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Guyader, H., Ottosson, M., Frankelius, P. & Witell, L. (2019). Identifying the resource integration processes of green service. Journal of Service Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying the resource integration processes of green service
2019 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of green service. In particular, the focus is on identifying homopathic and heteropathic resource integration processes that preserve or increase the resourceness of the natural ecosystem. Design/methodology/approach: Through an extensive multiple case study involving ten service providers from diverse sectors based on a substantial number of interviews, detailed accounts of green service are provided. Findings: Six resource integration processes were identified: reducing, recirculating, recycling, redistributing, reframing and renewing. While four of these processes are based on homopathic resource integration, both reframing and renewing are based on heteropathic resource integration. While homopathic processes historically constitute a green service by mitigating the impact of consumption on the environment, heteropathic resource integration increases the resourceness of the natural ecosystem through emergent processes and the (re)creation of natural resources. Research limitations/implications: The present study breaks away from the paradigm that “green service” is about reducing the negative environmental impact of existing services, toward providing a green service that expands biological diversity and other natural resources. Originality/value: Transformative service research on environmental sustainability is still in its infancy. The present study contributes through conceptualizing green service, redefining existing resource integration processes (reducing, recirculating, recycling) and identifying new resource integration processes (redistributing, reframing, renewing).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Green service, Resource integration, Sustainability, Transformative Service Research
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71748 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-12-2017-0350 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062676177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A. E., Raddats, C. & Witell, L. (2019). The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers. Journal of Business Research, 98, 328-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, p. 328-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation is a key driver of service infusion for manufacturers. Although service innovation is widely researched for service firms, it is less explored for service infusion in manufacturers. Existing research about service infusion considers developing customer knowledge in sales and service delivery, but there is scarce research about how manufacturers develop customer knowledge during new service development (NSD). This study investigates customer knowledge development within manufacturers and considers how it differs between the development of incremental and radical service innovations. A study was undertaken with 239 European manufacturers which revealed multiple drivers of customer knowledge development, service innovation performance, and firm performance. Developing incremental service innovations are more successful when customers participate in NSD teams while developing radical service innovations leads manufacturers to higher firm performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Customer knowledge development, Incremental innovation, New service development, Radical innovation, Service infusion, Service innovation, Servitization
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71509 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.02.019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061573208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-14 Created: 2019-03-14 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Bolton, R. N., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Cheung, L., Gallan, A., Orsingher, C., Witell, L. & Zaki, M. (2018). Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms. Journal of Service Management, 29(5), 776-808
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service innovation, Technological innovation, Value creation, Service design, Customer experience, Service ecosystem
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70294 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-04-2018-0113 (DOI)000449487800002 ()
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Myhrén, P., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A. & Gebauer, H. (2018). Incremental and radical open service innovation. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(2), 101-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incremental and radical open service innovation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service innovation, Open innovation, Radical innovation, Incremental innovation, New service development, Case study method
National Category
Economics and Business Media and Communications
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66877 (URN)10.1108/JSM-04-2016-0161 (DOI)000427270500001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Valtakoski, A. & Witell, L. (2018). Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(4), 1144-1164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1144-1164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of back-office (BO) service capability and front-office (FO) service capability, and how firm age influences the impact of these service capabilities on small and medium size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the prior literature on servitization and firm operational capabilities, hypotheses were developed on the impact of service capabilities on firm performance. These hypotheses were tested using a survey and externally sourced financial data on 224 SMEs in the software industry. Findings: FO service capability has a positive impact on firm performance of SMEs. The effect of BO service capability was weaker and partly contrary to expectations, showing a negative effect on firm performance for young SMEs. As hypothesized, the impact of both BO and FO service capability is moderated by firm age. Young SMEs benefit more from FO service capability. For older SMEs, BO service capability becomes increasingly more important. Practical implications: As different capabilities lead to different outcomes, SMEs need to carefully consider which service capabilities to invest in. As the relative importance of capabilities changes over time, SMEs need to be ready to change their strategic focus over time toward BO capabilities to attain optimal outcomes. Originality/value: The findings suggest that factors such as industry, firm size, and firm age affect the optimal servitization path, and that current understanding of servitization does not necessarily apply to all servitized firms. The study also provides further evidence of the impact of service capabilities on firm performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service management, SMEs, Firm performance, Servitization, Capabilities, Software firms
