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Publications (10 of 93) Show all publications
Kitkowska, A., Wästlund, E. & Martucci, L. (2020). (In)escapable Affect? Exploring Factors Influencing Privacy-RelatedBehavioral Intentions. In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020: . Paper presented at 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS),Jan 07 - 10, 2020,Maui, Hawaii, United States of America (pp. 4112-4121).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>(In)escapable Affect? Exploring Factors Influencing Privacy-RelatedBehavioral Intentions
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020, 2020, p. 4112-4121Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The study was run to investigate exploratory capabilities of factors such as individual characteristics, privacy concerns and information disclosure in the context of privacy behaviors. The research examined whether affective states arising from immediate emotions alter such capabilities. The results of an online study with 474 international participants demonstrate that immediate emotions might influence information sharing. The effect of privacy concerns, personality and information disclosure on the willingness to share is stronger when participants are in a neutral affective state. However, when the positive or negative feelings take over, the influence of these factors on willingness to share decreases. In this article, we postulate the necessity to include immediate emotions into research on privacy-related decision-making and discuss the applicability of our results in the context of privacy UIs.

Keywords
End-user Empowerment in the Digital Age, Affect, Attitude, Behavior, Decision making, Show 1 more
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76575 (URN)978-0-9981331-3-3 (ISBN)
Conference
53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS),Jan 07 - 10, 2020,Maui, Hawaii, United States of America
Projects
Privacy & Us
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2020-01-29 Created: 2020-01-29 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Kitkowska, A., Shulman, Y., Martucci, L. & Wästlund, E. (2020). Psychological Effects and Their Role in Online Privacy Interactions: A Review. IEEE Access, 8, 21236-21260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological Effects and Their Role in Online Privacy Interactions: A Review
2020 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 21236-21260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Because of the increasing dependency on online technologies in even the most ordinary activities, people have to make privacy decisions during everyday online interactions. Visual design often influences their choices. Hence, it is in the hands of choice architects and designers to guide users towards specific decision outcomes. This “nudging” has gained much interest among scholars in interdisciplinary research, resulting in experimental studies with visual cues that may have the potential to alter attitudes and behaviors. Attitude and behavior changes are often attributed to several psychological effects manifesting in cognitive processing and decision-making. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review carried out to identify which psychological effects have been previously studied in the context of online privacy interactions. Subsequently, fifteen articles were selected and thoroughly reviewed, resulting in the identification of twenty psychological effects. The visual cues triggering these effects were recognized and classified against their capabilities to alter privacy attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, the visual cues were divided into two categories: privacy-enhancing and privacy-deteriorating. This review discusses the applicability of such cues in research and UI design. Further, the findings are discussed against the existing research on digital nudges. The authors conclude with a discussion on issues of research quality in the privacy-related field and outline the road to improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
Keywords
HCI, privacy, decision-making, attitude, behaviour, visual cues, design
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76668 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2969562 (DOI)000525391900050 ()
Projects
Privacy & Us, 4961
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2020-02-05 Created: 2020-02-05 Last updated: 2020-05-22Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Otterbring, T. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization. In: Timmermans (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization
2019 (English)In: / [ed] Timmermans, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72183 (URN)
Conference
26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Aas, T. H., Hjemdahl, K., Högberg, J., Nordgård, D., Olsson Ramberg, M. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Contextualizing mobile advertisement using location based services: A field experiment. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualizing mobile advertisement using location based services: A field experiment
Show others...
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72190 (URN)
Conference
26th Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Olsson Ramberg, M., Gustafsson, A. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 122-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to understand how gamification contributes to customers’ value creation in a retail context and how this value creation relates to brand engagement. The study builds on a field experiment using a two-group between-subjects design combined with correlational research. The experiment involved 378 participants recruited at a major European sports retailer. Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: one with a gamified activity in a store, and one in which the participants performed the same activity without being exposed to any game elements. The findings show that gamification affects the hedonic value of an activity and that this effect can be partly explained by positive affect. When this hedonic value was compared to the satisfaction with a reward, the hedonic value was found to be a better predictor of continued engagement intention. Finally, gamification through continued engagement intention is positively associated with brand engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Brand engagement, Customer experience, Field experiment, Gamification, Retail
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72500 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.05.006 (DOI)000471928200014 ()2-s2.0-85065402234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Hamari, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use. User modeling and user-adapted interaction, 29(3), 619-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use
2019 (English)In: User modeling and user-adapted interaction, ISSN 0924-1868, E-ISSN 1573-1391, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 619-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring users’ gameful experience while using a service. Either intentionally or unintentionally, systems and services are becoming increasingly gamified and having a gameful experience is progressively important for the user’s overall experience of a service. Gamification refers to the transformation of technology to become more game-like, with the intention of evoking similar positive experiences and motivations that games do (the gameful experience) and affecting user behavior. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring the gameful experience. In a first qualitative study, we developed a model of the gameful experience using data from a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions posed to users of Zombies, Run!, Duolingo, and Nike+ Run Club. In a second study, we developed the instrument and evaluated its dimensionality and psychometric properties using data from users of Zombies, Run! (N = 371). Based on the results of this second study, we further developed the instrument in a third study using data from users of Duolingo (N = 507), in which we repeated the assessment of dimensionality and psychometric properties, this time including confirmation of the model. As a result of this work, we devised GAMEFULQUEST, an instrument that can be used to model and measure an individual user’s gameful experience in systems and services, which can be used for user-adapted gamification and for informing user-modeling research within a gamification context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Game experience, Gameful experience, Gamification, Gamified service, Mixed-methods approach, User experience, Surveys, Mixed method, Behavioral research
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71751 (URN)10.1007/s11257-019-09223-w (DOI)000475631600002 ()2-s2.0-85062617618 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Hamari, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use. In: : . Paper presented at Frontiers in Service 2019, National University of Singapore, 18-21 Juli 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72192 (URN)
Conference
Frontiers in Service 2019, National University of Singapore, 18-21 Juli 2019.
