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Wikström, Peter, Fil drORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0680-4275
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Wikström, P. (2019). Acting out on Twitter: Affordances for animating reported speech in written computer-mediated communication. Text & Talk, 39(1), 121-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acting out on Twitter: Affordances for animating reported speech in written computer-mediated communication
2019 (English)In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 121-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quotative be like is a construction associated with informal spoken contexts and, especially, with various forms of embodied enactments. This study examines instances of quotative be like in a corpus of Twitter data (1,000,000 tweets; 1,113 quotative instances). Special attention is paid to how users of Twitter employ the platform's affordances to animate their speech reports - i.e. to represent voices, enact body language, or otherwise 'dramatize' the speech reports. The aim is to investigate how a linguistic format which is richly embodied in face-to-face interaction gets 're-embodied' on Twitter. The study finds that animation of reported speech on Twitter is visually, and predominantly typographically, afforded. In the material, oral practices are more frequently reconfigured and remediated rather than directly reproduced. That is to say, even when users are not reproducing spoken utterances, they often employ graphical strategies that are mainly understandable by analogy to spoken and embodied face-to-face interaction. However, users also draw on emergent online repertoires with no face-to-face analogues, such as 'pure' typographical play and the recruitment of established online memes. Thus, the findings suggest that orality lingers as a trace, but is not a necessary component, in bringing reported speech to life in a text-based computer-mediated setting. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Mouton, 2019
Keywords
affordance, animation, computer- mediated communication (CMC), enactment, reported speech, social media, Twitter
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70580 (URN)10.1515/text-2018-2021 (DOI)000453252800006 ()2-s2.0-85057301713 (Scopus ID)
Note

Artikeln publicerad som manuskript i Wikströms doktorsavhandling I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter

Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2019). Metalanguaging as resistance: The socially-mediated rejection of public apologies in the wake of #MeToo. In: : . Paper presented at CDSMR 2019, Critical Digital and Social Media Research, 6–8 March 2019, Umeå, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metalanguaging as resistance: The socially-mediated rejection of public apologies in the wake of #MeToo
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate how local negotiations of linguistic normativity form part of a structure of civic engagement or political participation in today's socially mediated publics. The public apology is a discursive genre that has received much folk linguistic attention in public debate (e.g., Ancarno, 2015), especially in the wake of the #MeToo movement of 2017–2018. Several prominent examples of such public apologies have been characterized as empty apologies, pseudo apologies, or, simply, "non-apologies" (cf. Kampf, 2009). This paper presents a case study for a larger project focusing on metapragmatic negotiations and contestations in the reception of public apologies as non-apologies in social media spaces. While the larger project will mainly focus on post-#MeToo cases, this paper addresses a prominent ‘portal case,’ namely Donald Trump’s “Pussygate” apology video, which was published in October of 2016 on Trump’s Facebook page. The paper presents analyses of Twitter conversations (i.e. conversational reply-chains) about this apology video from the days immediately following its release, with a microanalytic (Giles et al., 2015) focus on how metalinguistic notions of real versus non-apologies are articulated in informal public discourse. Negotiations of the Trump video’s merits as an apology are rarely only that, but rather tend to be interwoven with affectively charged ideological positionings – in relation to party politics, progressivism, feminism, and more. Through articulating notions such as non-apology, social media interactants are in effect practicing a kind of layperson’s critical discourse analysis.

National Category
Specific Languages General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71574 (URN)
Conference
CDSMR 2019, Critical Digital and Social Media Research, 6–8 March 2019, Umeå, Sweden
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2018). Nonpology unaccepted: Insincere apologies in social media discourse. In: : . Paper presented at Association Suédoise de Linguistique Appliquée, ASLA, April 12–13, 2018, Karlstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonpology unaccepted: Insincere apologies in social media discourse
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a pilot study of how social media interactants construct a notion ofnonpologies. Nonpology is a neologism sometimes found in social media discussions of what research has called, e.g., “non-apologies” or “quasi-apologies” (Kampf, 2009). Such concepts often relate to a socially recognized genre of “public apologies” (An- carno, 2015) by politicians, celebrities, or corporate spokespersons. Public apologies that rate as nonpologies may either lack an explicit moment of apologizing, or come across as insincere or self-serving in some way. This study focuses on how Twitter in- teractants construe public apology-framed events, for instance in wake of the #MeTooawareness raising campaign of late 2017. The material is a collection of Twitter conver- sations in which at least one interlocutor refers to an event specifically as a nonpology. This material is analyzed in a microanalytic framework with a focus on the emic (i.e., discourse participants’) construction of the concept. For example, talking about come- dian James Corden’s apology for a rape joke, two Twitter users orient to the apology as insufficient and insincere:

  1. A:  Ugh his apology is so shit. SNL did Weinstein jokes that ripped Weinstein. It can be done. Corden just acted like rape is hilarious.

