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Nyqvist, D., Zagars, M., Calles, O. & Comoglio, C. (2019). Behavior of trap-and-transported Atlantic salmon spawners of hatchery origin in the Daugava River system (Latvia). Journal of limnology, 78(2), 210-219
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavior of trap-and-transported Atlantic salmon spawners of hatchery origin in the Daugava River system (Latvia)
2019 (English)In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Where migrating fish have to pass multiple dams, very high passage performance is required at the series of obstacles to avoid accumulated negative effects of multiple dam passage. In some rivers, migrating fish are trapped, transported past several obstacles, and released to continue their migration. Such trap-and-transport solutions, however, have seldom been evaluated. In the Daugava River, Latvia, several dams with no functional fishways block the river for migrating fish. A remnant Atlantic salmon population is being sustained by a sea ranching regime, where returning spawners are caught and artificially spawned, the juveniles raised in hatcheries, and smolts released in to the river in time for their seaward migration. Hatchery released fish, however, differ substantially from wild conspecifics, and in Latvia, as elsewhere throughout the range of salmon, reduced dependency on hatchery production and the re-establishment of wild salmon populations are being discussed. In the Daugava River system, suitable spawning and rearing habitat remains upstream two dams and an associated large reservoir in a mainstem tributary, the Ogre River, offering the potential to restore a wild salmon population.  To explore the potential of a trap-and-transport solution to bring Atlantic salmon spawners in contact with remaining spawning grounds in the Daugava River system, spawners were caught, radio tagged, transported upstream of the two dams and the reservoir, and released to pursue their spawning migration in the tributary. Despite being unfamiliar with the river, some of the tagged spawners moved upstream, reaching areas up to 12 km from the release sites. Males were observed higher upstream in the river compared to females, and some males were tracked relatively close to potential salmon spawning habitat. Females, although displaying some movements in the lower parts of the river, were not observed close to any suitable spawning areas, highlighting potentially important sex differences in post trap-and-transport behaviour. Perhaps due to different responses to handling stress, such low post-transportation spawning success among females has the potential to negatively impact restoration efforts in the Daugava River system and elsewhere. The present study represents a first step towards the restoration of wild Daugava salmon, one of several unique Baltic Atlantic salmon populations, and a potential model for future restoration efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PAGEPress, 2019
Keywords
Baltic salmon, reintroduction, fish passage, salmon migration, sex differences
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74810 (URN)10.4081/jlimnol.2019.1871 (DOI)000500804800006 ()
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., Elghagen, J., Heiss, M. & Calles, O. (2018). An angled rack with a bypass and a nature-like fishway pass Atlantic salmon smolts downstream at a hydropower dam. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(12), 1894-1904
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An angled rack with a bypass and a nature-like fishway pass Atlantic salmon smolts downstream at a hydropower dam
2018 (English)In: Marine and Freshwater Research, ISSN 1323-1650, E-ISSN 1448-6059, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 1894-1904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams disrupt longitudinal connectivity and cause fragmentation of river systems, which has led to declines in migratory fish species. Atlantic salmon smolts rely on intact longitudinal connectivity to move downstream from rearing habitats in freshwater to feeding grounds at sea. Smolts often suffer increased mortality and delays when they encounter hydropower plants during their downstream migration. Currently, there are few examples of downstream passage solutions that allow safe and timely passage. We assessed the performance of two passage solutions at a hydropower dam, namely, an angled 15-mm rack with a bypass and a large nature-like fishway. The performance of these new fish passage solutions was evaluated by tracking radio-tagged Atlantic salmon smolts as they encountered the facilities. The radio-tagged smolts passed the dam 9.5 h after release (median) and exhibited a dam-passage efficiency of 84%, with passage rates increasing with body length. Fish passage occurred through both the rack bypass and the nature-like fishway. The passage efficiencies were 70-95% for the rack bypass and 47% for the nature-like fisway. The new fish passage facilities resulted in improved passage conditions at the site, confirming that angled racks with bypasses as best-practise solutions for downstream passage, but also that large nature-like fishways may act as downstream passage routes for salmon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CSIRO Publishing, 2018
Keywords
downstream passage, fish passage solution, migration, passage efficiency.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70349 (URN)10.1071/MF18065 (DOI)000451437700011 ()2-s2.0-85055562911 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Watz, J., Calles, O., Carlsson, N., Teemu, C., Huusko, A., Jörgen, J., . . . Nyqvist, D. (2018). Wood addition in the hatchery and river environments affectspost-releaseperformance of overwintering brown trout. Freshwater Biology, 64(1), 71-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood addition in the hatchery and river environments affectspost-releaseperformance of overwintering brown trout
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2018 (English)In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Habitat structural complexity affects the behaviour and physiology of individuals,and responses to the environment can be immediate or influence performancelater in life through delayed effects.

