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Andersson K, PernilleORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7480-9318
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Andersson K, P., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P. & Wästlund, E. (2016). The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30(May), 40-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience
2016 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

Keyword
Self-disclosure, Frontline employee, Encounter experience, Social impresssion, Satisfaction, Reciprocal behavior
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Psychology; Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41905 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.12.004 (DOI)000375851500005 ()
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Wästlund, E. & Kristensson, P. (2016). The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 44(4), 372-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keyword
Satisfaction, Frontline employee, Encounter experience, Eye gaze, Social impression
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41915 (URN)10.1108/IJRDM-03-2015-0034 (DOI)000381914700002 ()
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P. (2013). Changing the servicescape: The influence of music and self-disclosure on approach-avoidance behavior. (Licentiate dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing the servicescape: The influence of music and self-disclosure on approach-avoidance behavior
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail context. More specifically, this thesis investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli) and employees’ self-disclosure (social stimuli) on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail store. Paper I comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of the independent variable No music/Music. Likewise, experiment 2 studied the influence of the independent variable No music/Slow-tempo music/Fast-tempo music. The dependent variables in both experiments were pleasure, arousal, and the resulting Approach/Avoidance behavior. Paper II investigated the influence of the independent variable self-disclosure. The dependent variables were Approach/Avoidance behavior, measured by pleasure, arousal, liking, satisfaction, and reciprocity. The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the situation (type of purchase), retail (bank, supermarket, or electronic retail store), and stimuli (ambient or social), the internal and behavioral responses are different.

Abstract [sv]

Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning

Människor påverkas hela tiden av det eller de som är närvarande runt omkring oss när vi ska fatta beslut. Så är även fallet när vi agerar som konsumenter. Speciellt något som benämns butikers upplevelserum (servicescape) har visat sig påverka konsumenter. Upplevelserummet delas in i två dimensioner, fysisk och social. Inom dessa två dimensioner finns en mängd olika påverkansstimuli. Fysiska stimuli är den fysiska miljön så som doft, möblering, skyltar eller musik som spelas i butik.  De sociala stimuli är den sociala miljön så som antal kunder i butiken och deras agerande, antal butikspersonal och deras agerande. Miljöpsykologer har studerat sambandet mellan fysisk miljö och mänskligt beteende under flera decennier. Mehrabian och Russell (1974) presenterade en värdefull teoretisk modell för att visa effekterna av fysisk miljö på människors beteende. Genom en stimuli-organism-respons (S-O-R) paradigm, förklarar modellen att externa miljöstimuli (S) kan generera känslomässiga reaktioner i en individ (O). Dessa känslomässiga reaktioner påverkar i sin tur individens närmande eller undvikande beteende gentemot miljön (R). Även om M-R-modellen inte ursprungligen utvecklats för att studera butikers upplevelserum, har det konstaterats vara lämplig för att förklara effekten av upplevelserummets dimensioner på konsumenternas beteende. Syftet med licentiatuppsatsen är att undersöka och förstå effekterna av stimuli i butikers upplevelserum på konsumenters känslor och beteende. I licentiatuppsatsen undersöks därför två stimuli i upplevelserummet, nämligen fysiska (musik) och sociala (butikpersonalens verbala beteende).

Ett flertal vetenskapliga studier angående musiks påverkan på konsumenters känslor och köpbeteende har bevisat att musik påverkar våra känslor gällande framför allt upprymdhet och aktivering, vilket i sin tur påverkar vårt köpbeteende. Dock har flertalet av dessa studier utförts i laboratoriemiljö där försökspersonerna ofta varit studenter. Detta stärker den interna validiteten men försvagar den ekologiska validiteten. För att komma tillrätta med detta problem undersöks i den första studien (Paper I) musiks påverkan på kunders känslor och beteende genom två kvasiexperiment. Första experimentet genomfördes i en elektronikbutik där musik och ingen musik varierades under fyra dagar. Experiment två genomfördes i en dagligvaruhandelsbutik där ingen musik och tempo (lågt, högt) på musiken varierades under tre dagar.  I båda experimenten så tillfrågades kunderna, direkt efter de betalat sina varor, om de kunde fylla i en enkät angående sin butiksupplevelse Resultatet från dessa två experiment visar att musik påverkar vissa delar av kundbeteendet positivt, nämligen köp, kunder köper mer när musik spelas i butik. Dock visar resultatet även på negativa effekter så som lägre grad av glädje, interaktion med andra och upplevelse av köptillfället blir mer negativ när musik spelas i butik. Resultat visar också på att effekterna av musik modereras av kön där kvinnor och män påverkas olika av musik.