  2. B:  Yup. He punched right down.

B: And it’s a nonpology; I’m sorry IF you were offended.

Here, A dismisses Corden’s apology as “so shit,” suggesting that the apology was inad- equate to make up for the transgression of the rape joke. B replies to A’s tweet twice. First, B aligns with A’s criticism of the rape joke itself. Second, B expands on A’s dis- missal of the apology by labeling it a nonpology. B elaborates on the nonpology concept by constructing a paraphrase of Corden’s apology. In the paraphrase, B conceptualizes the nonpology as being focused on the taking of offense rather than on the transgression itself, and as being conditional (B emphasizes “IF”).

Through analysis of such instances, the pilot study aims to contribute to the develop- ment of a larger project on non-apologies in mediated interaction. Since the focus is on everyday interaction, the project will contribute to linguistic/interactional scholarship on the structure and felicity conditions of apologies in general. Further, since the con- cepts of nonpologies are formulated in response to events of critical political signifi- cance in the public’s view, the project will contribute to our understanding of everyday, micro-level, political participation in the context of digitally-mediated publics.

Ancarno, C. (2015). When are public apologies “successful”? Focus on British and French apology press uptakes. Journal of Pragmatics, 84, 139–153.

Kampf, Z. (2009). Public (non-) apologies: The discourse of minimizing responsibility. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(11), 2257–2270.

National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67234 (URN)
Conference
Association Suédoise de Linguistique Appliquée, ASLA, April 12–13, 2018, Karlstad, Sweden
Available from: 2018-04-30 Created: 2018-04-30 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
van Ooijen, E. & Wikström, P. (2018). Post-authentic digitalism in cloud rap. In: : . Paper presented at Popular Music Discourses: Authenticity and Mediatization 13-14 nov 2018. Karlstad.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-authentic digitalism in cloud rap
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
English; Comparative Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70320 (URN)
Conference
Popular Music Discourses: Authenticity and Mediatization 13-14 nov 2018. Karlstad
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. & Sandlund, E. (2018). Unacceptable non-apologies: The production and receipt of public apologies in mediated interaction in the wake of #MeToo. In: : . Paper presented at Nordisco, The Nordic Interdisciplinary Conference on Discourse and Interaction, Aarhus, 21-23 November 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unacceptable non-apologies: The production and receipt of public apologies in mediated interaction in the wake of #MeToo
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Late 2017 saw the emergence of #MeToo, a social media-based campaign concerning sexual assault and harassment. #MeToo has resulted in several public statements from high-profile figures accused of transgressions ranging from inappropriate comments to outright assault. Such statements have frequently been treated in journalistic and social media as failed or absent apologies – as non-apologies. The present paper focuses on the mediated delivery of apologies and their receipt as non-apologies across traditional (broadcast and print) media and new social media. As empirical cases, we examine three media events from the global #MeToo movement: the Donald Trump “PussyGate” affair, a controversial joke about the Harvey Weinstein case by TV host James Corden, and public accusations of sexual harrassment leveled against a well-known Swedish TV show host. We specifically focus on the grounds for rejecting apologies by examining how the apology was 1)designed and launched, and 2) interpreted and assessed in media/social media. Using conversation analysis (CA) (Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson, 1974; Clayman & Heritage, 2002) and textual discourse analysis, we demonstrate how responses orient to selected aspects of the apology in assessing it, such as blame-shifting, trivialization, accounts of intentions, or conditionalization. By examining the original apologies in their sequential and discursive contexts (e.g. Robinson, 2004; Drew et al, 2016), and contrasting their composition and delivery with the grounds for rejection brought forth in reactions, the study aims to enhance our understanding of the social delicacy of public apologizing and the selective recontextualization of such apologies in receipts and rejections.

National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70319 (URN)
Conference
Nordisco, The Nordic Interdisciplinary Conference on Discourse and Interaction, Aarhus, 21-23 November 2018
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2017). I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation investigates linguistic and metalinguistic practices in everyday Twitter discourse in relation to aspects of speech and writing. The overarching aim is to investigate how the spoken–written interface is reconfigured in the digital writing spaces of social media.

