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Klinger, Y. P., Harvolk-Schöning, S., Eckstein, R. L., Hansen, W., Otte, A. & Ludewig, K. (2019). Applying landscape structure analysis to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of an invasive legume in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Biological Invasions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying landscape structure analysis to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of an invasive legume in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
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2019 (English)In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Landscape composition and structure may strongly affect the spread of invasive species in landscapes. Landscape analysis provides a powerful toolset for assessing invasive species invasions over time and for planning control measures. We applied a combination of aerial mapping and landscape analysis to assess the invasion of the legume, Lupinus polyphyllus, in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The Biosphere Reserve contains different types of large and well-connected grasslands threatened by lupine invasion. We assessed the changes in lupine distribution between 1998 and 2016 in a strictly protected part of the Biosphere Reserve by means of landscape structure analysis. The area invaded by L. polyphyllus doubled from 1998 to 2016. While the number of lupine stands decreased by 25%, stand size on average increased by 300%; stands also became less compact during that period. Furthermore, the degree of invasion of different grassland types changed. In 1998, all investigated grassland types were invaded to equal extents, whereas in 2016, large and well-connected mesic grasslands located close to roads were more heavily invaded than small and remote wet grasslands. Our results show that landscape composition plays an important role for the spread of lupine. Specifically, invasive stand characteristics, such as stand size, form, and connectivity, are crucial for driving the invasion of lupine. Therefore, in addition to landscape composition, invasive stand characteristics should be included in the planning of conservation measures. Overall, aerial mapping combined with landscape analysis provides a cost-effective and practical tool for landscape managers to prioritize invasive control measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Landscape structure, Lupinus polyphyllus, Mountain grassland, Plant invasions, Protected area
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72528 (URN)10.1007/s10530-019-02012-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85065984755 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Hattermann, D., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Otte, A. & Eckstein, R. L. (2019). Geese are overlooked dispersal vectors for vascular plants in archipelago environments. Journal of Vegetation Science, 30(3), 533-541
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geese are overlooked dispersal vectors for vascular plants in archipelago environments
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Question: We addressed the importance of gut-mediated dispersal by greylag geese for vascular plants in archipelago environments and asked: (a) What proportion of the local species pool is dispersed by geese? (b) Which plant traits characterize species dispersed by geese? (c) Which plant communities are likely to benefit from endozoochory by geese?. Location: Three Swedish Baltic archipelagos. Methods: Goose droppings were collected on 45 islands. Plants germinating from the droppings represent the endozoochorous species pool (ESP). On 108 islands, the presence of vascular plants was recorded in each habitat. These species represent the island species pool (ISP). Differences in functional traits between ESP and ISP were expressed as effect sizes and tested using meta-regressions. Using indicator species analyses and indicator species for managed semi-natural grasslands, we identified the primary habitats of the ESP. Results: Geese dispersed viable diaspores of 97 plant species, which represents 22% of the ISP. Most ESP species were typical for small islands. Geese dispersed a higher proportion of graminoids and less woody plants, higher proportions of chamaephytes and therophytes and less phanerophytes; annuals and bi-annuals were significantly overrepresented. On average, seed volume of the ESP was 95% smaller than that of the ISP. About 51% of all ESP species were dispersed in at least two archipelagos. Geese showed a bias towards species of rocky shore habitats. Conclusion: Geese potentially disperse large amounts of diaspores of many terrestrial island plant species. Through their feeding behaviour, geese select species with certain suites of traits from the regional species pool. Plant dispersal by geese may benefit plants species of rocky shores, but species of formerly managed semi-natural grasslands may also find refuge sites on epilittoral shores after goose-mediated dispersal. The relative importance of geese as dispersal vectors may increase under on-going land-use changes and cessation of grazing networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
Baltic Sea, dispersal traits, endozoochory, greylag goose, indicator species, island plant populations, long-distance dispersal, seed dispersal, semi-natural grasslands, waterbirds, Anser, Tracheophyta
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72502 (URN)10.1111/jvs.12742 (DOI)000469999900012 ()2-s2.0-85065438711 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Julia Piovan, M., Pratolongo, P., Donath, T. W., Loydi, A. & Eckstein, R. L. (2019). Germination Response to Osmotic Potential, Osmotic Agents, and Temperature of Five Halophytes Occurring along a Salinity Gradient. International journal of plant sciences, 180(4), 345-355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Germination Response to Osmotic Potential, Osmotic Agents, and Temperature of Five Halophytes Occurring along a Salinity Gradient