Det blir allt mer vanligt att butikspersonal interagerar med kunder så som om det var en interaktion mellan vänner och ett generellt säljtips är att säljaren bör agera som en kompis och hitta något gemensamt med kunden för att på så sätt kunna påverka hans eller hennes köpbeteende i önskvärd riktning. I den andra studien (Paper II) undersöks, med hjälp av text baserade scenarier, hur bankpersonals verbala beteende, i form av att delge personlig information, påverkar kundens känslor och beteende. En konceptuell modell med tillhörande hypoteser testades. Modellen beskriver hur kundbeteendet (i detta fall grad av reciprocitet) påverkas av att bankpersonalen delger personlig information och hur detta medieras av dimensionerna gillande, glädje och tillfredställelse. Resultatet av modellen visar att effekten av att ge personlig information för reciprocitet medieras till fullo av dimensionerna gillande, glädje och tillfredställelse. Resultatet från denna studie visar också att det inte är fördelaktigt att delge personlig information om sig själv för att vinna fördelar, då effekten av detta är negativt för graden av gillande, glädje, tillfredställelse och reciprocitet.

Slutsatserna av denna licentiatuppsats är dels att både fysiska stimuli (musik) och sociala stimuli (verbal interaktion) i butikens upplevelserum påverkar kunders känslor och beteende. Dock är det viktigt att uppmärksamma att påverkan av olika stimuli genererar olika effekter, som i sin tur påverkas av kön och vilken sorts butik/tjänst som konsumeras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2013. p. 34
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:58
Keyword
Servicescape, Approach/Avoidance, Affect, Consumer behavior
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15755 (URN)978-91-7063-471-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-01-25, Undensalen 11 C 413, Karlstad Universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P. & Wästlund, E. (2012). Acting as we were friends: the influence of contact employee self-disclosure on customer reciprocity. In: : . Paper presented at NRWC- Nordic retail and Wholesale Conference, Nov 7-8, Lund, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acting as we were friends: the influence of contact employee self-disclosure on customer reciprocity
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16407 (URN)
Conference
NRWC- Nordic retail and Wholesale Conference, Nov 7-8, Lund, Sweden
Available from: 2013-01-17 Created: 2013-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Kristensson, P., Gustafsson, A. & Wästlund, E. (2012). How friendship might create reciprocal effects in terms of purchases. Paper presented at 3rd Nordic Retail & Wholesale Conference, Lund, Sweden. Nov 7-8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How friendship might create reciprocal effects in terms of purchases
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27123 (URN)
Conference
3rd Nordic Retail & Wholesale Conference, Lund, Sweden. Nov 7-8
Available from: 2013-04-29 Created: 2013-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P. & Wästlund, E. (2012). I'll tell you something private and you'll buy from me: Effects of self-disclosure on reciprocity. Paper presented at 21th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Collage Park, Maryland, USA. June 14-17, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I'll tell you something private and you'll buy from me: Effects of self-disclosure on reciprocity
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15332 (URN)
Conference
21th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Collage Park, Maryland, USA. June 14-17, 2012
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Kristensson, P., Wästlund, E. & Gustafsson, A. (2012). Let the music play or not: the influence of background music on consumer behavior.. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(6), 553-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Let the music play or not: the influence of background music on consumer behavior.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 553-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study concerns the effect that music has on consumer behavior in two different retail contexts during regular opening hours. Two studies were conducted in a field setting with consumers (N=550). Consumers were recruited to answer questions regarding behavioral measures, attitudes, and mood during days when background music was played. The conclusions from the two studies are that music affects consumer behavior, but also that the type of retail store and gender influences both the strength and direction of the effect

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Consumer behavior; Music; Gender; Retail; Psychology;Approach; Avoidance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15334 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2012.06.010 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Wästlund, E., Gustafsson, A. & Kristensson, P. (2011). Background music as part of the servicescape: A study of the effect of music on the shopping experience. Paper presented at The QUIS 12 Symposium on Service Exellence in Management, Cornell University School of Hotel Management, June 2-5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Background music as part of the servicescape: A study of the effect of music on the shopping experience
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-26935 (URN)
Conference
The QUIS 12 Symposium on Service Exellence in Management, Cornell University School of Hotel Management, June 2-5
Available from: 2013-04-15 Created: 2013-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
K Andersson, P., Wästlund, E., Gustafsson, A. & Kristensson, P. (2011). Changing the servicescape with music. Paper presented at Publicerad i: QUIS 12, Itacha, June 2-5, 2011. Paper presented at Publicerad i: QUIS 12, Itacha, June 2-5, 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing the servicescape with music
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10781 (URN)
Conference
Publicerad i: QUIS 12, Itacha, June 2-5, 2011
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P. & Wästlund, E.Selling by Telling: Effects of Self-disclosure on Reciprocity.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selling by Telling: Effects of Self-disclosure on Reciprocity
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15751 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7480-9318

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