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Hudson, B. (2019). Epistemic quality for equitable access to quality education in school mathematics. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 54(4), 437-456
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epistemic quality for equitable access to quality education in school mathematics
2019 (English)In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 437-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a study that aims to address the challenges of UN Sustainable Development Goal 4 to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education for all. The study focuses on school mathematics in particular. With regard to ensuring equitable access to quality education, it is argued that there is a need to consider the epistemic quality of what students come to know, make sense of and be able to do in school mathematics. Accordingly, the aim is to maximize the chances that all pupils will have epistemic access to school mathematics of high epistemic quality. The study is based on the theoretical framework of Joint Action Theory in Didactics (JATD). Associated research questions focus on the quality of teacher-student(s) joint action and on the epistemic quality of the content. The paper draws on empirical research findings of the Developing Mathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom (DMTPC) project (2010-12) and also on the findings of a parallel study of mathematics teachers' assessment practices in Ghana. One teacher's action research project is used as an exemplar to illustrate how mathematics can become more accessible and inclusive thus leading to an evolution in mathematical thinking and high-quality epistemic access for all.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Elementary school curriculum, access to education, educational quality, mathematics education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72406 (URN)10.1080/00220272.2019.1618917 (DOI)000468673700001 ()
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B. (2018). Powerful Knowledge and Epistemic Quality in School Mathematics. London Review of Education, 16(3), 384-397
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powerful Knowledge and Epistemic Quality in School Mathematics
2018 (English)In: London Review of Education, ISSN 1474-8460, E-ISSN 1474-8479, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 384-397Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article contributes to current debates on progressive, knowledge-based approaches to the curriculum by addressing the question of what it is that studentsare entitled to learn in school mathematics. From the outset it recognizes progressivearguments that teaching should be reconnected with the emancipatory ambitionsof education. In doing so, it takes the notion of powerful knowledge as a startingpoint, based on what knowledge school students have the right to have access to.In turn, it considers this as a question of epistemic quality. This is elaborated as aconcept by drawing on outcomes from a recent study arising from the DevelopingMathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom (DMTPC) project. This conceptis founded on the analysis of a distinction between mathematical fallibilism,based on a heuristic view of mathematics as a human activity, and mathematicalfundamentalism, which reflects an authoritarian view of the subject as beinginfallible, absolutist and irrefutable. The relation between powerful knowledge andepistemic quality is considered further by framing it within a sociological theoryof knowledge. This helps to highlight a further distinction between knowing thatand knowing how, which is used to illustrate examples of high and low epistemicquality in school mathematics. The first example of high epistemic quality is drawnfrom the DMTPC project. The second example is of low epistemic quality andcomes from the highly promoted Core Knowledge Foundation that has recentlybeen imported into English schools from the USA. Finally, the article considers therole of teachers as curriculum makers at the classroom level where curriculum andpedagogy effectively merge. In conclusion, the implications for both policyand practice are considered, in particular proposals are made in relation to therole and place of subject didactics in teaching and teacher education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: UCL Press, 2018
Keywords
powerful knowledge; epistemic quality; mathematical thinking; know how; subject didactics
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70005 (URN)10.18546/LRE.16.3.03 (DOI)000450052000003 ()
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2019-04-05
Gericke, N., Hudson, B. & Olin-Scheller, C. (2018). Powerful knowledge and transformation processes across school subjects. In: : . Paper presented at ECER - European Conference on Educational Research. EERA (European Educational Research Association)Bolzano, Italy, 2018, 4-7th of September..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powerful knowledge and transformation processes across school subjects
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Biology; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75289 (URN)
Conference
ECER - European Conference on Educational Research. EERA (European Educational Research Association)Bolzano, Italy, 2018, 4-7th of September.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Gericke, N., Hudson, B., Olin-Scheller, C. & Stolare, M. (2018). Powerful knowledge and transformations processes across school subjects: interdisciplinary perspectives from the field of subject didactics. In: : . Paper presented at Oral presentation at the research seminar “Didactics and curriculum in complicated conversation” in Odense, Denmark, 25-26th of January, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powerful knowledge and transformations processes across school subjects: interdisciplinary perspectives from the field of subject didactics
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we outline an empirical research framework building on the concepts of powerful knowledge and transformation. Powerful knowledge as an idea was coined by Michael Young (2009) to re-establish the importance of knowledge in teaching and curriculum development. Powerful knowledge is defined by Young as a subject specific coherent conceptual disciplinary knowledge that when learnt will empower students to make decisions, and become action-competent in a way that influence their lives in a positive way. 

We develop the concept of powerful knowledge in two important ways. First, instead of only discussing powerful knowledge as an idea related to educational practices, we take a research position suggesting that powerful knowledge could be used as a tool in educational research related to subject specific education. In doing so we, in line with Deng (2015), propose to align the curricular concept of powerful knowledge to the European research tradition of didactics in general, and subject didactics in particular. Second, we develop the concept of powerful knowledge by refuting the dichotomization suggested by Young (2015) that curriculum (‘what to teach’) can be separated from pedagogy (‘how to teach’). Instead we view these two questions as interrelated in didactical research.