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2019 (English)In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 180, no 4, p. 345-355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Premise of research. Halophyte species grow where salt concentrations are high. Still, their germination may be affected by salts, either by creating an osmotic potential that prevents water uptake or by dissociating in ions that can cause different grades of toxicity. With the increase of salinized areas, it becomes important to understand the behavior of these species. Methodology. We studied how the germination of five halophyte species that occur along a salinity gradient in the Bahia Blanca coastal zone, Atriplex undulata, Cyclolepis genistoides, Allenrolfea patagonica, Sarcocornia perennis, and Heterostachys ritteriana, responds to variations in osmotic agents, osmotic potential, and temperature. Seeds were exposed to different osmotic potentials using NaCl (neutral salt), Na2CO3 (alkaline salt), and mannitol solutions in a germination chamber experiment. Germination was recorded during 42 d. Germination percentage, mean germination time, and synchrony were calculated. Pivotal results. Our experimental results showed that for the five halophyte species under study, germination was mostly driven by osmotic potentials and osmotic agents. At high osmotic potential, the germination response did not differ significantly from controls, except for Allenrolfea and Cyclolepis, which showed lower germination when treated with Na2CO3. Low osmotic potentials and Na2CO3 were detrimental to germination, reflected by lower germination percentages, higher mean germination times, and lower synchrony. Conclusions. In general, the response to the alkaline salt was more negative than that to the neutral salt or mannitol, regardless of the species. Each species showed a different response to the salts under study, and this response matched well with the distribution of species along the salinity gradient observed in the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Chicago Press, 2019
Keywords
salt tolerant, semiarid, mannitol, NaCl, Na2CO3
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72119 (URN)10.1086/702663 (DOI)000467142600006 ()
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Eskandari, S., Mohammadi, A., Sandberg, M., Eckstein, R. L., Hedberg, K. & Granström, K. (2019). Hydrochar-Amended Substrates for Production of Containerized Pine Tree Seedlings under Different Fertilization Regimes. Agronomy, 9(7), 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrochar-Amended Substrates for Production of Containerized Pine Tree Seedlings under Different Fertilization Regimes
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2019 (English)In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing body of research that recognizes the potentials of biochar application in agricultural production systems. However, little is known about the effects of biochar, especially hydrochar, on production of containerized seedlings under nursery conditions. This study aimed to test the effects of hydrochar application on growth, quality, nutrient and heavy metal contents, and mycorrhizal association of containerized pine seedlings. The hydrochar used in this study was produced through hydrothermal carbonization of paper mill biosludge at 200 °C. Two forms of hydrochar (powder and pellet) were mixed with peat at ratios of 10% and 20% (v/v) under three levels of applied commercial fertilizer (nil, half and full rates). Application of hydrochar had positive or neutral effects on shoot biomass and stem diameter compared with control seedlings (without hydrochar) under tested fertilizer levels. Analysis of the natural logarithmic response ratios (LnRR) of quality index and nutrient and heavy metal uptake revealed that application of 20% (v/v) hydrochar powder or pellet with 50% fertilizer resulted in same quality pine seedlings with similar heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents as untreated seedlings supplied with 100% fertilizer. Colonization percentage by ectomycorrhizae significantly increased when either forms of hydrochar were applied at a rate of 20% under unfertilized condition. The results of this study implied that application of proper rates of hydrochar from biosludge with adjusted levels of liquid fertilizer may reduce fertilizer requirements in pine nurseries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
containerized production systems, heavy metals, paper mill sludge, biochar-ash pellet, quality index
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73516 (URN)10.3390/agronomy9070350 (DOI)
Projects
FOSBE
Available from: 2019-07-07 Created: 2019-07-07 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Lafage, D., Bergman, E., Eckstein, R. L., Österling, M., Sadler, J. P. & Piccolo, J. (2019). Local and landscape drivers of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies in riparian ecosystems: a worldwide meta-analysis. Ecosphere, 10(4), Article ID e02697.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local and landscape drivers of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies in riparian ecosystems: a worldwide meta-analysis
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2019 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e02697Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-boundary fluxes of organisms and matter, termed “subsidies,” are now recognized to be reciprocal and of roughly equal importance for both aquatic and terrestrial systems, even if terrestrial input to aquatic ecosystems has received most attention. The magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies is well documented, but the drivers behind these subsidies and their utilization by terrestrial consumers are characteristically local-scale studies, limiting the inferences that can be drawn for broader geographic scales. We therefore built and analyzed a database of stable isotope data extracted from 21 studies worldwide, to identify both landscape-scale (catchment) and local-scale (100-m riparian zone) variables that may affect the diet of terrestrial predators in riparian ecosystems. Our meta-analysis revealed a greater magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies (>50%) than previously reported, albeit with large geographic and inter-annual variations. Moreover, we demonstrated a large effect of landscape-scale factors on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies, particularly anthropogenic land use and tree cover. Local human population was the only relevant factor at the local scale. We also found that studies on landscape-scale and anthropogenic land use effects on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies are strongly under-represented in the ecological literature, which limits the general inferences that can currently be drawn about landscape effects. We suggest that landscape-scale studies could improve our understanding of how land use and environmental change might influence future patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
