell consists of electron donating and electron accepting molecules whose distribution in the bulk of the film is a major factor that determines the solar cell performance.

This thesis presents the use of complementary spectroscopy and microscopy methods to probe the local composition in the active layer of polymer solar cells. The stability of the active layer is studied and the interplay between the photo-degradation of the donor and acceptor molecules is investigated. Additionally, this thesis addresses how the interfacial layers between the active layer and the electrodes can influence device performance and stability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. , s. 75
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:2
Nyckelord [en]
polymer solar cell, photovoltaics, morphology, photo-degradation, conjugated polymer, fullerene, synchroton-based techniques, hole transport layers
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47257ISBN: 978-91-7063-736-0 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7063-739-1 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-47257DiVA, id: diva2:1049534
Disputation
2017-02-03, 21A342, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

I publikationen felaktigt ISBN 978-91-7063-739-1

Artikel 5 publicerad i avhandlingen som manuskript med titeln "The role of the hole transport layer in the initial photo-degradation of PCDTBT: PC70BM solar cells"

Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-13 Skapad: 2016-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC70BM blend
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC70BM blend
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2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, s. 6970-6979Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nyckelord
NEXAFS, SIMS, solar cell, organic photovoltaics, solvent additives
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik; Materialvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35418 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00683j (DOI)000351552300034 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2010-4155Göran Gustafssons stiftelse för naturvetenskaplig och medicinsk forskning (KVA)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-22 Skapad: 2015-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-20Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Photodegradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Photodegradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, nr 16, s. 11132-11138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We have studied the photo-degradation in air of a blend of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), and how the photo-degradation affects the solar cell performance. Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, changes to the electronic structure of TQ1 and PCBM caused by illumination in ambient air are investigated and compared between the pristine materials and the blend. The NEXAFS spectra show that the unoccupied molecular orbitals of TQ1 are not significantly changed by the exposure of pristine TQ1 to light in air, whereas those of PCBM are severely affected as a result of photo-induced degradation of PCBM. Furthermore, the photo-degradation of PCBM is accelerated by blending it with TQ1. While the NEXAFS spectrum of TQ1 remains unchanged upon illumination in air, its valence band spectrum shows that the occupied molecular orbitals are weakly affected. Yet, UV-Vis absorption spectra demonstrate photo-bleaching of TQ1, which is attenuated in the presence of PCBM in blend films. Illumination of the active layer of TQ1: PCBM solar cells prior to cathode deposition causes severe losses in electrical performance.

Nyckelord
polymer solar cells, photodegradation, fullerene, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37835 (URN)10.1039/c5cp07752d (DOI)000374786300053 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-04 Skapad: 2015-09-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-20Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Low temperature processed NiOx hole transport layers for efficient polymer solar cells
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Low temperature processed NiOx hole transport layers for efficient polymer solar cells
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 44, s. 59-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2017
Nyckelord
OPV Nickel oxide Hole injection layer UV-ozone Kelvin probe XPS
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47258 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2017.01.040 (DOI)000397441800009 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 38327-2Vetenskapsrådet, 2015-03778Göran Gustafssons stiftelse för naturvetenskaplig och medicinsk forskning (KVA)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-23 Skapad: 2016-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Opportunities and challenges in probing local composition of organic material blends for photovoltaics
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Opportunities and challenges in probing local composition of organic material blends for photovoltaics
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 1982-1992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Materials Research Society, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47259 (URN)10.1557/jmr.2017.7 (DOI)000402284600014 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 38327-1Vetenskapsrådet, 2015-03778Göran Gustafssons stiftelse för naturvetenskaplig och medicinsk forskning (KVA)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-23 Skapad: 2016-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Initial photo-degradation of PCDTBT:PC 70 BM solar cells studied under various illumination conditions: Role of the hole transport layer
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Initial photo-degradation of PCDTBT:PC 70 BM solar cells studied under various illumination conditions: Role of the hole transport layer
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 183, nr 1, s. 234-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

ncapsulated organic solar cells often show a burn-in behaviour under illumination. This burn-in manifests itself as a rapid performance loss followed by a much slower progression of the degradation. Here we investigate the burn-in for PCDTBT:PC 70 BM solar cells under a wide range of illumination intensities. We find that increasing the sunlight concentration from 1 Sun to up to 100 Suns does not change the degradation behaviour, i.e. the dependence of all principal photovoltaic parameters on the dose of solar exposure (in Sun hours). This suggests that the degradation mechanisms under solar concentration (≤100 Suns) are the same as those observed under 1 Sun. This result makes it possible to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated stability assessment of these devices. We also find that devices with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport material show a rapid drop in open-circuit voltage of around 100 mV during the first Sun hour of light exposure. By replacing PEDOT:PSS with MoO 3 this initial process can be prevented and only the much slower part of the photo-degradation takes place.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47260 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2019.03.020 (DOI)000467892000020 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 38327-1Vetenskapsrådet, 2015-03778Göran Gustafssons stiftelse för naturvetenskaplig och medicinsk forskning (KVA), MP1307,STSM-MP1307-090216-070777
Anmärkning

Publicerad i Hanssons doktorsavhandling Materials and Device Engineering for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells som manuskript med titeln: "The role of the hole transport layer in the initial photo-degradation of PCDTBTPC70BM solar cells"

Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-23 Skapad: 2016-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-31Bibliografiskt granskad

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