2. Here, we investigated how structural enrichment, both pre-release in the hatcheryrearing environment and post-release in the wild, influenced winter growthand site fidelity of brown trout stocked into side channels of a regulated river.

3. Experiencing structural enrichment in the rearing environment during 3 months inautumn had no pre-release effect on growth, but a delayed positive effect afterrelease during the subsequent winter. Moreover, trout recaptured in wood-treatedsections of the side channels had grown more than trout recaptured in controlsections. Wood enrichment in the side channels also increased overwinter sitefidelity.

4. These results show that adding structure during a relatively short period may altergrowth trajectories, and adding wood to side channels is a cost-effective methodto enhance winter habitat carrying capacity for juvenile salmonids in regulatedrivers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
growth, habitat complexity, restoration, site fidelity, stream wood
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69976 (URN)10.1111/fwb.13195 (DOI)000453853500006 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, ProSpekt 15-20160021
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., McCormick, S. D., Greenberg, L., Ardren, W. R., Bergman, E., Calles, O. & Castro-Santos, T. (2017). Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4(37), 816-828
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts
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2017 (English)In: North American Journal of Fisheries Management, ISSN 0275-5947, E-ISSN 1548-8675, Vol. 4, no 37, p. 816-828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate behavior and survival of radio-tagged wild and hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar smolts as they migrated past three hydropower dams equipped with fish bypass solutions in the Winooski River, Vermont. Among hatchery-reared smolts, those released early were more likely to initiate migration and did so after less delay than those released late. Once migration was initiated, however, the late-released hatchery smolts migrated at greater speeds. Throughout the river system, hatchery-reared fish performed similarly to wild fish. Dam passage rates varied between the three dams and was highest at the dam where unusually high spill levels occurred throughout the study period. Of the 50 fish that did migrate downstream, only 10% managed to reach the lake. Migration success was low despite the presence of bypass solutions, underscoring the need for evaluations of remedial measures; simply constructing a fishway is not synonymous with providing fish passage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
SALAR SMOLTS; CHINOOK SALMON; FISH PASSAGE; JUVENILE SALMONIDS; DELAYED MORTALITY; COLUMBIA RIVER; SNAKE RIVER; HYDROPOWER SYSTEM; TRUTTA SMOLTS; K+ ATPASE
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46900 (URN)10.1080/02755947.2017.1327900 (DOI)000407192600012 ()
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., Bergman, E., Calles, O. & Greenberg, L. (2017). Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts. Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, 33(5), 697-706
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts
2017 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studying fish behaviour at hydropower dams is needed to facilitate the design and improvement of fish passage solutions, but few studies have focused on Atlantic salmon kelts. Here, we used radio telemetry (n = 40, size range = 50–81 cm) and acoustic sonar to study kelt movements in the forebay as well as their dam passage survival and subsequent migration success past multiple dams. We also compare radio telemetry and acoustic sonar observations of fish behaviour and used acoustic sonar to measure the depth distribution of fish approaching the turbine intake zone. Passage success at the dam was 41%, and mortality was largely associated with turbine passage (62%). The two fish that passed via the spill gates survived and continued their downstream migration. At the dam, all but one radio-tagged kelt approached the intake zone shortly after arrival to the forebay, and sonar data showed that approaching fish were predominantly surface oriented (72%, 88% and 96% of the observations were less than 1, 2 and 3 m deep, respectively). Turbine passage rate from the intake zone was higher at night than at day, indicating that the lack of visual cues may reduce the barrier effect of the 70-mm conventional trash rack. Turbine passage rate also increased with increasing hydropower generation. The percentage of observed upstream movements away from the intake zone compared with the total number of observations was considerably greater in the radio telemetry data (41%) than in the sonar data (4%). Only one fish survived passage of all eight hydropower dams to reach the lake. This low-passage survival underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of migrating kelts, and the fish's surface orientation as well as their rapid approach to the intake rack should be taken into account when designing such measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46902 (URN)10.1002/rra.3133 (DOI)000402840900006 ()
Note