anthropogenic land use, aquatic subsidies, diet, human population, stable isotopes, terrestrial predators
National Category
Ecology Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72496 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2697 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065024924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ludewig, K., Hanke, J. M., Wuthe, B., Otte, A., Mosner, E., Eckstein, R. L. & Donath, T. W. (2018). Differential effect of drought regimes on the seedling performance of six floodplain grassland species. Plant Biology, 20(4), 691-697
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential effect of drought regimes on the seedling performance of six floodplain grassland species
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2018 (English)In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands. In a greenhouse study, we exposed seedlings of three confamilial pairs of species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Selinum carvifolia, Veronica teucrium, Veronica maritima, Sanguisorba minor, Sanguisorba officinalis) to increasing drought treatments. Within each plant family, one species is characteristic of wet and one of dry floodplain grasslands, confamilial in order to avoid phylogenetic bias of the results. In accordance with our hypotheses, drought conditions reduced aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. Contrary to our hypotheses, drought conditions increased SLA and decreased root biomass and RMF of seedlings. Beyond the effects of the families, the results were species-specific (V. maritima being the most sensitive species) and habitat-specific. Species indicative of wet floodplain grasslands appear to be more sensitive to drought than species indicative of dry grasslands. Because of species- and habitat-specific responses to reduced water availability, future drought periods due to climate change may severely affect some species from dry and wet habitats, while others may be unaffected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
Climate change, Drought duration, Drought frequency, Ellenberg values, Pimpinella, Sanguisorba, Selinum, Veronica
National Category
Economics Other Agricultural Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67279 (URN)10.1111/plb.12722 (DOI)000435810800006 ()2-s2.0-85045271056 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Schulz, B., Durka, W., Danihelka, J. & Eckstein, R. L. (2018). Differential role of a persistent seed bank for genetic variation in early vs. late successional stages. PLoS ONE, 13(12), Article ID e0209840.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential role of a persistent seed bank for genetic variation in early vs. late successional stages
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent seed banks are predicted to have an important impact on population genetic processes by increasing effective population size and storing past genetic diversity. Accordingly, persistent seed banks may buffer genetic effects of disturbance, fragmentation and/or selection. However, empirical studies surveying the relationship between aboveground and seed bank genetics under changing environments are scarce. Here, we compared genetic variation of aboveground and seed bank cohorts in 15 populations of the partially cleistogamous Viola elatior in two contrasting early and late successional habitats characterized by strong differences in light-availability and declining population size. Using AFLP markers, we found significantly higher aboveground than seed bank genetic diversity in early successional meadow but not in late successional woodland habitats. Moreover, individually, three of eight woodland populations even showed higher seed bank than aboveground diversity. Genetic differentiation among populations was very strong ((ST) = 0.8), but overall no significant differentiation could be detected between above ground and seed bank cohorts. Small scale spatial genetic structure was generally pronounced but was much stronger in meadow (Sp-statistic: aboveground: 0.60, seed bank: 0.32) than in woodland habitats (aboveground: 0.11; seed bank: 0.03). Our findings indicate that relative seed bank diversity (i.e. compared to aboveground diversity) increases with ongoing succession and despite decreasing population size. As corroborated by markedly lower small-scale genetic structure in late successional habitats, we suggest that the observed changes in relative seed bank diversity are driven by an increase of outcrossing rates. Persistent seed banks in Viola elatior hence will counteract effects of drift and selection, and assure a higher chance for the species' long term persistence, particularly maintaining genetic variation in declining populations of late successional habitats and thus enhancing success rates of population recovery after disturbance events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Francisco: Public library science, 2018
Keywords
Viola-Elatior; Counting Alleles; Populations, Diversity, Plant, Soil, Consequences, Grassland, Fragmentation, Cleistogamy
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70970 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0209840 (DOI)000454416400098 ()30586422 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Hattermann, D., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Otte, A. & Eckstein, R. L. (2018). New insights into island vegetation composition and species diversity: Consistent and conditional responses across contrasting insular habitats at the plot-scale. PLoS ONE, 13(7), Article ID e0200191.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New insights into island vegetation composition and species diversity: Consistent and conditional responses across contrasting insular habitats at the plot-scale