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66732 (URN)10.1108/IJOPM-06-2016-0328 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042583979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Gebauer, H., Jaakkola, E., Hammedi, W., Patricio, L. & Perks, H. (2017). A bricolage perspective on service innovation. Journal of Business Research, 79, 290-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A bricolage perspective on service innovation
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65722 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.021 (DOI)000406983600028 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Jaakkola, E., Meiren, T., Witell, L., Edvardsson, B., Schfer, A., Reynoso, J., . . . Weitlaner, D. (2017). Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services. Journal of Service Management, 28(2), 329-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 329-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results. Findings - Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types. Practical implications - The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed. Originality/value - This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the "one size fits all" assumption evident in current NSD research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Survey, Project team, New service development, NSD methods, Service characteristics, Service typology
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems, Social aspects Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65527 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-11-2015-0370 (DOI)000401069200007 ()
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Forkmann, S., Henneberg, S. C., Witell, L. & Kindström, D. (2017). Driver Configurations for Successful Service Infusion. Journal of Service Research, 20(3), 275-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver Configurations for Successful Service Infusion
2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 275-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manufacturers across many industries use service infusion to address the changing customer demands and improve their competitive position. However, understanding the drivers of successful service infusion is a complex process. Using business model and configuration theories, this study conceptualizes and analyzes the interplay of different driver domains for suppliers, customers, and their business relationships. In particular, we analyze how service offering, service pricing, service capabilities, and the service infusion process interact in affecting service infusion success and failure. 137 interviews relating to 25 business relationships are analyzed via configuration analysis, particularly fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Results show that different equifinal configurations exist (i.e., different ways to succeed with service infusion). We also find that more is not always better. For example, service infusion success can be achieved without fully developed service capabilities. In addition, successful configurations are often very similar to those leading to failure. A dyadic analysis demonstrates that customer service capabilities are overall more important than those of suppliers. From these findings, we derive priorities for future research. In particular, our study points toward the need to better understand the interplay between service infusion drivers. Second, we advocate the augmentation of research perspectives in service infusion by taking into account the supplier, customer, and dyadic perspectives. Lastly, the importance of understanding drivers of service infusion failure is highlighted. For managers, our study shows the importance of relational audits as a starting point to deciding on how to infuse services in a business relationship.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
service infusion, configurations, business model, dyadic perspective, service capabilities, servitization, hybrid offering
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65685 (URN)10.1177/1094670517706160 (DOI)000405433000004 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Perks, H., Kowalkowski, C., Witell, L. & Gustafsson, A. (2017). Network orchestration for value platform development. Industrial Marketing Management, 67, 106-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network orchestration for value platform development
2017 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 67, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The traditional firm and product-centric view of platforms is changing. Platforms are increasingly developed around value that is co-created with a network of actors. In such settings, lead firms shape their environments and develop value platforms through network orchestration. This study examines how lead firms mobilize network relationships to support and build novel value platforms. The research adopts a multiple case study methodology, investigating the development of six value platforms in network settings within Europe. A large-scale interview program over several years was conducted. The findings unravel practices constituting four overarching network orchestration mechanisms in the value platform development context; envisioning, inducing innovativeness, legitimizing, and adjusting. The study explains the relationships and interplay between the orchestration mechanisms and articulates theoretical and managerial contributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Value platforms, Network orchestration, Mechanisms, Business networks, Value-creating systems
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65971 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.08.002 (DOI)000418987500008 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Snyder, H., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2863-2872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2863-2872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42335 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.055 (DOI)000377726600026 ()2-s2.0-84955238016 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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