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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Westman, J., Otterbring, T. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization. In: Timmermans (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age, polarization, and digitalization: younger consumers have more polarized perceptions regarding digitalization
2019 (English)In: / [ed] Timmermans, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72183 (URN)
Conference
26th RARCS Conference 8-10 Juli Tallin Estland
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Nöjd, S., Otterbring, T., Westman, J. & Wästlund, E. (2019). The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces. In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice: . Paper presented at Quis 16 June 10-13, 2019 Karlstad.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces
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2019 (English)In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of customer behavior and customer experience in the context of city centers and peripheral shopping centers and how the use of digitalized services affects this experience. In this paper we adopt a qualitative approach to explore consumers´ activities when visiting a city and/or a shopping center and the experiences connected to the visit. The study is based on data from 832 (55% female) with a M age = 48 years (range 17-91 years) consumers.

When visiting a city center and/or a shopping center, customers engage with a variety of different touchpoints (Socchi, Hart and Haji, 2016). From a customer perspective these touchpoints create experiences that generates many types of values. In recent years, the mass media has warned for the demise of city and shopping centers commerce. This purported demise is mainly due to the strong growth of e-commerce. To meet this competition, the retail and hospitality industry has developed strategies to create new customer experiences and thus attract customers back to the city center’s physical places. As a consequence of the technical development, companies frequently try to influence customers’ experiences through various digitalized services, where these digitalized service have the potential to improve customer experience by providing superior and personalized services (Roy et al. 2016). The question is what impact such services have on customers’ experiences and how this, in turn, affects the profitability of the retail and hospitality industry as a whole.

In order to shed light on the activities and experiences of visitors to city and shopping centers regular consumers were approach during a regular visit to such an area and asked to answer a few open ended questions.  The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis aims to identify and report on thematic patterns across the sample, which allows researchers to make interpretations of the data that reflect the reported reality of participants (Braun and Clarke, 2006; Hayes, 2000; Ruane and Wallace, 2013).

The preliminary analysis of the data shows a variety of activities and touchpoints when visiting the city and shopping center. Seven themes emerged in our analysis of the participants´ responses: Relationship, Goal fulfillment, Experiences, Physical venue, Milieu, Practical usability and Non-intrusive.

In order to make more sense of the seven themes a model were developed. In this model three of the themes were connected to the customer, two connected to the service provider and the last two connected to digital technology. These three clusters interact in different ways.

The customer cluster contains the themes relationships, goal fulfilment and experiences. The themes in this cluster describe and vivifies the customer. The customer is not just a “shopping robot” jumping from touchpoint to touchpoint along a customer journey. The customer instead is a person with goals to fulfil but at the same time someone who has a great need of relationships on different levels and a person who will and want to experience things.

The service provider cluster contains two themes. One were named physical venue and this is where the service provider, be it a storeowner or a restaurant owner for example, has the most direct control. It is also where the customer will go to fulfil his or her goals. Here the direct contact between customer and service provider can and will take place. The second theme in this cluster were named “milieu”. The milieu can be the space the customer needs to pass in order to get to the physical venue or other factors that the service provider do not have control over (e.g. public spaces and weather)

The third and most interesting cluster concerns the digital technology, named practical usability and non-intrusive. Digitalization is highly interesting when it comes to the relationship between the customer and the service provider. The first theme described the importance of the usefulness of digital technology, and  in regards to digitalization the results indicates that digitalized services mostly fulfill utilitarian needs and works best in functional touchpoints. The theme called non-intrusive describes the relation between the customer and the digital technology. It may be somewhat drastic to talk about a two edged sword but on the one hand digital technology makes life easier and sometimes more joyful and at the same time the technology may disturb goal activities which leads to negative experiences.

These findings is important because it offers help to those managing city and shopping centers in identify touchpoints that need to be digitalized and those who need to be reinforced through social activities This knowledge could also help managers develop strategies to create new customer experience, i.e. create good valuescapes, and thus tease customer back to the city and shopping center´s physical places.

