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Magnusson, G., Göransson, K. & Lindqvist, G. (2019). Contextualizing inclusive education in educatinal policy: the case of Sweden. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 5(2), 67-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualizing inclusive education in educatinal policy: the case of Sweden
2019 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range of ideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization of education. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with other political ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivity and attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contexts where available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educational policies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research and debate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of the context of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarily situated in a general education policy, and measures of what ‘inclusive schools’ are dependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resource allocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we will provide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusive education, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and our own analyses of government statements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Education policy, politics of education, inclusive education, special education, policy analysis
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74881 (URN)10.1080/20020317.2019.1586512 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-11-15Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G. & Göransson, K. (2019). Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responses. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 34(3), 257-271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responses
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 257-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
jurisdiction, occupational roles, professionalism, special education, Special needs educators
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work; Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67080 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2018.1458473 (DOI)000469004000001 ()2-s2.0-85044740072 (Scopus ID)
Note

18 månader embargo på postprint.

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Klang, N., Magnússon, G. & Almqvist, L. (2019). Professionalism, governance and inclusive education – A total population study of Swedish special needs educators. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(9), 559-574
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professionalism, governance and inclusive education – A total population study of Swedish special needs educators
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
educational organisation, inclusive education, professional role, SNEs, special education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66667 (URN)10.1080/13603116.2018.1441339 (DOI)000465119200001 ()2-s2.0-85042350687 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Cameron, D. L., Jortveit, M., Lindqvist, G., Göransson, K. & Nilholm, C. (2018). A comparaticve study of special educator preparation in Norway and Sweden. British Journal of Special Education, 45(3), 256-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparaticve study of special educator preparation in Norway and Sweden
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2018 (English)In: British Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0952-3383, E-ISSN 1467-8578, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 256-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to explore similarities and differences between special educator preparation in Norway and in Sweden. Graduates of special education programmes at two Norwegian (n = 320) and two Swedish universities (n = 425) who completed their training between 2001 and 2012 responded to surveys. Findings indicate that both Swedish and Norwegian graduates felt prepared for their current work and that teaching approaches employed in the different programmes were similar. However, there appears to be a stronger focus on pupils’ social goals in Sweden, as well as on advising teachers, school development and promoting inclusive environments. In contrast, Norwegian participants reported a greater focus on preparation to work with specific types of learning and behavioural difficulties. Findings are discussed in relation to differing political and social structures, such as national regulations for steering special educator preparation in Sweden, which are absent in the Norwegian context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
special educator, teacher education, Norway, Sweden
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74880 (URN)10.1111/1467-8578.12231 (DOI)000447837900003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-5986
Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Magnusson, G., Göransson, K. & Nilholm, C. (2018). Varying access to professional, special educational support: A total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 18(4), 225-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Varying access to professional, special educational support: A total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools
2018 (English)In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Independent schools are securely established in the Swedish education system. Prior research shows they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population study of Swedish special educators (n=4252) examined after 2001. The aim was to explore and compare the occupational situations of special educators working in Swedish municipal and independent schools. This is done by studying their occupational situations and the values they express regarding identification of - and work with - special support. The results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools have fewer years' experience as special educators, are more often employed part-time than full-time and are more likely to hold other positions in schools (such as head teacher) than those employed in municipal schools. The results further illustrate different organisational approaches towards special educational support. Apparent is that independent schools offer professional special educational resources to a lower degree and utilise them differently. This is likely to influence the situation of pupils in need of support, and has consequences for the image of the Swedish education system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
School choice, independent schools, special education, special educators, inclusive education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73699 (URN)10.1111/1471-3802.12407 (DOI)000446171400001 ()
Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Klang, N., Gustafsson, K., Möllås, G., Nilholm, C. & Göransson, K. (2017). Enacting the role of special needs educator: six Swedish case studies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 32(3), 391-405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enacting the role of special needs educator: six Swedish case studies
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 391-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the increasing focus on inclusion, special needs educators (SNEs) are now expected to share responsibility for pupils with teacher colleagues and to lead school development, but it is a challenge to enact this role in schools. The aim of the study was to explore how professional roles of Swedish SNEs are enacted in local school contexts. From a survey of SNEs in 10 Swedish municipalities, six participants whose work tasks were expected to correspond to the degree ordinances for their university training were chosen. The participants were followed at work, and data were collected through observation of the participants at work, participants’ diaries and interviews with the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals. The analysis involved both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, based on the researchers’ observations of the participants at work, categories of SNEs’ tasks were discerned, and the amount of time devoted to those categories of tasks was summarised. Second, case study narratives of the SNEs’ work were constructed to describe how the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals view the SNE role and to describe how the work is enacted in various school contexts. The results revealed seven categories of work tasks practised to varying degrees by the six SNEs. The case study narratives exposed large variation in how the SNEs conceptualised their role and how it evolved in relation to local school contexts. The results of the study are discussed with regard to the role of the SNE in relation to policies of inclusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Special needs educator, work tasks, professional role, case study, narratives
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48520 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2016.1240343 (DOI)000402308800008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-5986
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Ramsten, C., Marmstål Hammar, L., Martin, L. & Göransson, K. (2017). ICT and Intellectual Disability: A survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden. JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 30(4), 705-713
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICT and Intellectual Disability: A survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden
2017 (English)In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 705-713Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize support in terms of policy and strategies to enable the use of ICT in social care for adults with a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.

