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The Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenge for Crypto-based Solutions
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). (PriSec)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6509-3792
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the continuous increase of online activity. Researchers study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users’ data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is a continuous challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem. Our aim was to focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing solutions.  In this thesis, we followed a user centered design method by using empirical qualitative means for investigating user’s perceptions and opinions of our solutions. Most of our work has focused on redactable signatures in the cloud context within the eHealth use-case. Redactable signatures are  a privacy enhancing scheme allowing to remove parts of a signed document by a specified party for achieving data minimization without invalidating the respective signature.

We mainly used semi-structures interviews and focus groups in our investigations. Our results yielded key HCI considerations as well as guidelines of different means for supporting the design of future solutions.

Abstract [en]

Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the continuous increase of online activity. Researchers continuously study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users’ data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is the continuous challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem.

Our aim was to focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing solutions.  In this thesis, we followed a user centered design method by using empirical qualitative means for investigating user’s perceptions and opinions of our solutions. Most of our work has focused on redactable signatures in the cloud context within an eHealth use-case. Redactable signatures are a privacy-enhancing scheme, which allow the removal of parts of a signed document by a specified party without invalidating the respective signature. Our results yielded key HCI considerations as well as guidelines of different means for supporting the design of future solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018. , p. 14
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:23
Keywords [en]
Data privacy, wicked problems, user-centered design, crypto-based solutions, usability, data minimization, redactable signatures
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67134ISBN: 978-91-7063-856-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7063-951-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-67134DiVA, id: diva2:1200286
Presentation
2018-06-11, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper 3 was included as manuscript in the thesis.

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Signatures for Privacy, Trust and Accountability in the Cloud: Applications and Requirements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signatures for Privacy, Trust and Accountability in the Cloud: Applications and Requirements
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2015 (English)In: Privacy and Identity Management. Time for a Revolution?: 10th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Edinburgh, UK, August 16-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] David Aspinall, Jan Camenisch, Marit Hansen, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Charles Raab, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, Vol. 476, p. 79-96Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper summarises the results of a workshop at the IFIP Summer School 2015 introducing the EU Horizon 2020 project PRISMACLOUD, that is, Privacy and Security Maintaining Services in the Cloud. The contributions of this summary are three-fold. Firstly, it provides an overview to the PRISMACLOUD cryptographic tools and use-case scenarios that were presented as part of this workshop. Secondly, it distills the discussion results of parallel focus groups. Thirdly, it summarises a ``Deep Dive on Crypto'' session that offered technical information on the new tools. Overall, the workshop aimed at outlining application scenarios and eliciting end-user requirements for PRISMACLOUD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2015
Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 476
Keywords
Privacy, Cloud Computing, Functional Signatures, Malleable Signatures, Graph Signatures, Anonymous Credentials, User Requirements
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-43022 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-41763-9_6 (DOI)978-3-319-41762-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IFIP Summer School, Edinburgh, 16.‐21. August 2015
Projects
PRISMACLOUD
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 4805
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
2. Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

Keywords
HCI Requirements, Malleable Signatures, Usable Privacy, Cloud tools, eHealth
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-43016 (URN)
Conference
HAISA 2016 - the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, Frankfurt Germany, 19th - 21st July 2016
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 4805
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
3. Enhancing Privacy Controls for Patients via a Selective Authentic Electronic Health Record Exchange Service: Qualitative Study of Perspectives by Medical Professionals and Patients
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Privacy Controls for Patients via a Selective Authentic Electronic Health Record Exchange Service: Qualitative Study of Perspectives by Medical Professionals and Patients
2018 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, no 12, article id e10954Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Patients' privacy is regarded as essential for the patient-doctor relationship. One example of a privacy-enhancing technology for user-controlled data minimization on content level is a redactable signature. It enables users to redact personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, and thus the authenticity of the document. In this study, we present end users' evaluations of a Cloud-based selective authentic electronic health record (EHR) exchange service (SAE-service) in an electronic health use case. In the use case scenario, patients were given control to redact specified information fields in their EHR, which were signed by their doctors with a redactable signature and transferred to them into a Cloud platform. They can then selectively disclose the remaining information in the EHR, which still bears the valid digital signature, to third parties of their choice. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perceptions, attitudes, and mental models concerning the SAE-service of 2 user roles: signers (medical professionals) and redactors (patients with different technical knowledge) in Germany and Sweden. Another objective was to elicit usability requirements for this service based on the analysis of our investigation. Methods: We chose empirical qualitative methods to address our research objective. Designs of mock-ups for the service were used as part of our user-centered design approach in our studies with test participants from Germany and Sweden. A total of 13 individual walk-throughs or interviews were conducted with medical staff to investigate the EHR signers' perspectives. Moreover, 5 group walk-throughs in focus groups sessions with (N=32) prospective patients with different technical knowledge to investigate redactor's perspective of EHR data redaction control were used. Results: We found that our study participants had correct mental models with regard to the redaction process. Users with some technical models lacked trust in the validity of the doctor's signature on the redacted documents. Main results to be considered are the requirements concerning the accountability of the patients' redactions and the design of redaction templates for guidance and control. Conclusions: For the SAE-service to be means for enhancing patient control and privacy, the diverse usability and trust factors of different user groups should be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR Publications, 2018
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70971 (URN)10.2196/10954 (DOI)000454351700001 ()30578189 (PubMedID)
Note

This paper was included as manuscript in Alaqra's licentiate thesis The Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenge for Crypto-based Solutions

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
4. HCI patterns for cryptographically equipped cloud services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HCI patterns for cryptographically equipped cloud services
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2018 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67347 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-91238-7_44 (DOI)000450991000044 ()978-3-319-91237-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-91238-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved

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