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Gustafsson, B., Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2016). Residential Segregation from Generation to Generation:: Intergenerational Association in Socio-Spatial Context Among Visible Minorities and the Majority Population in Metropolitan Sweden. Population, Space and Place
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential Segregation from Generation to Generation:: Intergenerational Association in Socio-Spatial Context Among Visible Minorities and the Majority Population in Metropolitan Sweden
2016 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, ISSN 1544-8444Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate to what degree young adults live in neighbourhoods that are similar, in terms of relative average household income, to the neighbourhoods in which they grew up. We use regression analysis on register data for all individuals who were born in 1974 and lived in metropolitan Sweden in both 1990 and 2006. During this period, the distribution of income in Sweden became far more unequal, unemployment rose dramatically, earlier housing policies were dismantled, the share of ‘visible minorities’ increased dramatically, and residential segregation increased very considerably. We find a correlation between average neighbourhood incomes at these two points in the sample's life cycle of 0.44, which is more than three times as high as the household income correlation. We also find that half of the children of ‘visible minorities’ grew up in the poorer quartile of neighbourhoods, and of these, almost two-thirds remained in the poorest quartile of neighbourhoods as adults. Several measures indicate that intergenerational persistency in context is lower in metropolitan Sweden than was found in a similar study in the US. However, it appears that if visible minority individuals lived in a neighbourhood in the lowest part of the distribution in Sweden as a child, the probability that they will do so also as adults is as high as the corresponding probability for an African-American person in the US.

Keywords
KW Sweden; residential segregation; immigrants; intergenerational persistence; visible minorities
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46378 (URN)10.1002/psp.2028 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, B., Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2016). Why Do Some Young Adults Not Graduate from Upper-Secondary School?: On the Importance of Signales of Labour Market Failure. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Do Some Young Adults Not Graduate from Upper-Secondary School?: On the Importance of Signales of Labour Market Failure
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In high-income countries, not completing secondary school often entails a high risk of social exclusion. Using data on young adults born in 1985 who grew up in metropolitan Sweden, we study factors associated with not graduating from upper-secondary school at age 21. Our hypothesis is that if a young person sees examples of people who are not able to earn a living despite having a long education, such negative examples are influential. Results from estimated logistic models are consistent with the hypothesis.

Keywords
Upper-secondary education; neighbourhoods; immigrants; Sweden, Invandrare; Grannskap; Utbildning
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46377 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2016.1188145 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Katz, K., Gustafsson, B. & Österberg, T. (2013). Boendesegregation, bakgrund och barnfattigdom. In: Daniel Rauhut (Ed.), Om barnfattigdom: Ett problem med många ansikten (pp. 163-192). Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boendesegregation, bakgrund och barnfattigdom
2013 (Swedish)In: Om barnfattigdom: Ett problem med många ansikten / [ed] Daniel Rauhut, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 163-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013
Keywords
Child poverty, segregation, neighbourhoods, integration, Barnfattigdom, segregation, grannskap, integration
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-30073 (URN)9789144079837 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-11-21 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2013-12-11Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, B., Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2013). The Neighbourhood Can Have Strong Effects on Social Assistance Receipt: The Case of Young Adults in Metropolitan Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at IZA/OECD/World Bank Conference on Safety Nets and Benefit Dependence: Evidence and Policy Implications. May 21-22 2013, Paris.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Neighbourhood Can Have Strong Effects on Social Assistance Receipt: The Case of Young Adults in Metropolitan Sweden
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using large samples of persons born in 1985 we investigate the relationship between theneighbourhood where young people grew up and the probability that they will receive socialassistance when aged 19 to 21, for the three Swedish metropolitan regions - Stockholm,Gothenburg and Malmö. We also investigate to what extent use of social assistance receiptand other parental characteristics affect the probability of social assistance receipt as a youngadult. Logistic regressions are estimated for the majority population and “visible minorities”.A main result is that the rate of social assistance receipt in the neighbourhood has a sizableeffect on the probability of receiving social assistance as a young adult. We discuss severalpossible explanations for this. We also find that the probability of receiving social assistanceis negatively correlated with having completed secondary school and positively correlatedwith having become a young mother. The probability of social assistance receipt is stronglypositively linked to social assistance receipt in the parental home and negatively linked toincome in the parental home. Having parents with long educations decreases the probabilityof receipt for the majority population while among “visible minorities” it does not thoughreceipt decreases by year since immigration.

Keywords
Neighbourhood, Social Assistence, Sweden, Immigrants
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27080 (URN)
Conference
IZA/OECD/World Bank Conference on Safety Nets and Benefit Dependence: Evidence and Policy Implications. May 21-22 2013, Paris
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2013). Unga invandrare: Utbildning, löner och utbildningsavkastning. Uppsala: IFAU Uppsala
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga invandrare: Utbildning, löner och utbildningsavkastning
2013 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

