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Govindarajan, VenkateshORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6293-8657
Publications (10 of 75) Show all publications
Kansal, A. & Govindarajan, V. (2020). Role of higher education in sustainability of water resources: An assessment of institutions in India. Water Policy, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of higher education in sustainability of water resources: An assessment of institutions in India
2020 (English)In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2020
National Category
Didactics Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-77137 (URN)10.2166/wp.2020.160 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-03-03 Created: 2020-03-03 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Govindarajan, V. & Kjeang, A. (2020). Surveys as Means of Understanding User-behaviour with Respect to Energy Usage in Households, Prior to Decision-making to Promote Sustainability. Problemy Ekorozwoju, 15(1), 119-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surveys as Means of Understanding User-behaviour with Respect to Energy Usage in Households, Prior to Decision-making to Promote Sustainability
2020 (English)In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 119-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Households account for varying shares of total energy usage in countries, depending on the degree of industrialization. In order to design effective policy instruments and set appropriate levels for subsidies, knowing the attitudes and perceptions of users with respect to energy usage and energy saving is always the first step. In this article, the authors have first presented a comparative analysis and critique of selected recently-published surveys (2018) related to energy use in households, from around the world, before applying the sustainability-thinking paradigm to their own regional survey of close to 300 single-family households (detached houses and row houses) carried out in Karlstad (south-central Sweden), to obtain insights into user attitudes and preferences-categorised into the three dimensions of sustainability-when it comes to energy usage or decision-making with regard to retrofits or new energy-using / energy-saving installations in households. Each of the dimensions is characterised by three criteria which respondents have rated on a Likert's scale of 0 to 4 (not important to very important). The findings from this survey will open up a new way of thinking about the heterogeniety of energy users (which needs to be respected), for decision-makers and energy-advisers, who could subsquently strengthen their interaction and communication with them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
POLITECHNIKA LUBELSKA, 2020
Keywords
energy saving, energy use, households, surveys, Sweden, sustainability
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76929 (URN)000507499100014 ()
Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Govindarajan, V. (2019). Critique of selected peer-reviewed publications on applied social life cycle assessment: Focus on cases from developing countries. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 21(2), 413-430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critique of selected peer-reviewed publications on applied social life cycle assessment: Focus on cases from developing countries
2019 (English)In: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 413-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The social aspect of sustainable and ‘clean’ production/manufacturing technologies is researched and understood by means of Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) tool, which is still in its infancy. In this paper, a search for all peer-reviewed publications on applied Social LCA, which have appeared in scientific journals, between O’Brien et al (1996) and the latest one at the time of writing (April 2018), was carried out, using Scopus as the repository and using “S-LCA” OR “SLCA” OR “Social LCA” OR “Social Life Cycle Assessment” as search-phrases in title, abstract and keywords of publications, separately.  Overall, 213 publications were unearthed, and the trend shows that there has been a near-exponential increase over time. A little over 55% of these publications – 121 to be precise - were applications of S-LCA – often in combination with environmental-LCA and life cycle costing analysis, in an LCSA. This paper discusses the contributions of a selected subset of these 121 publications to the body of S-LCA knowledge, with the focus being restricted to applications in developing and transition economies of the world, on the premise that there is a more urgent need to understand social aspects of production and manufacturing in these parts of the world.  A SWOT analysis of S-LCA has been carried out towards the end. There is a consensus among many researchers that while LCC and E-LCA have matured a lot over time, S-LCA, the newest of the trio, is evolving slowly to become a harmonised tool which can serve as an effective complement to the aforesaid two, in life cycle sustainability assessments of products and processes in industry.         

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Life cycle sustainability assessment, Social life cycle assessment, S-LCA, S-LCA, Social LCA
National Category
Energy Systems Media and Communications
Research subject
Samhällskunskap; Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70033 (URN)10.1007/s10098-018-1644-x (DOI)000459456600013 ()
Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2020-04-14Bibliographically approved
Mohammadi, A., Sandberg, M., Govindarajan, V., Eskandari, S., Dalgaard, T. & Granström, K. (2019). Environmental analysis of producing biochar and energyrecovery from pulp and papermill biosludge. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 23(5), 1039-1051
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental analysis of producing biochar and energyrecovery from pulp and papermill biosludge
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden is one of the largest exporters of pulp and paper products in the world. It follows that huge quantities of sludge rich in carbonaceous organic material and containing heavy metals are generated. This paper carried out a comparative environmental analysis of three different technologies, which can be adopted to produce biochar and recover energy from the biosludge, using landfilling as the reference case. These three thermochemical biosludge management systems—using incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)—were modeled using life cycle assessment (LCA). Heat generated in the incineration process (System A) was considered to be for captive consumption within the kraft pulp mills. It was assumed that the biochars—pyrochar and hydrochar—produced from pyrolysis (System B) and HTC (System C), respectively, were added to the forest soils. The LCA results show that all the alternative systems considerably improve the environmental performance of biosludge management, relative to landfilling. For all systems, there are net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (–0.89, –1.43, and –1.13 tonnes CO2‐equivalent per tonne dry matter biosludge in Systems A, B, and C, respectively). System B resulted in the lowest potential eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity impacts, whereas System C had the least acidification potential. The results of this analysis show that, from an environmental point of view, biochar soil amendment as an alternative method for handling pulp and paper mill biosludge is preferable to energy recovery. However, an optimal biochar system needs to factor in the social and economic contexts as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
acidification, carbonsequestration, forestry, heavymetals, lifecycleassessment, soilfertility
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70488 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12838 (DOI)000488924100004 ()
Note

