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Publications (10 of 149) Show all publications
Myhrén, P., Witell, L. & Åkesson, M. (2019). Creating the Perfect Match: Roles and Archetypes of Open Service Innovation. In: P. Kristensson, P. Magnusson & L. Witell (Ed.), Service Innovation for Sustainable Business Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the Value from Service Innovation: (pp. 135-162). World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating the Perfect Match: Roles and Archetypes of Open Service Innovation
2019 (English)In: Service Innovation for Sustainable Business Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the Value from Service Innovation / [ed] P. Kristensson, P. Magnusson & L. Witell, World Scientific, 2019, p. 135-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific, 2019
Keywords
Service; Innovation; Creativity; Ideas; Value; Customer; Marketing
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72020 (URN)10.1142/9789813273382_0008 (DOI)9789813273375 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Guyader, H., Ottosson, M., Frankelius, P. & Witell, L. (2019). Identifying the resource integration processes of green service. Journal of Service Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying the resource integration processes of green service
2019 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of green service. In particular, the focus is on identifying homopathic and heteropathic resource integration processes that preserve or increase the resourceness of the natural ecosystem. Design/methodology/approach: Through an extensive multiple case study involving ten service providers from diverse sectors based on a substantial number of interviews, detailed accounts of green service are provided. Findings: Six resource integration processes were identified: reducing, recirculating, recycling, redistributing, reframing and renewing. While four of these processes are based on homopathic resource integration, both reframing and renewing are based on heteropathic resource integration. While homopathic processes historically constitute a green service by mitigating the impact of consumption on the environment, heteropathic resource integration increases the resourceness of the natural ecosystem through emergent processes and the (re)creation of natural resources. Research limitations/implications: The present study breaks away from the paradigm that “green service” is about reducing the negative environmental impact of existing services, toward providing a green service that expands biological diversity and other natural resources. Originality/value: Transformative service research on environmental sustainability is still in its infancy. The present study contributes through conceptualizing green service, redefining existing resource integration processes (reducing, recirculating, recycling) and identifying new resource integration processes (redistributing, reframing, renewing).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Green service, Resource integration, Sustainability, Transformative Service Research
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71748 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-12-2017-0350 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062676177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H., Witell, L., Elg, M. & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2019). The influence of place on health-care customer creativity. European Journal of Marketing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of place on health-care customer creativity
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: When using a service, customers often develop their own solutions by integrating resources to solve problems and co-create value. Drawing on innovation and creativity literature, this paper aims to investigate the influence of place (the service setting and the customer setting) on customer creativity in a health-care context. Design/methodology/approach: In a field study using customer diaries, 200 ideas from orthopedic surgery patients were collected and evaluated by an expert panel using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). Findings: Results suggest that place influences customer creativity. In the customer setting, customers generate novel ideas that may improve their clinical health. In the service setting, customers generate ideas that may improve the user value of the service and enhance the customer experience. Customer creativity is influenced by the role the customer adopts in a specific place. In the customer setting customers were more likely to develop ideas involving active customer roles. Interestingly, while health-care customers provided ideas in both settings, contrary to expectation, ideas scored higher on user value in the service setting than in the customer setting. Research limitations/implications: This study shows that customer creativity differs in terms of originality, user value and clinical value depending on the place (service setting or customer setting), albeit in one country in a standardized care process. Practical implications: The present research puts customer creativity in relation to health-care practices building on an active patient role, suggesting that patients can contribute to the further development of health-care services. Originality/value: As the first field study to test the influence of place on customer creativity, this research makes a novel contribution to the growing body of work in customer creativity, showing that different places are more/less favorable for different dimensions of creativity. It also relates customer creativity to health-care practices and highlights that patients are an untapped source of creativity with first-hand knowledge and insights, importantly demonstrating how customers can contribute to the further development of health-care services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Creativity, Health-care, Service, Value co-creation
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72139 (URN)10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0723 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063942100 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A. E., Raddats, C. & Witell, L. (2019). The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers. Journal of Business Research, 98, 328-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, p. 328-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation is a key driver of service infusion for manufacturers. Although service innovation is widely researched for service firms, it is less explored for service infusion in manufacturers. Existing research about service infusion considers developing customer knowledge in sales and service delivery, but there is scarce research about how manufacturers develop customer knowledge during new service development (NSD). This study investigates customer knowledge development within manufacturers and considers how it differs between the development of incremental and radical service innovations. A study was undertaken with 239 European manufacturers which revealed multiple drivers of customer knowledge development, service innovation performance, and firm performance. Developing incremental service innovations are more successful when customers participate in NSD teams while developing radical service innovations leads manufacturers to higher firm performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Customer knowledge development, Incremental innovation, New service development, Radical innovation, Service infusion, Service innovation, Servitization
