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Myhrén, P., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A. & Gebauer, H. (2018). Incremental and radical open service innovation. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(2), 101-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incremental and radical open service innovation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service innovation, Open innovation, Radical innovation, Incremental innovation, New service development, Case study method
National Category
Economics and Business Media and Communications
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66877 (URN)10.1108/JSM-04-2016-0161 (DOI)000427270500001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Valtakoski, A. & Witell, L. (2018). Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(4), 1144-1164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1144-1164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of back-office (BO) service capability and front-office (FO) service capability, and how firm age influences the impact of these service capabilities on small and medium size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the prior literature on servitization and firm operational capabilities, hypotheses were developed on the impact of service capabilities on firm performance. These hypotheses were tested using a survey and externally sourced financial data on 224 SMEs in the software industry. Findings: FO service capability has a positive impact on firm performance of SMEs. The effect of BO service capability was weaker and partly contrary to expectations, showing a negative effect on firm performance for young SMEs. As hypothesized, the impact of both BO and FO service capability is moderated by firm age. Young SMEs benefit more from FO service capability. For older SMEs, BO service capability becomes increasingly more important. Practical implications: As different capabilities lead to different outcomes, SMEs need to carefully consider which service capabilities to invest in. As the relative importance of capabilities changes over time, SMEs need to be ready to change their strategic focus over time toward BO capabilities to attain optimal outcomes. Originality/value: The findings suggest that factors such as industry, firm size, and firm age affect the optimal servitization path, and that current understanding of servitization does not necessarily apply to all servitized firms. The study also provides further evidence of the impact of service capabilities on firm performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service management, SMEs, Firm performance, Servitization, Capabilities, Software firms
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66732 (URN)10.1108/IJOPM-06-2016-0328 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042583979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Gebauer, H., Jaakkola, E., Hammedi, W., Patricio, L. & Perks, H. (2017). A bricolage perspective on service innovation. Journal of Business Research, 79, 290-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A bricolage perspective on service innovation
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65722 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.021 (DOI)000406983600028 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Jaakkola, E., Meiren, T., Witell, L., Edvardsson, B., Schfer, A., Reynoso, J., . . . Weitlaner, D. (2017). Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services. Journal of Service Management, 28(2), 329-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 329-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results. Findings - Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types. Practical implications - The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed. Originality/value - This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the "one size fits all" assumption evident in current NSD research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Survey, Project team, New service development, NSD methods, Service characteristics, Service typology
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems, Social aspects Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65527 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-11-2015-0370 (DOI)000401069200007 ()
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Perks, H., Kowalkowski, C., Witell, L. & Gustafsson, A. (2017). Network orchestration for value platform development. Industrial Marketing Management, 67, 106-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network orchestration for value platform development
2017 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 67, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The traditional firm and product-centric view of platforms is changing. Platforms are increasingly developed around value that is co-created with a network of actors. In such settings, lead firms shape their environments and develop value platforms through network orchestration. This study examines how lead firms mobilize network relationships to support and build novel value platforms. The research adopts a multiple case study methodology, investigating the development of six value platforms in network settings within Europe. A large-scale interview program over several years was conducted. The findings unravel practices constituting four overarching network orchestration mechanisms in the value platform development context; envisioning, inducing innovativeness, legitimizing, and adjusting. The study explains the relationships and interplay between the orchestration mechanisms and articulates theoretical and managerial contributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Value platforms, Network orchestration, Mechanisms, Business networks, Value-creating systems
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65971 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.08.002 (DOI)000418987500008 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Snyder, H., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2863-2872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2863-2872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42335 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.055 (DOI)000377726600026 ()2-s2.0-84955238016 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2401-2408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2401-2408Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation acts as society's engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector's economic growth. Despite service innovation's importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance. 

Keywords
Service innovation, Radical, Incremental, Value co-creation, Literature review
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42618 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.009 (DOI)000375812300010 ()
Available from: 2016-06-03 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Koskela-Huotari, K., Edvardsson, B., Jonas, J., Sörhammar, D. & Witell, L. (2016). Innovation in service ecosystems - Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2964-2971
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation in service ecosystems - Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2964-2971Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing on service-dominant logic and institutional theory, this paper examines innovation as a process that unfolds through changes in the institutional arrangements that govern resource integration practices in service ecosystems. Four cases are used to illustrate the interdependent patterns of breaking, making and maintaining the institutionalized rules of resource integration occurring on multiple levels of institutional context. Such institutional work allows actors to cocreate value in novel and useful ways by a) including new actors, b) redefining roles of involved actors and c) reframing resources within service ecosystems. Our findings show that while the efforts of breaking and making the institutionalized rules are required for such changes to occur, at the same time, institutional maintenance is also important for these changes to institutionalize, that is, to become an integral part of the institutional structure coordinating value cocreation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Innovation; Service ecosystems; Resource integration; Institutions; Service-dominant logic; Multiple case study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42365 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.02.029 (DOI)000377726600037 ()2-s2.0-84959867032 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2018-01-29Bibliographically approved
Voss, C., Perks, H., Sousa, R., Witell, L. & Wuenderlich, N. V. (2016). Reflections on context in service research. Journal of Service Management, 27(1), 30-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflections on context in service research
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of context and its implications for theory and research in service. Design/methodology/approach - This is a conceptual paper based on exploring existing research and theory related to context in service research. Findings - The characteristics of service make context both important and challenging, there is great contextual diversity in service research as reflected, for example in ecosystems made up of multiple contextual variables. There is a need to identify the context-specific nature of middle range theory and the contextual logic of general theory. The authors explore the challenges of context for service theory and how we might learn from theory in a particular context and test or adapt it in other contexts. Originality/value - The findings of this paper are of value to researchers seeking to develop and justify theory in service research (general, middle range or theory in use).

Keywords
Research, Service theory
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42053 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-04-2015-0115 (DOI)000374164200004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, A., Aksoy, L., Brady, M. K., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Sirianni, N. J., Witell, L. & Wuenderlich, N. V. (2015). Conducting service research that matters. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(6-7), 425-429, Article ID SI.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting service research that matters
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 425-429, article id SIArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to encourage the reader to think differently about service-related issues and to strive to conduct service research that makes a transformational impact on individuals, organizations and society. The authors suggest that service researchers are in an excellent position to develop research that matters by making stronger connections with theory and elevating purely applied research to research that is higher in both practical relevance and methodological rigor. Design/methodology/approach - This paper takes a conceptual approach, connecting pertinent literature with new ideas highlighted in this special issue. Findings - This paper proposes that service researchers look beyond traditional service applications, take a multi-disciplinary approach to problem-solving and make greater strides towards connecting theory and practice. The authors propose a Model of Rigorous and Relevant Research, and call for fresh thinking across a wide range of research areas, including enhancing the customer experience, crafting innovation, integrating technology and measuring service outcomes. Originality/value - The originality of this essay lies in its focus on revitalizing the discussion on relevance and rigor as a path forward for service research. Additionally, this paper offers new insights on core management aspects of service provision that provide a solid platform for future work in service research.

Keywords
Relevance, Service technology, Service innovation, Customer experience, Rigor, Service outcomes
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41128 (URN)10.1108/JSM-02-2015-0103 (DOI)000369386100002 ()
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6589-8662

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