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Phthalates: A Full Chain Story: Connecting phthalate sources, indoor dust, human intake, and airway symptoms in children
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0001-6322-9556
2021 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)Alternativ titel
Ftalater: En kedjemodell : Samband mellan ftalatkällor, inomhusdamm, humanintag och luftvägssymtom hos barn (Svenska)
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are widely used in a large number of consumer goods and building materials from which they can leach and contaminate the environment such as indoor dust and air. It is unclear how phthalate sources in our homes and indoor dust contribute to human intake and airway symptoms in children. 

This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of phthalate exposure by exploring connections between phthalate sources in home environments, indoor exposure, human intake, and childrens’ airway symptoms. It utilizes data in the Swedish SELMA study, including measurements of indoor dust phthalate levels and corresponding metabolites in prenatal maternal urine, and information on health outcomes and cofactors from self-administered questionnaires. 

The results show higher levels of three phthalates (DnBP, BBzP and DEHP) in dust from homes with PVC flooring. Four phthalates in dust (DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and BBzP) were positively correlated with corresponding maternal urinary metabolites. The dust was estimated to explain a 1-28% (median) contribution to the total daily intake of the analysed phthalates among pregnant women. Living in homes with PVC flooring was linked to a higher intake of BBzP and DEHP. Further, associations were found between prenatal phthalate exposure (BBzP, DiNP, DiDP and DPHP) and wheeze, and phthalates in dust (DEP, BBzP and DEHP) and croup in children before 2-years-of-age.

This thesis connects a full chain of factors relevant for human phthalate exposure. Sources in our homes were linked to higher levels in dust and to human intake. Also, both regulated and non-regulated phthalates were associated with human intake and airway symptoms. Combined with other research results, this implies that using new phthalates as replacements might not be optimal, and we could consider regulating phthalates as a group. Any links to effects in older children is unknown, still, limiting indoor phthalate sources could reduce intake and benefit overall public health.

Abstract [en]

The indoor environment is important for our health; still, a mix of phthalates, that are either non-regulated or classed as hazardous, can be detected in dust in our homes. The phthalates have leached from various products and building materials such as plastics, electronics, perfume, and interiors. Should this make us concerned?

This thesis has followed indoor phthalate exposure from vinyl (PVC) flooring materials to dust, to phthalate intake among pregnant women, and finally to investigated if airway symptoms in young children are linked to either phthalate exposure of the fetus or phthalates in bedroom dust.

The results show that phthalates from vinyl floorings can be followed through this full exposure chain. Both regulated and non-regulated replacement phthalates were associated with human intake and airway symptoms in children. Combined with other research results, this implies that using new phthalates as replacements might not be optimal, and we could consider regulating phthalates as a group. Although the risk is relatively low for the individual, reducing phthalate sources and exposure during early human development may have benefits on a public health level and contribute to more sustainable use of resources.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstads universitet, 2021. , s. 68
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2021:29
Nyckelord [en]
children's health, endocrine disruption, exposure pathways, full chain model, human exposure, plasticizers, pregnancy, PVC, respiratory, SELMA study
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Folkhälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-86337ISBN: 978-91-7867-234-9 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7867-245-5 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-86337DiVA, id: diva2:1607011
Disputation
2021-12-10, Fryxell 1B 306, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 15:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Article 1 part of thesis as manuscript, now published.

Tillgänglig från: 2021-11-19 Skapad: 2021-10-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Phthalate levels in prenatal and postnatal bedroom dust in the SELMA study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Phthalate levels in prenatal and postnatal bedroom dust in the SELMA study
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 212, artikel-id 113429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are common in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and numerous consumer goods in our homes from which they can migrate and adhere to indoor dust particles. It is known that indoor dust exposure contribute to human phthalate intake; however, there is a lack of large studies with a repeated-measure design investigating how phthalate levels in indoor dust may vary over time in people's homes.

This study investigated levels of seven phthalates and one alternative plasticiser di-iso-nonyl-cyclohexane-di-carboxylate (DiNCH) in bedroom dust collected prenatally around week 25 during pregnancy and postnatally at six months after birth, from 496 Swedish homes. Prenatal and postnatal phthalate levels were compared using correlation and season-adjusted general linear regression models.

Over the nine-month period, levels of six out of seven phthalates were associated as indicated by a positive Pearson correlation (0.18 < r < 0.50, P < .001) and Lin's concordance correlation between matched prenatal and postnatal dust samples. Compared to prenatal levels, the season-adjusted postnatal levels decreased for five phthalates, whilst di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) and DiNCH increased.

