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Pacho, A. P., Petrelius, B. & Rinio, M. (2018). Quantifying the impact of grain boundaries on standard and high performance mc-silicon solar cells. In: Proc. 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Brussels: . Paper presented at 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (pp. 535-538). EU PVSEC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the impact of grain boundaries on standard and high performance mc-silicon solar cells
2018 (English)In: Proc. 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Brussels, EU PVSEC , 2018, p. 535-538Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Crystal defects such as grain boundaries affect the overall performance of a solar cell. The light beam induced current method allows for the localized quantification of the impact on the internal quantum efficiency of such defects. This work presents a method to estimate the separate impact of grain boundaries on the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by correlating LBIC topographs with optical images of etched samples. Segmenting the impact of the grain boundaries on the IQE against those of other defects in our samples showed that the grain boundaries remain the most detrimental. The average IQE at 826 nm was reduced by up to 1.29 % (vs 0.25 % for other defects) absolute for standard multicrystalline and up to 1.15 % (vs 0.28 % for other defects) absolute for high performance multicrystalline silicon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EU PVSEC, 2018
Keywords
LBIC, Multicrystalline Silicon, Defects
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69417 (URN)10.4229/35thEUPVSEC20182018-2AV.1.33 (DOI)3-936338-50-7 (ISBN)
Conference
35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40184-1
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Adamczyk, K., Søndenå, R., Stokkan, G., Looney, E., Jensen, M., Lai, B., . . . Di Sabatino, M. (2018). Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing. Journal of Applied Physics, 123(5), 1-6, Article ID 055705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 1-6, article id 055705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2018
Keywords
solar cells, silicon, multicrystalline, high-performance multicrystalline silicon, grain boundaries, recombination
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66289 (URN)10.1063/1.5018797 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041923751 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40184-1
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Adamczyk, K., Søndenå, R., You, C. C., Stokkan, G., Lindroos, J., Rinio, M. & Di Sabatino, M. (2018). Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing. Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, 215(2), Article ID 1700493.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing
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2018 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 2, article id 1700493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
recombination dislocation crystallization solar-cell
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65252 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201700493 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40184-1
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Lindroos, J., Petter, K., Sporleder, K., Turek, M., Pacho, P. & Rinio, M. (2017). Light beam induced current of light-induced degradation in high-performance multicrystalline Al-BSF cells.. In: Ralf Preu (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany: . Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany (pp. 99-106). Elsevier, 124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light beam induced current of light-induced degradation in high-performance multicrystalline Al-BSF cells.
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany / [ed] Ralf Preu, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 124, p. 99-106Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sponge-LID decreases the Al-BSF cell efficiency by up to 10 %rel. and is only partially recoverable at 200°C. This contributionshows that Sponge-LID occurs at and near most grain boundaries, but only in the centre of the affected cell.  Furthermore,Sponge-LID is not the only type of LID in the silicon bulk. High-resolution Light Beam Induced Current mapping reveals localinternal quantum efficiency losses of up to 8 %rel. at dislocation clusters and small angle grain boundaries, which recover(nearly) fully at 200°C. Nevertheless, this dislocation-related LID appears to reduce the Al-BSF efficiency by less than 1 %rel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
solar cell, silicon, quantum efficiency
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63996 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.327 (DOI)000426791600014 ()
Conference
7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany
Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-14
Castellanos, S., Hofstetter, J., Kivambe, M., Rinio, M., Lai, B. & Buonassisi, T. (2014). Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis. In: 2014 IEEE 40TH Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC): . Paper presented at The 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Jun 08-13, 2014, Denver, CO (pp. 2957-2959). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis
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2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE 40TH Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 2957-2959Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dislocations limit solar cell performance by decreasing minority carrier diffusion length, leading to inefficient charge collection at the device contacts [1]. However, studies have shown that the recombination strength of dislocation clusters within millimeters away from each other can vary by orders of magnitude [2]. In this contribution, we present correlations between dislocation microstructure and recombination activity levels which span close to two orders of magnitude. We discuss a general trend observed: higher dislocation recombination activity appears to be correlated with a higher degree of impurity decoration, and a higher degree of disorder in the spatial distribution of etch pits. We present an approach to quantify the degree of disorder of dislocation clusters. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that the recombination activity of different dislocation clusters can be predicted by visual inspection of the etch pit distribution and geometry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
cluster, dislocations, etch pit, multicrystalline, recombination activity, recombination strength, silicon, solar
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41596 (URN)10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925551 (DOI)000366638903045 ()978-1-4799-4398-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Jun 08-13, 2014, Denver, CO
Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2016-10-15Bibliographically approved
Castellanos, S., Hofstetter, J., Kivambe, M., Rinio, M., Lai, B. & Buonassisi, T. (2014). Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis. In: : . Paper presented at 14th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, June 8-13, Denver, Colorado.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dislocations limit solar cell performance bydecreasing minority carrier diffusion length, leading to inefficientcharge collection at the device contacts. However, studieshave shown that the recombination strength of dislocationclusters within millimeters away from each other can vary byorders of magnitude. In this contribution, we present correlations between dislocation microstructure and recombination activity levels which span close to two orders of magnitude. We discuss a general trend observed: higherdislocation recombination activity appears to be correlated witha higher degree of impurity decoration, and a higher degree ofdisorder in the spatial distribution of etch pits. We present anapproach to quantify the degree of disorder of dislocationclusters. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that therecombination activity of different dislocation clusters can bepredicted by visual inspection of the etch pit distribution andgeometry.