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0200191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most island-ecology studies focus on the properties of entire island communities, thus neglecting species-environment relationships operating at the habitat-level. Habitat-specific variation in the strength and sign of these relationships will conceal patterns observed on the island scale and may preclude a mechanistic interpretation of patterns and processes. Habitat-specific species-environment relationships may also depend on the descriptor of ecological communities. This paper presents a comprehensive plot-based analysis of local vegetation composition and species diversity (species richness and species evenness) of (i) rocky shore, (ii) semi-natural grassland and (iii) coniferous forest habitats in three Baltic archipelagos in Sweden. To identify differences and consistencies between habitats and descriptors, we assessed the relative contributions of the variable-sets “region”, “topography”, “soil morphology”, “soil fertility”, “soil water”, “light availability”, “distance” and “island configuration” on local vegetation composition, species richness and species evenness. We quantified the impact of “management history” on the descriptors of local grassland communities by a newly introduced grazing history index (GHI). Unlike species diversity, changes in vegetation composition were related to most of the variable-sets. The relative contributions of the variable-sets were mostly habitat-specific and strongly contingent on the descriptor involved. Within each habitat, richness and evenness were only partly affected by the same variable-sets, and if so, their relative contribution varied between diversity proxies. Across all habitats, soil variable-sets showed highly consistent effects on vegetation composition and species diversity and contributed most to the variance explained. GHI was a powerful predictor, explaining high proportions of variation in all three descriptors of grassland species communities. The proportion of unexplained variance was habitat-specific, possibly reflecting a community maturity gradient. Our results reveal that species richness alone is an incomplete representation of local species diversity. Finally, we stress the need of including habitat-based approaches when analyzing complex species-environment relationships on islands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Fransisco: Public Library of Science, 2018
Keywords
PLANT DIVERSITY, VASCULAR PLANTS, LAND-USE, ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS, DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS, FINNISH ARCHIPELAGO, LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE, LOCAL FACTORS, RICHNESS, MANAGEMENT
National Category
Ecology Botany
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69042 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0200191 (DOI)000437809500075 ()2-s2.0-85049529137 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Loydi, A., Eckstein, R. L., Gebauer, T., Ludewig, K., Otte, A., Reisdorff, C., . . . Donath, T. W. (2018). Opposite effects of litter and hemiparasites on a dominant grass under different water regimes and competition levels. Plant Ecology, 219(2), 133-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opposite effects of litter and hemiparasites on a dominant grass under different water regimes and competition levels
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2018 (English)In: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 219, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Direct and indirect biotic interactions may affect plant growth and development, but the magnitude of these effects may vary depending on environmental conditions. In grassland ecosystems, competition is a strong structuring force. Nonetheless, if hemiparasitic plant species are introduced the competition intensity caused by the dominant species may be affected. However, the outcome of these interactions may change between wet or dry periods. In order to study this, we performed a pot experiment with different densities of the dominant species Schedonorus arundinaceus (1, 2 or 4 individuals) under constantly moist or intermittently dry conditions. The different Schenodorus densities were crossed with presence or absence of hemiparasites (either Rhinanthus minor or R. alectorolophus). Additionally, pots remained with bare ground or received a grass litter layer (400 g m(-2)). We expected that indirect litter effects on vegetation (here Schedonorus or Rhinanthus) vary depending on soil moisture. We measured Schedonorus and Rhinanthus aboveground biomass and C stable isotope signature (delta C-13) as response variables. Overall, Schedonorus attained similar biomass under moist conditions with Rhinanthus as in pots under dry conditions without Rhinanthus. Presence of Rhinanthus also increased delta C-13 in moist pots, indicating hemiparasite-induced water stress. Litter presence increased Schedonorus biomass and reduced delta C-13, indicating improved water availability. Plants under dry conditions with litter showed similar biomass as under wet conditions without litter. Hemiparasites and litter had opposite effects: hemiparasites reduced Schedonorus biomass while litter presence facilitated grass growth. Contrary to our expectations, litter did not compensate Schedonorus biomass when Rhinanthus was present.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66186 (URN)10.1007/s11258-017-0783-1 (DOI)000423142400002 ()
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Gattringer, J. P., Donath, T. W., Eckstein, R. L., Ludewig, K., Otte, A. & Harvolk-Schoening, S. (2017). Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age. PLoS ONE, 12(5), Article ID e0176869.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0176869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65523 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0176869 (DOI)000400647000081 ()28467463 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6953-3855

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