Was published as manuscript in D. Nyquists thesis and had then the title "Intake approach and dam passage by landlocked Atlantic salmon kelts at a hydropower dam"

Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., Greenberg, L., Calles, O., Goerig, E., Bergman, E., Ardren, W. & Castro-Santos, T. (2017). Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 26(4), 707-718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam
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2017 (English)In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 707-718Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2017
Keywords
downstream passage, fish passage, landlocked salmon, Salmo salar, smolt migration, nedströmspassage, fiskpassage, smolt, lax
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46897 (URN)10.1111/eff.12318 (DOI)000409505000019 ()
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., Nilsson, P. A., Alenäs, I., Elghagen, J., Hebrand, M., Karlsson, S., . . . Calles, O. (2017). Upstream and downstream passage of migrating adult Atlantic salmon: Remedial measures improve passage performance at a hydropower dam. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 102, 331-343
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upstream and downstream passage of migrating adult Atlantic salmon: Remedial measures improve passage performance at a hydropower dam
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2017 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 102, p. 331-343Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62914 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.02.055 (DOI)000399623700034 ()
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D. (2016). Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. p. 41
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 42
Keywords
fish migration; fish passage; downstream migration; kelt; smolt
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46903 (URN)978-91-7063-725-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, Nyquistsalen 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Nyqvist, D., Calles, O., Bergman, E., Hagelin, A. & Greenberg, L. (2016). Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?. Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, 32(5), 1008-1017
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?
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2016 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1008-1017Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Repeat salmonid spawners may make large contributions to total recruitment and long term population stability. Despite their potential importance, relatively little is known about this phase of the life history for anadromous populations, and nothing has been reported for landlocked populations. Here, we studied post-spawning behaviour and survival of landlocked Atlantic salmon in relation to downstream dam passage in the River KlarÀlven, Sweden. Eight hydropower stations separate the feeding grounds in Lake VÀnern from the spawning grounds in the River KlarÀlven, and no measures to facilitate downstream migration are present in the river. Forty-nine percent of the salmon survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Females and small fish had higher post-spawning survival than males and large fish. The post-spawners migrated downstream in autumn and spring and remained relatively inactive in the river during winter. Downstream migration speed in the free flowing part of the river was highly variable with a median of 9.30km/day. Most fish passed the first hydropower station via upward-opening spill gates after a median residence time in the forebay of 25min. However, no tagged fish survived passage of all eight hydropower stations to reach Lake VÀnern. This result underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of downstream migrating kelts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
migration; kelt; multiple dam passage; telemetry; hydropower; gender difference
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42458 (URN)10.1002/rra.2926 (DOI)000378715500018 ()2-s2.0-84931843504 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
Hagelin, A., Calles, O., Greenberg, L., Nyqvist, D. & Bergman, E. (2016). The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?. Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, 32(6), 1402-1409
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?
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2016 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1402-1409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The behavior of early (June-July) and late (August-September) migrating, adult Atlantic salmon, in The River Klaralven, Sweden, was analyzed using radio telemetry. River Klaralven is a regulated river without functioning fishways, instead upstream migrating salmon are trapped and trucked past eight hydropower plants before released back to the river. We distinguished two parts of the spawning migration, that is, one part being the migration from the place where the fish was released to the spawning grounds. The other part was a holding phase on the spawning grounds with little or no movements before spawning. The late salmon spent less of their total time on holding, 36.2%, and more on migration, 63.8%, compared with early migrating salmon, which distributed their time rather evenly between migration, 47.5%, and holding, 52.5%. In total, early salmon used 30% more time migrating and 156% more time holding than late salmon. Some Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fell back over the hydropower plant after release and got excluded from spawning. The fallback rates of transported, tagged spawners were higher in the early than in the late group in both years. The fallback rate in 2012 was 42.8% of the early group and 15.1% in the late. In 2013, there were 51.7 % fallbacks in the early group and 3.4% in the late. The salmon fell back on average 9days after being released in 2012 and 16days in 2013. A high mean daily discharge on the day of release increased the probability of becoming a fallback. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Atlantic Salmon, upstream migration, fallback, spawning, behaviour, timing
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44678 (URN)10.1002/rra.3007 (DOI)000379952900023 ()
Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3098-0594

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