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Ethanol from lignocellulose: Alkali detoxification of dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
2006 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates by treatment with Ca(OH)2 (overliming) efficiently improves the production of fuel ethanol, but is associated with drawbacks like sugar degradation and CaSO4 precipitation. In factorial designed experiments, in which pH and temperature were varied, dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates were treated with Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH. The concentrations of sugars and inhibitory compounds were measured before and after the treatments. The fermentability was examined using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with reference fermentations of synthetic medium without inhibitors. The treatment conditions were evaluated by comparing the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the degradation of sugars and the ethanol production into account. Treatment conditions resulting in excellent fermentability and minimal sugar degradation were possible to find regardless of whether Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH was used. Balanced ethanol yields higher than those of the reference fermentations were achieved for hydrolysates treated with all three types of alkali. As expected, treatment with Ca(OH)2 gave rise to precipitated CaSO4. The NH4OH treatments gave rise to a brownish precipitate but the amounts of precipitate formed were relatively small. No precipitate was observed in treatments with NaOH. The possibility that the ammonium ions from the NH4OH treatments gave a positive effect as an extra source of nitrogen during the fermentations was excluded after experiments in which NH4Cl was added to the medium. The findings presented can be used to improve the effectiveness of alkali detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and to minimize problems with sugar degradation and formation of precipitates.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2006. , s. 38
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2006:30
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan kemi
Forskningsämne
Kemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2632ISBN: 91-7063-061-5 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-2632DiVA, id: diva2:24975
Presentation
(Engelska)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-03-29 Skapad: 2010-03-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Critical conditions for improved fermentability during overliming of acid hydrolysates from spruce.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Critical conditions for improved fermentability during overliming of acid hydrolysates from spruce.
Visa övriga...
2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 121-124, s. 1031-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioethanol can be produced from wood via acid hydrolysis, but detoxification is needed to achieve good fermentability. Overliming was investigated in a factorial designed experiment, in which pH and temperature were varied. Degradation of inhibitory furan aldehydes was more extensive compared to monosaccharides. Too harsh conditions led to massive degradation of sugars and formation of inhibiting acids and phenols. The ethanol productivity and yield after optimal overliming reached levels exceeding reference fermentations of pure glucose. A novel metric, the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both ethanol production and losses of fermentable sugars into account, was introduced and showed the optimal conditions within the investigated range. The findings allow process technical and economical considerations to govern the choice of conditions for overliming.

Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3309 (URN)10.1385/ABAB:124:1-3:1031 (DOI)15930579 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-19 Skapad: 2009-01-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates.
Visa övriga...
2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 121-124, s. 911-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overliming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition of nitrogen source. Treatment with NH4OH compared favorably with Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, and NaOH to improve fermentability using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of monosaccharides, furan aldehydes, phenols, and aliphatic acids was performed after the different treatments. The NH4OH treatments, performed at pH 10.0, resulted in a substantial decrease in the concentrations of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. Under the conditions studied, NH4OH treatments gave better results than Ca(OH)2 treatments. The addition of an extra nitrogen source in the form of NH4Cl at pH 5.5 did not result in any improvement in fermentability that was comparable to NH4OH treatments at alkaline conditions. The addition of CaCl2 or NH4Cl at pH 5.5 after treatment with NH4OH or Ca(OH)2 resulted in poorer fermentability, and the negative effects were attributed to salt stress. The results strongly suggest that the highly positive effects of NH4OH treatments are owing to chemical conversions rather than stimulation of the yeast cells by ammonium ions during the fermentation.

Nationell ämneskategori
Annan kemi
Forskningsämne
Kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3310 (URN)10.1385/ABAB:124:1-3:0911 (DOI)15930570 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-19 Skapad: 2009-01-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Optimal conditions for alkaline detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimal conditions for alkaline detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates.
2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 129-132, s. 599-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Alkaline detoxification strongly improves the fermentability of dilute-acid hydrolysates in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. New experiments were performed with NH4OH and NaOH to define optimal conditions for detoxification and make a comparison with Ca(OH)2 treatment feasible. As too harsh conditions lead to sugar degradation, the detoxification treatments were evaluated through the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the ethanol production and the loss of fermentable sugars into account. The optimization treatments were performed as factorial experiments with 3-h duration and varying pH and temperature. Optimal conditions were found roughly in an area around pH 9.0/60 degrees C for NH4OH treatment and in a narrow area stretching from pH 9.0/80 degrees C to pH 12.0/30 degrees C for NaOH treatment. By optimizing treatment with NH4OH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2, it was possible to find conditions that resulted in a fermentability that was equal or better than that of a reference fermentation of a synthetic sugar solution without inhibitors, regardless of the type of alkali used. The considerable difference in the amount of precipitate generated after treatment with different types of alkali appears critical for industrial implementation.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3294 (URN)10.1385/ABAB:130:1:599 (DOI)16915672 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-01-19 Skapad: 2009-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad

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