We suggest an expansion of the concept of powerful knowledge by using the analytical concept of transformation as a key concept in describing powerful knowledge in different disciplines, institutions and school subjects. The reason for this is that the concept of transformation is a central issue for didactical research from different European research traditions. Transformation as we understand it can be described as an integrative process in which the content knowledge is transformed into knowledge that is taught and learned through various transformation processes outside and within the educational system in relation to individual, institutional and societal level. Such processes of transformation are apparent in concepts related to a number of different frameworks including: ‘transposition’ (Chevallard 2007), ‘omstilling’ (Ongstad 2006) and ‘reconstruction’ (Duit et al. 2012), and are also reflected in the work of Bernstein (1971) in relation to the concept of ‘re-contextualisation’ within the curriculum tradition. The school subject is never a simple reduction of the discipline. The content knowledge is always transformed to fit the educational purpose of teaching. Hence, to study the concept of powerful knowledge within school subjects we need to study its transformation processes, and address the ‘why’ question in addition to the ‘what’ and ‘how’ questions.

Moreover, the concept of powerful knowledge and the transformation processes the content of powerful knowledge undergo, must be placed in a wider context, where questions addressing societal challenges are raised. In a changing society the argument is being made that it is not obvious that powerful knowledge only stems from academic disciplines. For example, how does the emerging and rapidly changing media landscape affect powerful knowledge and how could powerful knowledge be understood in a connected classroom? How should interdisciplinary topics such as sustainability and migration be taught? What is powerful knowledge in such topics then emerges as a relevant question.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Samhällskunskap; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75298 (URN)
Conference
Oral presentation at the research seminar “Didactics and curriculum in complicated conversation” in Odense, Denmark, 25-26th of January, 2018.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Gericke, N., Hudson, B., Olin-Scheller, C. & Stolare, M. (2018). Powerful knowledge, transformations and the need for empirical studies across school subjects. London Review of Education, 16(3), 428-444
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powerful knowledge, transformations and the need for empirical studies across school subjects
2018 (English)In: London Review of Education, ISSN 1474-8460, E-ISSN 1474-8479, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 428-444Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we explore the concept of 'powerful knowledge' which, from a curriculum studies perspective, refers to the aspects of content knowledge towards which teaching should be oriented. We then consider how the concept of 'powerful knowledge' can be developed and operationalized as a research framework within studies in subject-specific didactics across the curriculum by relating it to the analytical concept of 'transformation'. Transformation is perceived in this case as an integrative process in which content knowledge is transformed into knowledge that is taught and learned through various transformation processes both outside and within the educational system. We argue that powerful knowledge cannot be identified based on the discipline alone, but needs to consider transformation processes and be empirically explored. A variety of theories and frameworks developed within the European research tradition of didactics are described as ways to study transformation processes related to powerful knowledge at different institutional levels as well as between different subjects and disciplines. A comparative research framework related to subject-specific education is proposed around three research questions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: UCL Press, 2018
Keywords
Curriculum theory, powerful knowledge, school subjects, subject didactics, transformation
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
History; Educational Work; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69571 (URN)10.18546/LRE.16.3.06 (DOI)000450052000006 ()
Projects
ROSE
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B. & Zgaga, P. (2017). History, context and overview: Implications for teacher education policy, practice and future research. In: Brian Hudson (Ed.), Overcoming Fragmentation in Teacher Education Policy and Practice: (pp. 1-10). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>History, context and overview: Implications for teacher education policy, practice and future research
2017 (English)In: Overcoming Fragmentation in Teacher Education Policy and Practice / [ed] Brian Hudson, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017
Series
The Cambridge Education Research series
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75073 (URN)9781316640791 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-05 Created: 2019-10-05 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B. (2017). Overcoming Fragmentation in Teacher Education Policy and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming Fragmentation in Teacher Education Policy and Practice
2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017. p. 264
Series
Cambridge Education Research
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70318 (URN)9781316640791 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-05 Created: 2019-10-05 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B. (2016). Didactics. In: Dominic Wyse, Louise Hayward & Jessica Pandya (Ed.), Sage handbook of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment: (pp. 107-124). Los Angeles: Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Didactics
2016 (English)In: Sage handbook of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment / [ed] Dominic Wyse, Louise Hayward & Jessica Pandya, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2016, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2016
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75074 (URN)978-1-4462-9702-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-05 Created: 2019-10-05 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B. (2015). Butterflies and Moths in the Amazon: Developing Mathematical Thinking through the Rainforest: Les Papillons en Amazonie: le développement de la pensée mathématique au travers de la forêt pluviale. Education and Didactique, 9(2), 119-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Butterflies and Moths in the Amazon: Developing Mathematical Thinking through the Rainforest: Les Papillons en Amazonie: le développement de la pensée mathématique au travers de la forêt pluviale
2015 (English)In: Education and Didactique, ISSN 2111-4838, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 119-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research study conducted with a group of practising primary school teachers (n = 24) in North East Scotland during 2011-12. The teachers were all participants in a newly developed Masters course that had been designed within a didactical design research framework with the aim of promoting the development of mathematical thinking in the primary classroom as part of project supported by the Scottish Government. The paper presents the background for this initiative within the context of the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence reform. It reports on the research design, research questions and methods of data collection of the research study related to the project as a whole. Further it explores the impact on pupil learning arising from the teachers’ experiences of this course and, in particular, from the process of classroom inquiry through their action research projects. The analysis of classroom interaction utilises a theoretical framework based on the concept of joint action in didactics. This framework is applied to the analysis of data from one teacher-researcher’s action research project based on the development of a topic-based approach to teaching and learning mathematics on the theme of “The Rainforest”. The findings from this study highlight the ways in which the children actively engaged in the ‘milieu’, the ways in which the teacher developed the ‘didactic game’ by extending the ‘epistemic games’ through the use of the open-ended topic-based approach combined with effective teacher questioning. They also highlight the ways in which the discursive elements of ‘learning games‘ as part of these lessons proved to be very effective means through which to support the children to engage in the milieu and to develop mathematical thinking. It was evident in this study that children had very differing prior knowledge and experiences to bring to the problem solving elements of the tasks and that, due to their ability to visualise the problems, the mathematics became more accessible leading to an evolution in mathematical thinking for all.

