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Publications (10 of 90) Show all publications
Westman, J., Otterbring, T. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization. In: Timmermans (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization
2019 (English)In: / [ed] Timmermans, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72183 (URN)
Conference
26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Aas, T. H., Hjemdahl, K., Högberg, J., Nordgård, D., Olsson Ramberg, M. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Contextualizing mobile advertisement using location based services: A field experiment. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualizing mobile advertisement using location based services: A field experiment
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72190 (URN)
Conference
26th Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Ramberg, M. O., Gustafsson, A. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 122-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to understand how gamification contributes to customers’ value creation in a retail context and how this value creation relates to brand engagement. The study builds on a field experiment using a two-group between-subjects design combined with correlational research. The experiment involved 378 participants recruited at a major European sports retailer. Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: one with a gamified activity in a store, and one in which the participants performed the same activity without being exposed to any game elements. The findings show that gamification affects the hedonic value of an activity and that this effect can be partly explained by positive affect. When this hedonic value was compared to the satisfaction with a reward, the hedonic value was found to be a better predictor of continued engagement intention. Finally, gamification through continued engagement intention is positively associated with brand engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Brand engagement, Customer experience, Field experiment, Gamification, Retail
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72500 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.05.006 (DOI)000471928200014 ()2-s2.0-85065402234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Hamari, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use. User modeling and user-adapted interaction, 29(3), 619-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use
2019 (English)In: User modeling and user-adapted interaction, ISSN 0924-1868, E-ISSN 1573-1391, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 619-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring users’ gameful experience while using a service. Either intentionally or unintentionally, systems and services are becoming increasingly gamified and having a gameful experience is progressively important for the user’s overall experience of a service. Gamification refers to the transformation of technology to become more game-like, with the intention of evoking similar positive experiences and motivations that games do (the gameful experience) and affecting user behavior. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring the gameful experience. In a first qualitative study, we developed a model of the gameful experience using data from a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions posed to users of Zombies, Run!, Duolingo, and Nike+ Run Club. In a second study, we developed the instrument and evaluated its dimensionality and psychometric properties using data from users of Zombies, Run! (N = 371). Based on the results of this second study, we further developed the instrument in a third study using data from users of Duolingo (N = 507), in which we repeated the assessment of dimensionality and psychometric properties, this time including confirmation of the model. As a result of this work, we devised GAMEFULQUEST, an instrument that can be used to model and measure an individual user’s gameful experience in systems and services, which can be used for user-adapted gamification and for informing user-modeling research within a gamification context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Game experience, Gameful experience, Gamification, Gamified service, Mixed-methods approach, User experience, Surveys, Mixed method, Behavioral research
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71751 (URN)10.1007/s11257-019-09223-w (DOI)000475631600002 ()2-s2.0-85062617618 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Hamari, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use. In: : . Paper presented at Frontiers in Service 2019, National University of Singapore, 18-21 Juli 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72192 (URN)
Conference
Frontiers in Service 2019, National University of Singapore, 18-21 Juli 2019.
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Shams, P. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 298-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Engagement, Gamification, Mobile in-store marketing
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69044 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004 (DOI)000471928200033 ()2-s2.0-85049647943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved
Skarin, F., Olsson, L. E., Friman, M. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 62, 451-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs
2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 62, p. 451-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present field study investigates the reduction of car use through a voluntary travelbehavior intervention program that provides participants with temporary free publictransportation. Three factors – self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction – have previ-ously been shown to be important for behavior change during physical activity interven-tion programs. In travel behavior interventions, however, these factors have often beenstudied individually and less is known about their combined effects on travel behaviorchange. Furthermore, while motives for participating in travel behavior interventions havebeen frequently studied within travel behavior interventions research, there is a lack ofstudies investigating the influence of motives on travel behavior change. To better under-stand the importance of different motives as well as the importance of self-efficacy, socialsupport, and satisfaction with travel on behavior change, a series of surveys were admin-istered to 181 participants before, during, and after their participation in a voluntary travelbehavior intervention. The results show that greater self-efficacy and social support duringthe intervention led to greater travel behavior change. These results indicate that in orderto gain better results from travel behavior interventions, individuals should be helped toincrease their travel-related self-efficacy, and significant others should be involved to pro-vide social support. We discuss possible ways of accomplishing this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71179 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.02.002 (DOI)000468709800034 ()
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Wästlund, E. & Shams, P. (2019). Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model. Journal of Visualized Experiments (147), 1-6, Article ID e58846.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model
2019 (English)In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 147, p. 1-6, article id e58846Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several models of the in-store search process exist in the fields of retailing, marketing, and consumer-based research. The present article presents a new conceptualization of this search process, which captures customers' visual attention at three distinct levels of analysis: Stock, Shelf, and Store. We refer to this conceptualization as the 3S Model and illustrate its usefulness through three eye-tracking studies, one from each level of analysis. Our experimental examples, which range from manipulating certain stimuli on a single product (e.g., the placement of textual and pictorial packaging elements) to manipulating the entire shopping trip for customers during their stay in a store (e.g., through more or less specific shopping tasks), highlight the broad applicability of this alternative approach for understanding customers' in-store search behavior. Thus, our model can be seen as a helpful tool for researchers interested in how to conduct experimental eye-tracking studies that shed light on the perceptual processes preceding product choices and purchase decisions. The 3S Model is equally suitable in controlled lab conditions and under ecologically valid settings in the real retail environment. Furthermore, it can be used from the micro level, with a focus on the meaningful metrics on a particular product, through the intermediate level, with the emphasis on the area surrounding products in shelves and other in-store spaces, all the way to the macro level, examining customers' navigational paths throughout a store as a function of their shopping tasks, cognitive capacity, or ability to acquire in-store information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2019
Keywords
Behavior, Issue 147, Visual attention, Eye tracking, In-store search, 3S model, Store, Shelf, Stock, Packaging design, Shelf design, Store design
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Psychology; Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73213 (URN)10.3791/58846 (DOI)000469977600014 ()31180363 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Nöjd, S., Otterbring, T., Westman, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces. In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice: . Paper presented at Quis 16 June 10-13, 2019 Karlstad.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces
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2019 (English)In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of customer behavior and customer experience in the context of city centers and peripheral shopping centers and how the use of digitalized services affects this experience. In this paper we adopt a qualitative approach to explore consumers´ activities when visiting a city and/or a shopping center and the experiences connected to the visit. The study is based on data from 832 (55% female) with a M age = 48 years (range 17-91 years) consumers.