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71509 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.02.019 (DOI)000464482600026 ()2-s2.0-85061573208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-14 Created: 2019-03-14 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Gremyr, I., Valtakoski, A. & Witell, L. (2019). Two routes of service modularization: advancing standardization and customization. Journal of Services Marketing, 33(1), 73-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two routes of service modularization: advancing standardization and customization
2019 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - This study aims to investigate service modularization in a manufacturing firm, identifies service modularization processes and examines how these processes change the service module characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on a longitudinal case study (2008-2017) of a manufacturing firm. The development of six service modules was analyzed using data from interviews with key informants, informal meetings and internal documentation. Findings - This study suggests five service modularization processes, and that service module characteristics, such as standardization and interconnectedness, change in different ways depending on the service modularization processes used. It further identifies two service modularization routes that each combine the service modularization processes in unique ways with replication as a key process to improve both standardization and customization. Practical implications - This study elaborates a framework for service modularization, which can serve as a guideline for developing service modules. It also highlights the differences between product and service modularization, suggesting that the role of service module characteristics such as standardization and customization is specific for services. Originality/value - This longitudinal case study (2008-2017) provides empirical evidence on service modularization and extends existing knowledge on service modularization processes and how they influence service module characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
Service innovation, Qualitative research, New service development, Business-to-business services, Service infusion, Modularization, Standardization, Customization, Case study method, Service modules
National Category
Business Administration Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72232 (URN)10.1108/JSM-10-2018-0285 (DOI)000467622600007 ()2-s2.0-85063995581 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-31 Created: 2019-05-31 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Bolton, R. N., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Cheung, L., Gallan, A., Orsingher, C., Witell, L. & Zaki, M. (2018). Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms. Journal of Service Management, 29(5), 776-808
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service innovation, Technological innovation, Value creation, Service design, Customer experience, Service ecosystem
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70294 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-04-2018-0113 (DOI)000449487800002 ()
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Myhrén, P., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A. & Gebauer, H. (2018). Incremental and radical open service innovation. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(2), 101-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incremental and radical open service innovation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service innovation, Open innovation, Radical innovation, Incremental innovation, New service development, Case study method
National Category
Economics and Business Media and Communications
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66877 (URN)10.1108/JSM-04-2016-0161 (DOI)000427270500001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Valtakoski, A. & Witell, L. (2018). Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(4), 1144-1164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: Contingency on firm age
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1144-1164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of back-office (BO) service capability and front-office (FO) service capability, and how firm age influences the impact of these service capabilities on small and medium size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the prior literature on servitization and firm operational capabilities, hypotheses were developed on the impact of service capabilities on firm performance. These hypotheses were tested using a survey and externally sourced financial data on 224 SMEs in the software industry. Findings: FO service capability has a positive impact on firm performance of SMEs. The effect of BO service capability was weaker and partly contrary to expectations, showing a negative effect on firm performance for young SMEs. As hypothesized, the impact of both BO and FO service capability is moderated by firm age. Young SMEs benefit more from FO service capability. For older SMEs, BO service capability becomes increasingly more important. Practical implications: As different capabilities lead to different outcomes, SMEs need to carefully consider which service capabilities to invest in. As the relative importance of capabilities changes over time, SMEs need to be ready to change their strategic focus over time toward BO capabilities to attain optimal outcomes. Originality/value: The findings suggest that factors such as industry, firm size, and firm age affect the optimal servitization path, and that current understanding of servitization does not necessarily apply to all servitized firms. The study also provides further evidence of the impact of service capabilities on firm performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Service management, SMEs, Firm performance, Servitization, Capabilities, Software firms
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66732 (URN)10.1108/IJOPM-06-2016-0328 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042583979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Gebauer, H., Jaakkola, E., Hammedi, W., Patricio, L. & Perks, H. (2017). A bricolage perspective on service innovation. Journal of Business Research, 79, 290-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A bricolage perspective on service innovation
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65722 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.021 (DOI)000406983600028 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Jaakkola, E., Meiren, T., Witell, L., Edvardsson, B., Schfer, A., Reynoso, J., . . . Weitlaner, D. (2017). Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services. Journal of Service Management, 28(2), 329-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 329-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results. Findings - Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types. Practical implications - The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed. Originality/value - This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the "one size fits all" assumption evident in current NSD research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Survey, Project team, New service development, NSD methods, Service characteristics, Service typology
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems, Social aspects Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65527 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-11-2015-0370 (DOI)000401069200007 ()
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6589-8662

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