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Hellström, L. & Hagquist, C. (2019). School effectiveness in Sweden: psychometric properties of an instrument to measure pedagogical and social climate (PESOC) focusing on pedagogical leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School effectiveness in Sweden: psychometric properties of an instrument to measure pedagogical and social climate (PESOC) focusing on pedagogical leadership
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Leadership in Education, ISSN 1360-3124, E-ISSN 1464-5092, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Improving school effectiveness is a priority for many countries. The Swedish instrument Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) has been widely used for measurement of school improvement. Since pedagogical leadership is an important component of school effectiveness, this study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of the PESOC subscale of pedagogical leadership (PESOC-PLP). Participants were 344 teachers from 30 schools in Karlstad, Sweden. Rasch analysis indicated two subdimensions of the scale, corresponding to academic and social objectives. Analysis showed that the instrument worked invariantly across different sub groups and that the response categories functioned as intended. Small, if any, within-school response dependence was noted. PESOC-PLP may be a useful tool for school leaders when evaluating their success in fulfilling academic and social objectives. Given the global demand for measurement of school leadership, also researchers and educators outside Sweden may have interest in translating and adapting the PESOC-PLP scale. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73565 (URN)10.1080/13603124.2019.1623921 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067673250 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Beckman, L. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?. Child Indicators Research, 10(2), 447-459
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, bullying, peer aggression, peer victimization, psychosomatic problems
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Samhällskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35275 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9390-2 (DOI)000401518600008 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfarePublic Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L. (2015). Measuring peer victimization and school leadership: A study of definitions, measurement methods and associations with psychosomatic health. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring peer victimization and school leadership: A study of definitions, measurement methods and associations with psychosomatic health
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att mäta mobbning och skolledarskap : en studie om definitioner, mätmetoder och samband med psykosomatisk hälsa
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to explore methods for assessing peer victimization and pedagogical leadership in school.

The thesis includes four studies. Study I and II are based on web-based questionnaires among 2, 568 students in grades 7, 8 and 9. Study III is based on a questionnaire (n=128) and four focus group interviews (n=21) among students in grades 7 and 9. Study IV is based on a web-based questionnaire including 344 teachers.

The results from Study I showed that among students who experienced peer victimization 13% were captured by a bullying measure, 44% by a measure of repeated peer aggression, and 43% by both measures, i.e. the two measures captured partly different pupils. Study II showed that the two measures captured the same proportion of adolescents with psychosomatic problems and showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale. In Study III it was shown that besides the traditional criteria the adolescents definition of bullying also included a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. That is, a single but hurtful or harmful incident could also be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. The Rasch analysis in Study IV indicated two sub dimensions of the Pedagogical and Social Climate (PESOC-PLP) scale; direct pedagogical leadership and indirect pedagogical leadership. Satisfying psychometric properties indicated that the PESOC-PLP scale could be used to measure pedagogical leadership of the principal.

This thesis highlights problems with how bullying and school leadership is currently defined and measured. By strengthening the understanding of measurement methods of peer victimization and school leadership the aim is that the results from this thesis will contribute in providing a safe and positive school experience for children and adolescence and that it can be used as a valuable tool to combat peer victimization.

Abstract [en]

Baksidestext:

The negative consequences of peer victimization on children and adolescents such as worsening academic achievement and mental ill health are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. However, there are long-standing concerns how to define, measure, and estimate prevalence rates of peer victimization and successful school leadership. The aim of this thesis is to study methods for assessing peer victimization and pedagogical leadership in school. The results show that excluding other forms of peer victimization than bullying have serious implications for the identification of victims and may underestimate the full impact of peer victimization on children. Further, the validation of the Pedagogical and Social Climate (PESOC-PLP) scale is a step towards ensuring valid assessments of pedagogical school leadership. By strengthening the understanding of measurement methods of peer victimization and school leadership the aim is that the results from this thesis will contribute in providing a safe and positive school experience for children and adolescence and that it can be used as a valuable tool to combat peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. p. 110
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:15
Keywords
Bullying, measurement methods, pedagogical leadership, psychosomatic health, Rasch analysis, Mobbning, mätmetoder, pedagogiskt ledarskap, psykosomatisk hälsa, Rasch analys
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35192 (URN)978-91-7063-626-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-27, Nyquistsalen (9C203), Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-10 Created: 2015-02-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Persson, L. & Hagquist, C. (2015). Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views. Archives of Public Health, 73, 1-9, Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views
2015 (English)In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 73, p. 1-9, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying.

Methods

A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis.

Results

The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students.