When visiting a city center and/or a shopping center, customers engage with a variety of different touchpoints (Socchi, Hart and Haji, 2016). From a customer perspective these touchpoints create experiences that generates many types of values. In recent years, the mass media has warned for the demise of city and shopping centers commerce. This purported demise is mainly due to the strong growth of e-commerce. To meet this competition, the retail and hospitality industry has developed strategies to create new customer experiences and thus attract customers back to the city center’s physical places. As a consequence of the technical development, companies frequently try to influence customers’ experiences through various digitalized services, where these digitalized service have the potential to improve customer experience by providing superior and personalized services (Roy et al. 2016). The question is what impact such services have on customers’ experiences and how this, in turn, affects the profitability of the retail and hospitality industry as a whole.

In order to shed light on the activities and experiences of visitors to city and shopping centers regular consumers were approach during a regular visit to such an area and asked to answer a few open ended questions.  The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis aims to identify and report on thematic patterns across the sample, which allows researchers to make interpretations of the data that reflect the reported reality of participants (Braun and Clarke, 2006; Hayes, 2000; Ruane and Wallace, 2013).

The preliminary analysis of the data shows a variety of activities and touchpoints when visiting the city and shopping center. Seven themes emerged in our analysis of the participants´ responses: Relationship, Goal fulfillment, Experiences, Physical venue, Milieu, Practical usability and Non-intrusive.

In order to make more sense of the seven themes a model were developed. In this model three of the themes were connected to the customer, two connected to the service provider and the last two connected to digital technology. These three clusters interact in different ways.

The customer cluster contains the themes relationships, goal fulfilment and experiences. The themes in this cluster describe and vivifies the customer. The customer is not just a “shopping robot” jumping from touchpoint to touchpoint along a customer journey. The customer instead is a person with goals to fulfil but at the same time someone who has a great need of relationships on different levels and a person who will and want to experience things.

The service provider cluster contains two themes. One were named physical venue and this is where the service provider, be it a storeowner or a restaurant owner for example, has the most direct control. It is also where the customer will go to fulfil his or her goals. Here the direct contact between customer and service provider can and will take place. The second theme in this cluster were named “milieu”. The milieu can be the space the customer needs to pass in order to get to the physical venue or other factors that the service provider do not have control over (e.g. public spaces and weather)

The third and most interesting cluster concerns the digital technology, named practical usability and non-intrusive. Digitalization is highly interesting when it comes to the relationship between the customer and the service provider. The first theme described the importance of the usefulness of digital technology, and  in regards to digitalization the results indicates that digitalized services mostly fulfill utilitarian needs and works best in functional touchpoints. The theme called non-intrusive describes the relation between the customer and the digital technology. It may be somewhat drastic to talk about a two edged sword but on the one hand digital technology makes life easier and sometimes more joyful and at the same time the technology may disturb goal activities which leads to negative experiences.

These findings is important because it offers help to those managing city and shopping centers in identify touchpoints that need to be digitalized and those who need to be reinforced through social activities This knowledge could also help managers develop strategies to create new customer experience, i.e. create good valuescapes, and thus tease customer back to the city and shopping center´s physical places.

REFERENCES

Braun, V. and Clarke, V., (2006), 'Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2) 77-101

Hayes, N. (2000), Doing Psychological Research, Open University Press, Buckinghamshire.

Ruane, L. and Wallace, E., (2013), 'Generation Y females online: insight from brand narratives', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16 (3) 315-335

Roy, S. K., Balaji, M. S., Sadeque, S., Nguyen, B., and Mlewar, T. C., (2016), 'Constituents and consequences of smart customer experience in retailing', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124 257-270

Stocchi, L., Hart, C., and Haji, I., (2016), 'Understanding the town centre customer experience (TCCE) ', Journal of Marketing Management, 32 (17-18) 1562-1587

Keywords
retail, value, experince, digitalization
National Category
Psychology Business Administration
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72184 (URN)
Conference
Quis 16 June 10-13, 2019 Karlstad
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Wästlund, E., Shams, P., Otterbring, T. & Ricardo, M. (2019). Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience. In: Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell (Ed.), Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation (pp. 179-202). New Jersey: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience
2019 (English)In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019
Keywords
Service, Innovation, Creativity; Ideas, Value, Customer, Marketing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72191 (URN)9789813273375 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8102-8168

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