Funding information: 

This study was financially supported by the European Regional Development fund through the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, and the NitroPortugal, H2020‐TWINN‐2015, EU coordination and support action no. 692331.

Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Govindarajan, V. (2019). Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a tool for sustainability studies: A complete learning experience.. Problemy Ekorozwoju, 14(1), 79-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a tool for sustainability studies: A complete learning experience.
2019 (English)In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Academy of Science and Arts, Salzburg,, 2019
Keywords
Environmental LCA
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66652 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Mohammadi, A., Sandberg, M., Govindarajan, V., Eskandari, S., Dalgaard, T., Joseph, S. & Granström, K. (2019). Environmental performance of end-of-life handling alternatives for paper-and-pulp-mill sludge: Using digestate as a source of energy or for biochar production. Energy, 182, 594-605
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental performance of end-of-life handling alternatives for paper-and-pulp-mill sludge: Using digestate as a source of energy or for biochar production
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 182, p. 594-605Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the environmental impacts of different alternatives for handling of sludge from paper and pulp mills in Sweden, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The common practice of incineration of biosludge with energy recovery followed by landfilling of ash (System A) was compared with the alternative of digesting sludge anaerobically to produce biogas using different digestate residue management options. The digestate produced from anaerobic digestion (AD) was assumed to be incinerated for heat energy recovery in System B or pyrolyzed for biochar production in System C to be mixed with forest soils. The impact categories considered in this work are climate change, non-renewable energy use, mineral extraction, aquatic ecotoxicity, carcinogens and non-carcinogens. The LCA results demonstrate that the two proposed systems significantly reduce the environmental impacts of biosludge management relative to incineration. An 85% reduction in the aquatic ecotoxicity impact is achieved in System C, due to the reduced mobility of heavy metals in biochar relative to ash. System C, on the whole, outperformed the other two, leading the authors to the recommendation that the use of pulp and paper mill biosludge in biogas-biochar production systems is preferable to merely recovering energy from it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Ash, Biochar, Forest soils, Heavy metals
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73061 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.06.065 (DOI)000479021700048 ()2-s2.0-85067679125 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FOSBE
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20201239
Note

Funding text

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. This study was funded by a grant from the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth , grant number 20201239 , project name Fosbe, and by a European Union grant through the Interreg Sweden-Norway program , grant number 20200023 , project name IMTRIS. Appendix A

Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Mohammadi, A., Govindarajan, V., Sandberg, M., Eskandari, S. & Granström, K. (2019). Life cycle assessment of combination of anaerobic digestion andpyrolysis: focusing on different options for biogas use. Advances in Geosciences, 49, 57-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of combination of anaerobic digestion andpyrolysis: focusing on different options for biogas use
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2019 (English)In: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, Vol. 49, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The combination of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysistechnologies could be a novel energy-biochar productionsystem to maximize energy and nutrient recovery frompulp and paper mill sludge. Herein, the life-cycle energy productionand emissions reduction of sludge treatment from atypical pulp and paper mill were investigated, in which alternativeuses of biogas for industrial or household application,in different regions of the world, were assessed. Thethree scenarios considered for different end-uses of biogasare: (A) biogas for vehicle fuel in the transportation sectorin Sweden, (B) biogas for heat and electricity in the powersector in Brazil, and (C) biogas for cooking in households inChina. The results of Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment(E-LCA) show that for all these three scenarios, the use ofbiogas and pyrolysis gas contributes most to emissions mitigation,while the dewatering and drying processes carriedout on the sludge, contribute the most to the environmentalemissions. Addition of biochar to the soil, contributes significantlyto a reduction in global warming by sequesteringcarbon in the soil. Compared to scenarios B and C, ScenarioA, in which biogas substitutes gasoline in transportation, andheat from combusted pyrolysis gases is used for district heatingin Sweden, demonstrates the highest environmental performancefor all the evaluated impact categories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH, 2019
Keywords
Biochar, paper mill sludge, forest soil, LCA
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74802 (URN)10.5194/adgeo-49-57-2019 (DOI)
Projects
FOSBE
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2020-04-14Bibliographically approved
Govindarajan, V. (2019). Life cycle costing: A primer (1ed.). Copenhagen: BookBoon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle costing: A primer
2019 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: BookBoon, 2019. p. 100 Edition: 1
Keywords
Life cycle costing, Net present value, Time value of money, Depreciation, Discount rate
National Category
Environmental Engineering Economics and Business
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71452 (URN)978-87-403-2759-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Govindarajan, V. (2019). Pinch analysis, as a technique for optimising resource utilisation and promoting environmental sustainability: A review of recent case studies from the developing world and transition economies. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 1(1), 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pinch analysis, as a technique for optimising resource utilisation and promoting environmental sustainability: A review of recent case studies from the developing world and transition economies
2019 (English)In: Resources Environment and Information Engineering, ISSN 2661-3131, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pinch analysis, as a technique to optimise the utilisation of resources, traces its beginnings to the 1970s in Switzerland and the UK – ETH Zurich and Leeds University to be more precise. Over four decades down the line, this methodology has entrenched itself in research circles around the world. While the technique was developed, to begin with, for energy (heat) recovery, it has since then expanded to embrace several other fields, and enabled optimisation of resource utilisation in general. The motive behind this article is to perform a focused, selective review of recent case studies from the developing world and transition economies, having ‘pinch analysis’ in their titles and thereby as their ‘core, crux and gist’, during the period 2008-2018. The resources focused on, include heat energy, electrical energy, water, solid waste, money, time, land (surface area), storage space (volume), human resources, mass of resources in general and hydrogen, while a handful of publications have their focus on carbon dioxide (greenhouse gases in general) emissions. Multi-dimensional pinch analysis promises to be an effective tool for sustainability analysis in the years to come; most importantly in the developing world where social well-being and economic development are priorities in the years ahead, and they ought to be attained by a simultaneous truncation of the environmental footprint, in other words, an optimisation of resource utilisation as well as adverse environmental impacts. In other words, the focus ought to be on sustainable production (efficiency) and consumption (sufficiency). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: SynSci Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Pinch analysis, Resource Optimisation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73324 (URN)10.25082/REIE.2019.01.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, R., Kansal, A. & Govindarajan, V. (2019). Urban water security assessment using an integrated metabolism approach – case study of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India. Resources, 8(2), 1-15, Article ID 62.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban water security assessment using an integrated metabolism approach – case study of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India
2019 (English)In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 1-15, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water is a non substitutable resource and a social good, which governments must perforce provide to its citizens in the right quantity and quality. An integrated urban metabolism model is useful in understanding the status quo of an urban water and sanitation system. By defining and measuring the values of relevant hydrological performance indicators-deliverables of the model referred to-a thorough knowledge of the present performance and the gaps, which need to be plugged en route to a sustainable urban water infrastructure, can be obtained, as demonstrated in this paper. This then forms the bedrock for decision-making and policy formulation for change to be introduced top-down as well as advice, which would enable the much needed bottom-up support to policies. The authors have chosen Delhi as the case study city, but would like to point out that this application can be reproduced for any other town/city/region of the world. The water balance within the chosen system boundaries shows that the annual unutilized flows, amounting to 1443 million cubic meters, dominate the metabolic flows of water in Delhi, and the annual groundwater withdrawal, which exceeds 420 million cubic meters, is much greater than the recharge rate, resulting in a rapid depletion of the groundwater level. There is an urgent need thereby to improve the rate of infiltration of stormwater and reduce the rate of runoff by focusing on increasing the share of permeable surfaces in the city, as well as to consider the wastewater streams as potential sources of water, while not forgetting demand side of management measures, as the pressure on the urban water system in the city is likely to intensify with a combination of population growth, economic development, and climate change in the near future. The recommendations provided by the authors towards the end of the article, can, if suitable measures are undertaken and robust policies are implemented, result in Delhi's enjoying a water surplus in the short term, and progressively attain complete sustainability with regard to the utilization of its water resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
hydrological performance, metabolic flow, urban water systems, water resources, water security
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71664 (URN)10.3390/resources8020062 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067490770 (Scopus ID)
Note

This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Urban Water Resources Management and Policy

Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
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