REFERENCES

Braun, V. and Clarke, V., (2006), 'Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2) 77-101

Hayes, N. (2000), Doing Psychological Research, Open University Press, Buckinghamshire.

Ruane, L. and Wallace, E., (2013), 'Generation Y females online: insight from brand narratives', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16 (3) 315-335

Roy, S. K., Balaji, M. S., Sadeque, S., Nguyen, B., and Mlewar, T. C., (2016), 'Constituents and consequences of smart customer experience in retailing', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124 257-270

Stocchi, L., Hart, C., and Haji, I., (2016), 'Understanding the town centre customer experience (TCCE) ', Journal of Marketing Management, 32 (17-18) 1562-1587

Keywords
retail, value, experince, digitalization
National Category
Psychology Business Administration
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72184 (URN)
Conference
Quis 16 June 10-13, 2019 Karlstad
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Friman, M. & Olsson, L. E. (2019). Travel and child wellbeing: The cognitive and psychological domains.. In: Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson, Raktim Mitra (Ed.), Transport and Children’s Wellbeing: . Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel and child wellbeing: The cognitive and psychological domains.
2019 (English)In: Transport and Children’s Wellbeing / [ed] Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson, Raktim Mitra, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74717 (URN)9780128146941 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-11 Created: 2019-09-11 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Trischler, J., Zehrer, A. & Westman, J. (2018). A designerly way of analyzing the customer experience. Journal of Services Marketing, 23(3), 777-788
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A designerly way of analyzing the customer experience
2018 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 777-788Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability of different design methods in understanding the customer experience from a contextual and systemic standpoint.

Design/methodology/approach

Three design methods (i.e. personas, observations and collaborative service mapping) were applied to analyze customer experiences in two service settings. These methods’ usability was compared across the two settings.

Findings

Personas, as informed by phenomenological interviews, provide insights into the customer’s broader lifeworld context. These insights assist in connecting with and understanding the customer experience from a dyadic customer-firm perspective. The involvement of the customer in service mapping activities supports the validation of findings and gives access to experience dimensions beyond the immediate service setting.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is limited to three design methods and is based on small samples. Future research should systematically review design methods to provide a basis for a more comprehensive

evaluation.

Practical implications

To successfully capture the contextual and systemic nature of the customer experience, managers should apply interpretive approaches and actively involve selected customers as “experts of their experiences”. The study provides guidelines on how design methods can be combined and applied to a more holistic customer experience analysis.