idigare forskning har påvisat diskriminering av invandrare vid anställning, att invandrare har lägre löner än jämförbara infödda och att högutbildade invandrare oftare än infödda har arbeten som inte kräver högre utbildning. Vi undersöker om detta gäller även för invandrare som kommit till Sverige som barn och alltså har fått sin högsta utbildning i Sverige. Vi finner att de trots detta har lägre lön och lägre utbildningsavkastning än anställda med Sverige­födda föräldrar. I båda dessa avseenden missgynnas i synnerhet de från Afrika, Asien och Latinamerika. Barn från “arbetskraftsinvandringsländer” som Turkiet och Sydeuropa har också lägre lön än jämförbara infödda men inte lägre utbildningsavkastning. Att ha högre utbildning än yrket normalt kräver är vanligare bland barndomsinvandrarna än bland infödda men har mindre betydelse för löneskillnaden än den låga utbildningsavkastningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: IFAU Uppsala, 2013
Series
IFAU Rapport, ISSN 1651-1158 ; 2013:6
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27083 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2013). Wages of Childhood Immigrants in Sweden: Education, Returns to Education and Overeducation. IFAU Uppsala
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wages of Childhood Immigrants in Sweden: Education, Returns to Education and Overeducation
2013 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We analyse full-time monthly wages of employees with parents born in Sweden and of childhood immigrants who arrived before the end of compulsory school-age. We use a detailed disaggregation of background countries, which shows considerable hetero­geneity, in overeducation, in returns to education and in birth-country coefficients, unexplained by wage models. Both the non-European childhood immigrants and of those from Southern Europe suffer a wage disadvantage relative to natives, men to a larger extent than women. Returns to education are generally lower for non-European childhood immigrants than for natives. Comparison with workers, who immigrated as adults, shows that the childhood immigrants of most nationalities run lower risk of being overeducated and have a smaller wage disadvantage. The child/adult immigrant difference is larger, the larger the disadvantage of the adult immigrants from a country of origin. But for male childhood immigrants from some of the labour transmitter countries, the risk of overeducation is larger than it is for adult immigrants and the difference in adjusted wages between childhood immigrants and adult immigrants also tends to be smaller than for other countries of origin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IFAU Uppsala, 2013
Series
IFAU Working Paper ; 2013:8
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27084 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
Katz, K. & Österberg, T. (2013). Wages of Childhood Immigrants in Sweden: Education, Returns to Education and Overeducation. In: : . Paper presented at the 4th Norface Migration Network Conference on Migration. April 10-13 2013. University College, London.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wages of Childhood Immigrants in Sweden: Education, Returns to Education and Overeducation
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We analyse full-time monthly wages of employees with parents born in Sweden and of childhood immigrants who arrived before the end of compulsory school-age. We use a detailed disaggregation of background countries, which shows considerable hetero­geneity, in overeducation, in returns to education and in birth-country coefficients, unexplained by wage models. Both the non-European childhood immigrants and of those from Southern Europe suffer a wage disadvantage relative to natives, men to a larger extent than women. Returns to education are generally lower for non-European childhood immigrants than for natives. Comparison with workers, who immigrated as adults, shows that the childhood immigrants of most nationalities run lower risk of being overeducated and have a smaller wage disadvantage. The child/adult immigrant difference is larger, the larger the disadvantage of the adult immigrants from a country of origin. But for male childhood immigrants from some of the labour transmitter countries, the risk of overeducation is larger than it is for adult immigrants and the difference in adjusted wages between childhood immigrants and adult immigrants also tends to be smaller than for other countries of origin.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27072 (URN)
Conference
the 4th Norface Migration Network Conference on Migration. April 10-13 2013. University College, London
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
Katz, K. (2010). Wages in Transition: Gender differentials in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. In: : . Paper presented at 18th World Congress og International Council for Central and East European Studies. Stockholm 26-31 July 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wages in Transition: Gender differentials in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27025 (URN)
Conference
18th World Congress og International Council for Central and East European Studies. Stockholm 26-31 July 2010
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
Katz, K. (2008). Household specialisation and gender equality in transition: Paid and unpaid work of women and men in Soviet and post-Soviet Taganrog. Göteborg: Working papers in economics / Department of Economics, Göteborg University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household specialisation and gender equality in transition: Paid and unpaid work of women and men in Soviet and post-Soviet Taganrog
2008 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using unique survey data from the Russian industrial city Taganrog in 1989 and 1998, we analyse changes in the gender division of labour among gainfully employed women and men, pre- and post-transition. In Soviet Taganrog, dual earner families predominated, but nevertheless men were usually primary earners, while women did the bulk of housework. After transition, contrary to early predictions, aggregate female and male employment rates have declined to a similar extent but the time-use data indicate increased gender specialisation among the employed .Thus, the dual earner norm mainly remains but the pre-existing gender difference within it has increased considerably, particularly among couples with pre-school children

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Working papers in economics / Department of Economics, Göteborg University, 2008
Keywords
Non-market work, gender division of labour, Russia
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-20021 (URN)
Note

Distrubution: http://hdl.handle.net/2077/10226

Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2014-09-10
Katz, K. (2007). Underutnyttjad utbildning och lönegapet mellan kvinnor och män. Uppsala: Rapport / Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underutnyttjad utbildning och lönegapet mellan kvinnor och män
2007 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Det är vanligare att kvinnor har en högre utbildning än vad som typiskt krävs för deras yrke (överutbildning), medan män i högre utsträckning än kvinnor har en lägre utbildning än vad som typiskt krävs för deras yrke (underutbildning). I denna studie undersöker vi i vilken utsträckning denna över- och under-utbildning påverkar könslönegapet och skillnader i utbildningsavkastning i Sverige mellan 1993 och 2002.

Resultaten visar att över- och underutbildning bidrar betydligt mer till köns-löneskillnaderna än traditionella humankapitalvariabler, som utbildningsnivå och arbetslivserfarenhet. I dekomponeringar minskar över- och underutbild-ningsvariabler könslönegapet med mellan en tiondel och en sjättedel, vilket är mellan en tredjedel och hälften av vad könssegregeringen på arbetsmarknaden förklarar. Det är med andra ord viktigt att ta hänsyn till över- och under-utbildning när könslöneskillnader analyseras. Resultatet att kvinnor har lägre avkastning på utbildning än män kvarstår dock

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Rapport / Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, 2007
Keywords
löneskillnader, könsdiskriminering, utbildningsavkastning, överutbildning
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-25177 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-22 Last updated: 2014-09-10
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1756-5705

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