Methods A quantitative, cross-sectional survey including all municipalities in Sweden (n = 290) was conducted (response rate: 51%, n = 147). Descriptive statistics were used.

Results Findings indicate a lack of organizational support for staff as well as for young adults with mildto-moderate intellectual disability.

Conclusion Municipalities request more knowledge about strategies for making ICT available. Despite the lack of comprehensive strategies for ICT, some Swedish municipalities have taken the initiative in this area

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
health and social policy, information and communication technology (ICT), intellectual disability, social care, young adults
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48522 (URN)10.1111/jar.12265 (DOI)000402816500012 ()
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Möllås, G., Almqvist, L. & Nilholm, C. (2017). Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among special needs educators and support teachers in Sweden. Educational review (Birmingham), 69(4), 490-505
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among special needs educators and support teachers in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, ISSN ISSN 0013-1911, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 490-505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Special needs educators (SNEs) and their counterparts are expected to play a significant role in schools’ work towards inclusive practices. Studies do, however, indicate a rather diversified picture regarding the occupational groups assigned to work with special support and their workroles, within and between different countries. In Sweden, one can differentiate between two such occupational groups, SNEs with qualifications in special educational needs at advanced level and support teachers (SuTs) with varying teacher education and education in special educational needs. The aims of this article are to investigate the occurrence of SNEs and SuTs within the compulsory school system in 10 municipalities in Sweden and the occupational roles of those SNEs and SuTs in relation to the inclusion agenda. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SNEs and SuTs in 10 municipalities (n = 511, response rate 61.6%). Main results indicate that: (a) there is wide variation between municipalities regarding the extent to which SNEs or SuTs are assigned to work with special support; (b) the characteristics of the occupational role of SNEs are more in line with inclusive practices than those of the role of SuTs; (c) there is consensus between the two occupational groups regarding what they think should characterize the occupational role of SNEs; (d) SNEs consider, more than do the SuTs themselves, that the role of SuTs should be more in line with that of a “traditional special-education teacher”. Results are discussed in relation to Thomas Skrtic’s theoretical accounts of inclusive education and Andrew Abbott’s notion of jurisdictional control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Special needs educators, support teachers, jurisdictional control, occupational roles, inclusion, work tasks
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48519 (URN)10.1080/00131911.2016.1237477 (DOI)000402077900006 ()
Projects
Vetenskapsrådet, 721-2011-5986
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Möllås, G., Gustafson, K., Klang, N. & Göransson, K. (2017). Specialpedagogers/speciallärares arbete i den dagliga skolpraktiken: En analys av sex fallstudier.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specialpedagogers/speciallärares arbete i den dagliga skolpraktiken: En analys av sex fallstudier
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vilka arbetsuppgifter ingår i specialpedagogernas vardagspraktik? Vilka kontextuella villkor och förutsättningar bidrar till att forma den specialpedagogiska yrkesrollen samt vilka strategier använder specialpedagogerna sig själva av för att stärka och forma sin yrkesroll? Frågorna ligger till grund för den analys av sex fallstudier som presenteras i den här rapporten. Studien utgör den tredje delstudien inom ett större forskningsprojekt ”Speciella yrken? Ett projekt om speciallärares och specialpedagogers arbete och utbildning”, vilket har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet. Samtliga respondenter är anställda som specialpedagoger, men har varierande bakgrund och utbildning. Syftet har varit att undersöka hur specialpedagogrollen konstitueras i grundskolans vardagliga och lokala praktiker. Datamaterialet består av dokument, fältanteckningar från observationer, informella samtal och intervjuer samt respondenternas egna dagboksinspelningar. Rapporten riktar sig främst till verksamma aktörer inom grundskolan på olika nivåer (förvaltningspersonal, rektorer, elevhälsans personal, specialpedagoger, speciallärare, lärare m fl), blivande specialpedagoger och speciallärare samt lärarutbildare. 

Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:27
Keywords
specialpedagogik, specialpedagog, speciallärare, yrkesroll, fallstudier
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48556 (URN)978-91-7063-794-0 (ISBN)978-91-7063-795-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-5986
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2019-06-17
Nilholm, C. & Göransson, K. (2017). What is meant by inclusion?: An analysis of European and North American journal articles with high impact. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 32(3), 437-451
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is meant by inclusion?: An analysis of European and North American journal articles with high impact
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, ISSN ISSN 0885-6257, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 437-451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this review is to further our knowledge about what is meant by inclusion in research addressing the topic. While it is common to remark that inclusion is defined in different ways in research, few attempts have been made to map and analyse different types of definitions and whether there are patterns to be find in how the concept is used. The 30 most cited journal articles from a North American and a European research arena were selected for analysis. Each article was analysed in relation to genre, theoretical tradition and inclusion concept used. The review yielded several important results. To name a few, a divide was identified between position articles, with developed discussions about and analyses of the meaning of inclusion, and empirical articles, where inclusion signifies that children with disabilities are placed in the mainstream. In addition, writing within a critical theoretical tradition was much more common among positional papers. Further, both arenas are dominated by Anglo-Saxon researchers. It is argued that the conceptual confusion characterising the field impedes its development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Inclusion, systematic review, high-impact, genre, theory, conceptual analysis, critical research, journal articles, SMART
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48518 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2017.1295638 (DOI)000402308800011 ()
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1905-5154

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