Keywords
cluster, dislocations, etch pit, multicrystalline, recombination activity, recombination strength, silicon, solar
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Condensed Matter Physics Materials Engineering
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33995 (URN)
Conference
14th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, June 8-13, Denver, Colorado
Note

This poster got a poster award.

Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Castellanos, S., Kivambe, M., Hofstetter, J., Rinio, M., Lai, B. & Buonassisi, T. (2014). Variation of dislocation etch-pit geometry: An indicator of bulk microstructure and recombination activity in multicrystalline silicon. Journal of Applied Physics, 115(18), 1-7, Article ID 183511.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of dislocation etch-pit geometry: An indicator of bulk microstructure and recombination activity in multicrystalline silicon
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, no 18, p. 1-7, article id 183511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dislocation clusters in multicrystalline silicon limit solar cell performance by decreasing minoritycarrier diffusion length. Studies have shown that the recombination strength of dislocation clusterscan vary by up to two orders of magnitude, even within the same wafer. In this contribution, wecombine a surface-analysis approach with bulk characterization techniques to explore theunderlying root cause of variations in recombination strength among different clusters. We observethat dislocation clusters with higher recombination strength consist of dislocations with a largervariation of line vector, correlated with a higher degree of variation in dislocation etch-pit shapes(ellipticities). Conversely, dislocation clusters exhibiting the lowest recombination strength containmostly dislocations with identical line vectors, resulting in very similar etch-pit shapes. Thedisorder of dislocation line vector in high-recombination clusters appears to be correlated withimpurity decoration, possibly the cause of the enhanced recombination activity. Based on ourobservations, we conclude that the relative recombination activity of different dislocation clustersin the device may be predicted via an optical inspection of the distribution and shape variation ofdislocation etch pits in the as-grown wafer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
Keywords
etching, dislocations, solar cell, TEM, µ-XRF, silicon, copper
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Materials Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33996 (URN)10.1063/1.4876445 (DOI)000336919400015 ()2-s2.0-84901483994 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Bertoni, M. I., Sarau, G., Fenning, D. P., Rinio, M., Rose, V., Maser, J. & Buonassisi, T. (2012). Nano-XRF and micro-Raman Studies of Metal Impurity Decoration around Dislocations in Multicrystalline Silicon. In: 2012 38TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE (PVSC): . Paper presented at 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), JUN 03-08, 2012, Austin, Texas, USA (pp. 1613-1616). New York, USA: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-XRF and micro-Raman Studies of Metal Impurity Decoration around Dislocations in Multicrystalline Silicon
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2012 (English)In: 2012 38TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE (PVSC), New York, USA: IEEE, 2012, p. 1613-1616Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We push the resolution limits of synchrotron-based nano-X-ray fluorescence mapping below 100 nm to investigate the fundamental differences between benign and deleterious dislocations in multicystalline silicon solar cells. We observe that after processing recombination-active dislocations contain a high degree of nanoscale iron and copper decoration, while recombination-inactive dislocations appear clean. To study the origins of the distinct metal decorations around different dislocations we analyze as-grown samples as well as specimens at different stages of processing. We complement our X-ray studies with micro-Raman mapping to understand the relationship between metallic decoration and stress fields around dislocations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: IEEE, 2012
Keywords
dislocations, silicon solar cells, X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44681 (URN)000309917801198 ()978-1-4673-0066-7 (ISBN)
Conference
38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), JUN 03-08, 2012, Austin, Texas, USA
Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-10-26Bibliographically approved
Joy, R. M., Gautero, L., Keipert-Colberg, S., Rinio, M., Strola, S. A., Hanssen, M. S., . . . Bosch, R. C. (2011). Fast industrial rear surface passivation dielectric stack deposition and low cost metallisation. In: : . Paper presented at 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 05 – 09 September 2011, Hamburg, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast industrial rear surface passivation dielectric stack deposition and low cost metallisation
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2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27912 (URN)10.4229/26thEUPVSEC2011-2CV.4.42 (DOI)
Conference
26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 05 – 09 September 2011, Hamburg, Germany
Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2015-09-17Bibliographically approved
Rinio, M., Yodyunyong, A., Keipert-Colberg, S., Botchak Mouafi, Y. P., Borchert, D. & Montesdeoca-Santana, A. (2011). Improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a low temperature anneal after emitter difusion. Progress in Photovoltaics, 19, 165-169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a low temperature anneal after emitter difusion
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2011 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 19, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of an annealing step at about 500 degree celsius after emitter diffusion of multicrystalline solar cells is investigated. Neighboring wafers from a silicon ingot were processed using different annealing durations and temperatures. The efficiency of the cells was measured and detailed light beam induced current measurements were performed. These show that mainly areas with high contents of precipitates near the crucible walls are affected by the anneal. An efficiency increase from 14.5 to 15.4% by a 2h anneal at 500 degree celsius was observed. The effect seems to be more likely external than internal gettering.

Keywords
silicon solar cell gettering precipitate iron
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27901 (URN)10.1002/pip.1002 (DOI)000288135300007 ()
Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2181-3820

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