The dissertation comprises four empirical case studies and six chapters. The first study investigates communicative functions of hashtags in a speech act pragmatic framework, focalizing tagging practices that not only mark topics or organize hypertextual interaction, but rather have more specific locally meaningful functions. Two studies investigate reported speech in tweets, focusing on quotatives typically associated with informal conversational interaction (e.g., BE like). The studies identify strategies by which Twitter users animate (Tannen, 2007) speech reports. Further, one of the studies explores how such animating practices are afforded (Hutchby, 2001). Lexically, orthographically, and with images, but primarily through typography, users make voice, gesture, and stance present in their tweets, digitally re-embodying the rich nonverbal expressivity of animation in talk. Finally, a study investigates notions of talk-like tweeting from an emic perspective, showing users' negotiations of how tweets can and should correspond to speech in relation to social identity, linguistic competence, and personal authenticity.

Six chapters situate and synthesize the case studies in an expanded theoretical framework. Together, the studies show how Twitter's speech–writing hybridity extends beyond a mix of linguistic features, and challenges a traditional idea of writing as a mere representation of speech. Talk-like tweeting remediates (Bolter & Grusin, 2000) presence and embodiment, forgoing the abstraction of phonetic print literacy for nonverbal expressivity and an embodied written surface. Twitter talk is shown not simply to substitute literacy norms for oral norms, but to complicate and reconfigure these norms. Talk-like tweeting makes manifest an ongoing cultural renegotiation of the meanings of speech and writing in the era of digital social media.

Abstract [en]

What does it mean to tweet like one talks? To pose this question is really to ask what happens to the relation between spoken and written language, and to cultural values tied to orality and literacy, in the digital writing spaces of social media. This dissertation investigates particular features of Twitter discourse in relation to questions concerning the technological mediation of language-in-interaction, with an emphasis on themes traditionally linked with ideas of speech and writing.

Based on the findings of four empirical case studies, the dissertation argues that Twitter writing remediates speech, hybridizing spoken and written language in ways that extend beyond a mere mix of linguistic features. The everyday digital texts of social media revive and reconfigure ideas about how, or whether, writing represents speech, about textual authenticity, about the conditions of possibility for personal presence and voice in virtual spaces, and about the educational norms of traditional literacy. What is at stake is not merely a substitution of literacy norms for conversational norms, but rather a complication of their relationship.

In its linguistic and reflexive practices, Twitter talk makes manifest a cultural renegotiation of the meanings of spoken and written language today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. p. 117
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:44
Keywords
Social media, Twitter, speech, writing, orality, literacy, CMC, remediation
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages Media and Communications
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-64752 (URN)978-91-7063-821-3 (ISBN)978-91-7063-916-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-15, Sjöströmsalen, 1B 309, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Artikel 4 publicerad i avhandlingen som manuskript. 

Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2016). No one is "pro-politically correct": Positive construals of political correctness in Twitter conversations. In: Elisabeth Wennö, Marie Tåqvist, Peter Wikström, Johan Wijkmark (Ed.), Fact or fiction?: Studies in honour of Solveig Granath (pp. 159-170). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No one is "pro-politically correct": Positive construals of political correctness in Twitter conversations
2016 (English)In: Fact or fiction?: Studies in honour of Solveig Granath / [ed] Elisabeth Wennö, Marie Tåqvist, Peter Wikström, Johan Wijkmark, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016, p. 159-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates use of the contested term politically correct (PC) in written conversational exchanges on Twitter. PC is sometimes assumed to be entirely a fabrication by conservatives or the far right, not a label that anyone would voluntarily attach to themselves. This study focuses on discursive instantiations of PC that challenge this assumption by construing PC favorably. To this end, a small set of conversations featuring more-or-less clearly positive construals of PC, selected from an initial material of 184 Twitter conversations containing the target phrase “politically correct,” are analyzed in detail. The aim is to see how such construals appear and function in everyday discourse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016
Keywords
political correctness, PC, social media, discourse, Twitter
National Category
Languages and Literature Specific Languages
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46268 (URN)9789170637100 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2015). Not even real words: User construals of Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’. In: : . Paper presented at MOOD-Z Microanalysis of online data; Online communication, discourse, and context; Zürich, July 16-17, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Not even real words: User construals of Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Linguistic research on computer-mediated communication has frequently addressed the supposed or actual orality (broadly, ‘spoken-likeness’ or ‘conversationality’) of written language in online contexts, and tends to construe orality in ‘discourse-external’ terms – e.g., in terms of theoretically or computationally motivated formal categories. This study presents an approach toward complementing extant research by focusing on ‘discourse-internal’ construals, or participant orientations (Schegloff 1997). The aim is to examine how Twitter users construe talk, on their own terms, when explicitly describing Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’. The material comprises manually collected retrievals (via Twitter’s web-based search interface) of tweets containing the string “tweet/s like [pronoun] talk/s”, for the pronouns I, you, he, she, and they (N=300). Two research questions are addressed:

i. When Twitter users refer to their own or their peers’ Twitter discourse as being talk-like, how, if at all, do they substantiate notions of talk-likeness?

ii. What attitudes or values are attached to the notions talk-likeness expressed?