The results suggest that families with higher phthalate levels in bedroom dust during pregnancy are likely to remain among those with higher levels in the infancy period. However, all average phthalate levels changed over this specific nine-month period suggesting that available phthalate sources or their use were altered between the dust collections. Changes in home characteristics, family lifestyle, and phthalate replacement trends may contribute to explain the differences.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2022
Nyckelord
Human exposure, Plasticisers, Indoor dust, Pregnancy, Child, Infant
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Folkhälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-86338 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2022.113429 (DOI)000808307000004 ()2-s2.0-85130153465 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Artikeln del av Preeces (2021) doktorsavhandling Phthalates: A Full Chain Story: Connecting phthalate sources, indoor dust, human intake, and airway symptoms in children som manuskript, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2021-10-29 Skapad: 2021-10-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Indoor phthalate exposure and contributions to total intake among pregnant women in the SELMA study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Indoor phthalate exposure and contributions to total intake among pregnant women in the SELMA study
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2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 1495-1508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. Exposure to phthalates can lead to adverse health effects in humans, with early-life exposure being of particular concern. Phthalate exposure occurs mainly through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. However, our understanding of the relative importance of different exposure routes is incomplete. This study estimated the intake of five phthalates from the residential indoor environment for 455 Swedish pregnant women in the SELMA study using phthalate mass fraction in indoor dust and compares these to total daily phthalate intakes back-calculated from phthalate metabolite concentrations in the women's urine. Steady-state models were used to estimate indoor air phthalate concentrations from dust measurements. Intakes from residential dust and air made meaningful contributions to total daily intakes of more volatile di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (11% of total DEP intake and 28% of total DnBP and DiBP intake combined). Dermal absorption from air was the dominant pathway contributing to the indoor environmental exposure. Residential exposure to less volatile phthalates made minor contributions to total intake. These results suggest that reducing the presence of low molecular weight phthalates in the residential indoor environment can meaningfully reduce phthalate intake among pregnant women.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
WILEY, 2021
Nyckelord
daily intake, dermal uptake, dust ingestion, exposure pathways, home, inhalation
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Folkhälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-83537 (URN)10.1111/ina.12813 (DOI)000626959600001 ()33751666 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102237276 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2021-03-26 Skapad: 2021-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-05-30Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Prenatal phthalate exposure and early childhood wheeze in the SELMA study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prenatal phthalate exposure and early childhood wheeze in the SELMA study
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, s. 303-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Prenatal maternal phthalate exposure has been associated with wheeze and asthma in children, but results are inconclusive. Previous studies typically assessed exposure in late pregnancy, included only a small number of old phthalates, and assessed outcomes in children aged 5 years or older. Objective We explored associations between 1st trimester prenatal maternal exposure to a wider range of phthalates and wheeze in early childhood. Methods First trimester concentrations of 14 metabolites from 8 phthalates and one alternative plasticizer were quantified in first-morning void urine from 1148 mothers in the Swedish SELMA study. Associations between log-transformed metabolite concentrations and parental reported ever wheeze among 24-month-old children were investigated with logistic regression models adjusted for parental asthma/rhinitis, sex of child, maternal education, smoking, and creatinine. Results Metabolites of replacement phthalates di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) and di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) were associated with increased risk for wheeze (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.08-2.01 and aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.15, respectively). The associations with DiDP and DPHP were stronger among children whose parents did not have asthma or rhinitis. In this group, wheeze was also associated with metabolites of butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP). Significance Maternal phthalate exposure during early pregnancy may be a risk factor for wheeze in early childhood, especially among children whose parents do not have asthma or rhinitis symptoms.

Nyckelord
Respiratory, Pregnancy, Children's health, Plasticizer, Endocrine disruption
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-85996 (URN)10.1038/s41370-021-00382-w (DOI)000692096800002 ()34475495 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85114619396 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2021-09-22 Skapad: 2021-09-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-04-26Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Phthalate levels in indoor dust and associations to croup in the SELMA study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Phthalate levels in indoor dust and associations to croup in the SELMA study
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2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 257-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are ubiquitous indoor pollutants which have been associated with child airway disease although results are inconclusive. This study examined associations between phthalate levels in residential indoor dust and croup during infancy. Settled indoor dust was collected in 482 homes of 6-month-old infants in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study and analysed for seven phthalates and one phthalate replacement using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The incidence of parental reported croup at 12 months was 6.4% for girls and 13.4% for boys. Associations between phthalate dust levels and croup were analysed by logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. We found significant associations between di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in residential dust and parental reported croup (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08-2.73 and 2.07; 1.00-4.30, respectively). Stratified results for boys showed significant associations between DEP and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust and infant croup (aOR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.04-3.34 and 2.02; 1.04-3.90, respectively). Results for girls had questionable statistical power due to few cases. Our results suggest that exposure to phthalates in dust is a risk factor for airway inflammatory responses in infant children.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Nature Publishing Group, 2021
Nyckelord
Croup, Dust, Exposure, Phthalate, SELMA study
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Folkhälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-80761 (URN)10.1038/s41370-020-00264-7 (DOI)000571372200002 ()32952153 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85091157156 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-10-12 Skapad: 2020-10-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-05-30Bibliografiskt granskad

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