Originality/value

The paper shows that design methods, when applied in a combined form, can support an analysis that captures both in-depth insights into the customer’s lifeworld and the complexity of value constellations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service design, Customer experience, Participatory design, Empathy design, Service mapping
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70215 (URN)10.1108/JSM-04-2017-0138 (DOI)000452703800003 ()
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Westman, J. & Olsson, L. E. (2018). Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel. Child Indicators Research, 12(4), 1319-1332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel
2018 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1319-1332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand children’s experiences of their daily travel, and the consequences of these experiences, it is essential that we directly address children. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) is a self-report instrument consisting of nine items divided into three subscales – two reflecting affective travel experiences and one reflecting cognitive travel experiences. The present study has two aims: (i) to examine the psychometric properties of a child version of the STS (referred to as the STS-C), and (ii) to test a potentially positive relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction among children, something which has been found among adults. Three hundred and forty-five children completed the STS-C, life satisfaction scales, and sociodemographic variables. Analyses using Partial Least Square structural equation modelling revealed that the STS-C was internally reliable, had a sound construct validity, and confirmed a one-factor second-order measurement model with three first-order constructs (subscales). Furthermore, children’s satisfaction with school travel was also significantly related to their life satisfaction as measured by their satisfaction with: themselves, school experiences, friendships, family, and living environment. The relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction varied between modes, whereby it was stronger among those who traveled by active modes than those who traveled by school bus or car. Younger children and boys were more satisfied with their travel to school, something which also had an indirect effect on their life satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Satisfaction with travel scale, Children’s travel, Children’s life satisfaction, Affect, School travel
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70225 (URN)10.1007/s12187-018-9584-x (DOI)000476514100010 ()
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Friman, M. & Olsson, L. E. (2018). How to measure Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel. In: : . Paper presented at The 15th International Conference on Travel Behavior Research, Santa Barbara, California, USA, July 15-20..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to measure Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71188 (URN)
Conference
The 15th International Conference on Travel Behavior Research, Santa Barbara, California, USA, July 15-20.
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Westman, J. (2017). Child victims, their memory and The National Institute of Child Health and Development Protocol. In: Sara Landström (Ed.), Interviewing child witnesses: Proceedings of the 2016 Theoretical Course. Paper presented at Interviewing child witnesses (PhD course). 2016.. Göteborgs universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child victims, their memory and The National Institute of Child Health and Development Protocol
2017 (English)In: Interviewing child witnesses: Proceedings of the 2016 Theoretical Course / [ed] Sara Landström, Göteborgs universitet, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborgs universitet, 2017
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70226 (URN)
Conference
Interviewing child witnesses (PhD course). 2016.
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2017). Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance. Transportation, 44(6), 1365-1382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance
2017 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Children, School travel, Satisfaction, Current mood, Cognitive performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38305 (URN)10.1007/s11116-016-9705-7 (DOI)000415356300008 ()
Projects
SAMOT
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Westman, J. (2017). Drivers of Children's Travel Satisfaction. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers of Children's Travel Satisfaction
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is twofold: Firstly, it explores the reasons parents state for choosing the car to take their children to school; Secondly, it investigates how the characteristics of the journey relate to children’s wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance. This thesis consists of three papers (Papers I, II, and III). Participating in Paper I were 245 parents of schoolchildren aged between 10 and 15 in Värmland County, Sweden. These parents answered a questionnaire wherein they stated to what degree certain statements correlated with their decision to choose the car. In Paper II, 237 children in grade 4 (aged 10-11), in the City of Staffanstorp, Sweden, recorded all their journeys in a diary over one school week, also reporting on their travel mode, current mood while travelling, activities on arrival, and experiences vis-à-vis those activities. Participating in Paper III was a sample of 345 children aged between 10 and 15 attending five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. These children rated their current mood, filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (capturing the travel experience), reported details about their journeys, and took a word fluency test.

Parents’ wish to accompany their children to school, and the convenience of the car, both impact upon the travel mode decision. In addition, parents also seem to choose the car regardless of the distance between home and school. The findings further reveal that the mood children are in varies with how they travel and where they go, and that there is a difference between boys’ and girls’ experiences. Children who travel by car experience the lowest degree of quality and activation, something which is maintained throughout the school day (especially for girls). Social activities during travel bring a higher degree of quality and excitement, while solitary activities bring more stress. The findings further show that using a smartphone, or doing a combination of activities during the journey, results in better cognitive performance. Thus, it is concluded that the mode choice that parents make for their children correlates with those children’s mood and experience. Specifically, where and how children travel, what they do when they travel, and how long they travel for affect their experiences, mood, and/or cognitive performance.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, it explores parents’ stated reasons for choosing the car for their children’s school journeys. Secondly, it investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a journey (i.e. travel mode, travel time, and activities conducted while travelling) and children’s wellbeing (through domain-specific satisfaction), current mood, and cognitive performance. The overall findings show that parents value the car both for its convenience and for the possibility of accompanying their children. Parents also use the car regardless of the distance between home and school. Travel affects children in various ways; for instance, doing certain activities while traveling can help boost cognitive performance and make children feel happy and excited. Notably, being passive during the journey makes children feel stressed and those who travel to school by car are the most tired during the school day. This implies that parents’ travel mode choice affects children’s wellbeing and cognitive performance. These insights are important when it comes to addressing current challenges relating to children’s day-to-day travel: How they experience their day-to-day travel may contribute toward how children travel in the future.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen har två delsyften. Först undersöks vilka skäl föräldrar anger för varför deväljer att skjutsa sina barn till skolan med bil. Ett andra syfte är att undersöka hur detta val påverkarbarns mentala hälsa via självskattad upplevelse av skolresan och hur de känner sig vid ankomst(humör). Ytterligare ett syfte är att undersöka hur upplevelsen av skolresan påverkar hur barnenpresterar när de kommer till skolan. Avhandlingen innehåller tre artiklar. I Artikel I deltog 245föräldrar till barn i årskurs 4, 6 och 8 i värmländska skolor. Föräldrarna angav i vilken utsträckningolika skäl påverkar deras val att skjutsa barnen till skolan med bil. I artikel II deltog 237 barn (varav101 flickor) från årskurs 4 i Staffanstorp, Skåne. Barnen förde resdagbok över alla resor de gjordeunder en vecka. I dagboken beskrev de vart de reste, vilka färdmedel de använt, deras humör underresan (som skattades som ledsen-glad och trött-pigg), vilka aktiviteter de ägnat sig åt vidslutdestinationen samt deras upplevelser av dessa aktiviteter. I Artikel III deltog 345 barn frånårskurs 4, 6 och 8 i Värmland. Istället för resdagbok skattade barnen sitt humör, hur nöjda de varmed resan genom att fylla i Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for Children (STS-C), resedetaljersamt gjorde ett ordflödestest direkt vid ankomst i skolan.