The results show that construals are often left implicit, but sometimes elaborated either in the body of a single tweet or over the course of a conversational exchange between multiple users. When elaborated, the construals are very diverse, but sometimes directly pertinent to categories common in both popular debate and scholarly work, such as mode, register, correctness, and appropriateness (see e.g. Baron 2008; Crystal 2006, 2008; Hård af Segerstad 2003; Jonsson 2013; Meredith & Stokoe 2014; Wikström 2014). For instance, some users associate talk-likeness with grammatical or orthographic (in-) correctness (Example 1), and others associate it with orthographic or lexical representation of dialect or accent (2), or less tangible notions of voice or tone (3).

  1. I tweet like I talk so if I spell some wrong it was on purpose. ... shiiid I passed all my English classes.......
  2. Hate it when scots tweet like they talk, you're not even writing real words
  3. @username oh my. He tweets like he talks. I can literally hear his overly preachy tone in those tweets…
  4. The reason I know it's not really [Jennifer] is because she's too grammatically correct. [Jen] tweets like she talks.

The expressed attitudes and values concern, inter alia, perceived problems of comprehensibility or appropriateness, both amusement and annoyance at the novelty of talk-like written language, and affiliation with identity categories or notions of authentic identity (Example 4; cf. Benwell & Stokoe 2006:245; Deumert 2014). Overall, the results suggest that a focus on users’ construals of their own computer-mediated discourse offers a window on how issues of theoretical interest to linguists, such as mode and register, are not only instantiated but also actively negotiated in online language use.

References

Baron, N. S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Benwell, B., & Stokoe, E. (2006). Discourse and identity Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the Internet (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (2008). Txtng: The gr8 deb8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Deumert, A. (2014). The performance of a ludic self on social network(ing) sites. In P. Seargeant & C. Tagg (Eds.), The language of social media: Identity and community on the internet (pp. 23-45). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2003). Use and adaptation of written language to the conditions of computer-mediated communication (2 ed.). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.

Jonsson, E. (2013). Conversational writing: A multidimensional study of synchronous and supersynchronous computer-mediated communication. Uppsala University: Engelska institutionen.

Meredith, J., & Stokoe, E. (2014). Repair: Comparing Facebook ‘chat’ with spoken interaction. Discourse & Communication, 8(2), 181-207. doi: 10.1177/1750481313510815

Schegloff, E. A. (1997). Whose text? Whose context? Discourse & Society, 8(2), 165-187. doi: 10.1177/0957926597008002002

Wikström, P. (2014). & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 13(3), 83-111. 

National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Research subject
English; Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39099 (URN)
Conference
MOOD-Z Microanalysis of online data; Online communication, discourse, and context; Zürich, July 16-17, 2015
Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Sundqvist, P. & Wikström, P. (2015). Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes. System, 51, 65-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes
2015 (English)In: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
CALL, EFL, ESL, L2 vocabulary acquisition, informal learning, extramural English, gender, COTS games, video games, digital games, L2 writing
National Category
Humanities and the Arts Languages and Literature Specific Languages Didactics
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-36026 (URN)10.1016/j.system.2015.04.001 (DOI)000356987800006 ()
Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Wikström, P. (2014). & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 13(3), 83-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>& she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter
2014 (English)In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 83-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study relates discourse-pragmatic aspects of the use of the quotatives say, be like, be all, and go to the question of the supposed or actual spoken-likeness of written computer-mediated communication (CMC). 1,800 tokens of reported speech, collected from Twitter, were analyzed in a “constructed dialogue” framework (Tannen, 2007). The results show that users of Twitter employ various CMC devices to animate and modally enrich reported speech, especially in speech reports with be like, be all, and go. They perform a style of communication that is reminiscent of conversational speech, even while having qualities that seem to belong uniquely to CMC.

National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages Communication Studies
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34890 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0680-4275

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