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Shams, P. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 298-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Engagement, Gamification, Mobile in-store marketing
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69044 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004 (DOI)000471928200033 ()2-s2.0-85049647943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Skarin, F., Olsson, L. E., Friman, M. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 62, 451-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs
2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 62, p. 451-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present field study investigates the reduction of car use through a voluntary travelbehavior intervention program that provides participants with temporary free publictransportation. Three factors – self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction – have previ-ously been shown to be important for behavior change during physical activity interven-tion programs. In travel behavior interventions, however, these factors have often beenstudied individually and less is known about their combined effects on travel behaviorchange. Furthermore, while motives for participating in travel behavior interventions havebeen frequently studied within travel behavior interventions research, there is a lack ofstudies investigating the influence of motives on travel behavior change. To better under-stand the importance of different motives as well as the importance of self-efficacy, socialsupport, and satisfaction with travel on behavior change, a series of surveys were admin-istered to 181 participants before, during, and after their participation in a voluntary travelbehavior intervention. The results show that greater self-efficacy and social support duringthe intervention led to greater travel behavior change. These results indicate that in orderto gain better results from travel behavior interventions, individuals should be helped toincrease their travel-related self-efficacy, and significant others should be involved to pro-vide social support. We discuss possible ways of accomplishing this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71179 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.02.002 (DOI)000468709800034 ()
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Alaqra, A. S. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Reciprocities or Incentives?: Understanding Privacy Intrusion Perspectives and Sharing Behaviors. In: Abbas Moallem (Ed.), HCI for Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust: First International Conference, HCI-CPT 2019, Held as Part of the 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Orlando, FL, USA, July 26–31, 2019, Proceedings. Paper presented at 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, July 26–31, 2019, Orlando, FL, USA, (pp. 355-370). Cham, Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reciprocities or Incentives?: Understanding Privacy Intrusion Perspectives and Sharing Behaviors
2019 (English)In: HCI for Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust: First International Conference, HCI-CPT 2019, Held as Part of the 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Orlando, FL, USA, July 26–31, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Abbas Moallem, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, p. 355-370Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The importance and perception of privacy varies from one context to the other. However, everyone values his or her privacy to a certain extent. The subjectivity of that value, attitudes, and behaviors would depend on different entangling factors. It is important to understand the motivation that influences human behavior, whether to protect or share their information. In this paper, we aim at understanding the boundaries of privacy, factors influencing information sharing behavior including experiences (reciprocities of privacy), and efforts taken to protect one’s data. We collected data using quantitative (survey/quiz) and qualitative means (focus groups). In the survey/quiz, our results showed that intrusion experience and awareness have a significant correlation between sharing of data. Furthermore, our focus groups results yielded details on influencing factors for privacy reciprocities and tradeoffs. We discuss our results in terms of privacy incentives and factors influencing the sharing behavior of their information. Finally, we highlight the complexity of behavior where intrinsic and extrinsic motivations could clash and result in a dilemma such as the privacy paradox phenomenon. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11594
Keywords
Behavior, Incentive, Motivation, Privacy, Privacy paradox, Reciprocity, Behavioral research, Data privacy, Human computer interaction, Information dissemination, Surveys, Extrinsic motivation, Focus groups, Human behaviors, Information sharing, Privacy intrusion, Computer privacy
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75636 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-22351-9_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069853461 (Scopus ID)9783030223502 (ISBN)
Conference
21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, July 26–31, 2019, Orlando, FL, USA,
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8102-8168

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