Resultaten visar bland annat att föräldrars önskan att spendera tid med sina barn och praktiskaaspekter med bil ligger till grund för valet av bil. Huruvida det är ett långt eller kort avstånd tillskolan påverkar inte valet att använda bil. Barns humör varierar beroende på hur de reser(färdmedel) och vart de reser (destination). En skillnad observerades också mellan flickor ochpojkar och mellan olika årskurser där t.ex. fickor påverkades mer negativt av att resa med bil änpojkar. Barn som reser med bil till skolan är minst nöjda (upplevde en lägre grad av kvalitet) ochpå sämre humör (är känslomässigt mindre aktiva) vilket också håller i sig under skoldagen. Att ägnasig åt sociala aktiviteter (konversera med vänner och familj) under resan bidrar till en högre upplevdkvalitet och mer upprymdhet medan barn som ägnat sig åt aktiviteter utan sällskap upplever enhögre grad av stress. Resultaten visar också att barn som använder sin smartphone eller kombinerarolika aktiviteter under resan presterar bättre på kognitivt test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. p. 61
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:41
Keywords
children’s travel, wellbeing, current mood, travel mode choice, activities during travel, cognitive performance, Barns reseupplevelse, humör, färdmedelsval, aktiviteter under resan, kognitiv prestation
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-64720 (URN)978-91-7063-818-3 (ISBN)978-91-7063-913-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-08, 11D227, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Friman, M. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). What Drives Them to Drive?: Parents' Reasons for Choosing the Car to Take Their Children to School. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-8, Article ID 1970.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Drives Them to Drive?: Parents' Reasons for Choosing the Car to Take Their Children to School
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-8, article id 1970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children's school journeys have changed vastly during recent decades: More children are being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier research into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys-in particular how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode. This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school. We additionally investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors, distance, and both the stated reasons and the actual mode decision. A sample of 245 parents (194 women) of school children aged 10-15 in the County of Varmland in Sweden were included in the study. The results of PLS-SEM show that the factor Social convenience has a direct relationship with the frequency of car use indicating that the wish to accompany the child and the convenience of car impacts on car choice. If the child is not allowed to travel independently, the parents choose the car to take him/her to school. Sociodemographic factors had a direct relationship with the stated reasons, whereby parents with a higher level of education valued safety/security less. Quite surprisingly, distance (i.e., environmental factor) did not affect car use, indicating that parents drive their children to school regardless of distance. By isolating the particular reasons for choosing the car, this paper focuses on a potentially important missing piece as regards finding out what motivates the increasing car usage in children's school journeys. An increased knowledge of what motivates the decision to take children by car is important for effective policies aimed at changing parents' inclination toward choosing the car.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
school travel; stated reasons; car choice; parental decision; children and adolescents
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65906 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01970 (DOI)000414624100001 ()29167653 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4120-8823

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