Abstract [fr]

Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherche mené auprès d'un groupe d’enseignants du primaire (n = 24) dans le nord-est de l'Écosse en 2011-12. Tous les enseignants participaient à un master nouvellement développé qui avait été conçu dans le cadre d’une recherche de conception didactique ayant pour but la promotion du développement de la pensée mathématique dans les classes primaires dans un projet appuyé par le gouvernement écossais. Cet article présente le contexte de cette initiative dans le cadre de la réforme éducative écossaise « le Curriculum pour l’Excellence ». Il décrit le modèle de recherche, les questions de recherche et les méthodes de collecte de données pour le projet dans son ensemble. En outre, il explore l'impact sur le savoir des élèves résultant de l'expérience du master des enseignants et, en particulier, du processus d'enquête en classe à travers leurs projets de recherche-action. L'analyse de l'interaction en classe utilise un cadre théorique basé sur le concept de l'action commune en didactique. Ce cadre a été utilisé pour l'analyse des données provenant du projet de recherche-action d’un des enseignants-chercheurs, qui était basé sur le développement d'une approche thématique à l'étude des mathématiques sur le thème de la « forêt pluviale ». Les résultats de cette étude mettent en évidence la manière dont les enfants s’engageaient activement dans le « milieu », et la manière dont l'enseignant développait le « jeu didactique » en étendant les « jeux épistémiques » grâce à l'utilisation d’une approche thématique ouverte, combinée avec une interrogation efficace de la part de l'enseignant. Les résultats soulignent la façon dont les éléments discursifs de « l'étude ludique » dans ces leçons s’avéraient très efficaces pour soutenir les élèves à s’engager dans le milieu et à développer la pensée mathématique. Il était évident dans cette étude que les enfants apportaient à la résolution de problèmes des connaissances et expériences très différentes, et que, en raison de leur capacité à visualiser les problèmes, les mathématiques devenaient plus accessibles, ce qui entrainait une évolution de la pensée mathématique pour tous.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2015
Keywords
Mathematical thinking, primary mathematics, joint action in didactics, comparative didactics, topic-based approaches to teaching mathematics
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75072 (URN)10.4000/educationdidactique.2322 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-05 Created: 2019-10-05 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Hudson, B., Henderson, S. & Hudson, A. (2015). Developing Mathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom:: liberating Teachers and Students as Learners of Mathematics. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 47(3), 374-398
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Mathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom:: liberating Teachers and Students as Learners of Mathematics
2015 (English)In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 374-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research study conducted with a group of practising primary school teachers (n = 24) in North East Scotland during 2011–2012. The teachers were all participants in a newly developed Masters course that had been designed with the aim of promoting the development of mathematical thinking in the primary classroom as part of project supported by the Scottish Government. The paper presents the background for this initiative within the context of the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence reform. Particular attention is given to the epistemological positioning of the researchers as this influenced both the curriculum design process and also the theoretical framing of the research study which are both described. The project was set up within a design research framework, which aimed to promote classroom-based action research on the part of participants through the course and also research by the university researchers into the process of curriculum development. The research questions focused on the teachers’ confidence, competence, attitudes and beliefs in relation to mathematics and their expectations and experiences of the impact on pupil learning arising from this course. Empirical data were drawn from pre- and post-course surveys, interviews and observations of the discussion forums in the online environment. Findings from this study highlight the way the course had a transformational and emancipatory impact on these teachers. They also highlight ways in which the ‘framing’ of particular aspects of the curriculum had an oppressive impact on learners in the ways that suppressed creativity and limited the exercise of learner autonomy. Furthermore, they highlight the ways in which a number of these teachers had experienced mathematics as a school subject in very negative ways, involving high levels of ‘symbolic violence’ and of being ‘labelled’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Mathematical thinking, primary education, curriculum reform, epistemic quality, symbolic violence, labelling
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75070 (URN)10.1080/00220272.2014.979233 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-05 Created: 2019-10-05 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5457-6513

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