Conclusions

The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying may not fully reflect adolescents' understanding and definition of bullying. Assessments of bullying behaviors that ask adolescents to strictly adhere to the traditional definition of bullying might not identify all adolescents experiencing peer victimization and therefore not provide estimates of prevalence rates reflecting adolescents' own understanding of bullying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2015
Keywords
Adolescents, Bullying, Definition, Qualitative content analysis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35108 (URN)10.1186/2049-3258-73-4 (DOI)000210223000001 ()2-s2.0-84927745455 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Institute of Public HealthForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-02-02 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Beckman, L., Hagquist, C. & Hellström, L. (2014). Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying - An analysis of Swedish adolescent data (vol 29, pg 1896, 2013). Computers in human behavior, 34, 353-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying - An analysis of Swedish adolescent data (vol 29, pg 1896, 2013)
2014 (English)In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 34, p. 353-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Care Administration; Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41961 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.043 (DOI)000335630100043 ()
Note

Correction

Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. & Hellström, L. (2014). The Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument: A Rasch Analysis Based on Swedish Pilot Data. Social Indicators Research, 117(1), 301-317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument: A Rasch Analysis Based on Swedish Pilot Data
2014 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 301-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a population measure and an indicator of children’s developmental health before entering the school system. EDI-Sweden was translated and adapted from EDI-Canada. In 2011 a pilot study was conducted, as a first step of the preparations for nationwide implementation of EDI in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of EDI-Sweden. Data about 116 5-year-old children were collected at ten preschools in two municipalities. EDI consists of 104 core items in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, communication skills and general knowledge. Preschool teachers completed a web based questionnaire for each child. The data were analysed using the unidimensional Rasch model. With exception for the domain of physical health and well-being the Rasch analysis showed satisfying psychometric properties of EDI after removal of some misfitting items. In these four domains no items showed disordered thresholds and the reliability was good, indicated by person separation index values of 0.73 or higher. Tentative analyses of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) showed that some items didn’t work invariantly across genders, suggesting that the DIF-items should be split into gender specific items. Due to the relatively small sample size the results can’t provide definite answers but tentative indications of the psychometric properties of the EDI-Sweden. As a whole the Rasch analysis provides ground for cautious optimism for large scale assessment of EDI-Sweden enabling more thorough and finer level analysis of the instrument.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Keywords
Children, EDI, Preschools, Psychometric, Rasch, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29425 (URN)10.1007/s11205-013-0344-5 (DOI)000334178600016 ()
Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Beckman, L., Hagquist, C. & Hellström, L. (2013). Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying: An analysis of Swedish adolescent data. Computers in human behavior, 29(5), 1896-1903
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying: An analysis of Swedish adolescent data
2013 (English)In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1896-1903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the wake of the rapid development of modern IT technology, cyberspace bullying has emerged among adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences among adolescents involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Cross-sectional data from 2989 Swedish students aged 13–15 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show discrepant gender patterns of involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. First, although there were only minimal gender differences among traditional victims, girls are more likely than boys to be cybervictims when occasional cyberbullying is used as a cut-off point. Second, whereas boys are more likely to be traditional bullies, girls are as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. In conclusion, compared to traditional bullying, girls are generally more involved in cyberbullying relative to boys. We discuss these results in the light of adolescents’ usage of computerized devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Adolescents, Bullying, Cyberbullying, Gender, School
National Category
Health Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Samhällskunskap; Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-26997 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2013.03.010 (DOI)000321169600012 ()
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Beckman, L. & Hagquist, C. (2013). Self-reported peer victimization: Concordance and discordance between measures of bullying and peer aggresion among Swedish adolescents. Journal of School Violence, 12(4), 395-413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-reported peer victimization: Concordance and discordance between measures of bullying and peer aggresion among Swedish adolescents
2013 (English)In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 395-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study examined concordance and discordance

between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

with respect to the number of students identified as victims.

Swedish adolescents (N

= 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire.

A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

were compared in order to elucidate the unique contribution of

each measure as well as the overlap: 13% of students who experienced

peer victimization reported only bullying, 44% reported only

repeated peer aggression, and 43% reported both. Concordance

was further elucidated by phi-square coefficient tests revealing that

18% of the variance in either measure was accounted for by the

other measure. Given recent research showing similar associations

with mental health for bullying and peer aggression victimization,

it is suggested that questions about peer aggression as well

as bullying should be used simultaneously in order to capture the

prevalence and full magnitude of peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
adolescents, bullying, measurement methods, peer aggression, peer victimization
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-28995 (URN)10.1080/15388220.2013.825626 (DOI)
Projects
Skolan förebygger
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Beckman, L., Hagquist, C. & Hellström, L. (2012). Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 421-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?
2012 (English)In: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, ISSN 1363-2752, E-ISSN 1741-2692, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 421-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known,whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimedto compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvementand psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. Thesample comprised 3820 students (13–16 years old) in Sweden. The results indicate anassociation between bullying and psychosomatic problems, regardless of type of bullyinginvolvement. No statistically significant differences in psychosomatic problemswere found between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, either for victims or forbullies. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that the association between bullyingand mental health is stronger for cyberbullying than for traditional bullying. Anotherimportant finding is that cyberbullies seem as likely as cybervictims to be at risk formental health problems.

Keywords
adolescents, bullying, cyberbullying, mental health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-14677 (URN)10.1080/13632752.2012.704228 (DOI)
Projects
Skolan förebygger
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2012-09-06 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C., Beckman, L., Bergh, D., Hellström, L. & Persson, L. (2012). Främjande av psykisk hälsa och förebyggande av mobbning bland barn och unga, samverkansprojekt mellan Karlstads kommun och Karlstads universitet. Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Främjande av psykisk hälsa och förebyggande av mobbning bland barn och unga, samverkansprojekt mellan Karlstads kommun och Karlstads universitet
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2012 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa, 2012
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13178 (URN)
Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4364-6966

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