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Friman, M., Rosenbaum, M. & Otterbring, T. (2019). The relationship between exchanged resources and loyalty intentions. Service Industries Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between exchanged resources and loyalty intentions
2019 (English)In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

his research aims to revive the applicability of the exchange concept in the marketing domain. The authors draw on current exchange theories to show how members of an aquatic center receive relational, social support, and restorative resources from other center members and employees. They then empirically demonstrate that members’ loyalty to the center is fueled by the resources they receive from others in the center and that their experience in the center mediates the relationship between exchanged resources and member loyalty. This research reveals that service organizations may foster person-place bonds by providing customers with resources over and above goods and services. Customers appreciate resources that transform their well-being, such as social support and natural, restorative resources, and they demonstrate loyalty to places where they can obtain therapeutic resources. From a theoretical standpoint, this work shows support for the notion that the exchange concept is a foundational aspect of a general theory of marketing and explains how the exchange and value concepts in marketing are linked together.

Keywords
Exchange concept, REPLACE framework, transformative sport service research, attention restoration theory, transformative service research
National Category
Business Administration Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71181 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2018.1561875 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Rosenbaum, M., Friman, M., Otterbring, T. & Contreras, G. (2019). The Wegman’s Effect: When a Service Organization Provides Customers with Restorative and Relational Resources. In: : . Paper presented at QUIS16 June 10-13, 2019 in Karlstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Wegman’s Effect: When a Service Organization Provides Customers with Restorative and Relational Resources
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71184 (URN)
Conference
QUIS16 June 10-13, 2019 in Karlstad, Sweden
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. & Lu, C. (2018). Clothes, condoms, and customer satisfaction: The effect of employee mere presence on customer satisfaction depends on the shopping situation. Psychology & Marketing, 35(6), 454-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clothes, condoms, and customer satisfaction: The effect of employee mere presence on customer satisfaction depends on the shopping situation
2018 (English)In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies have examined how customers respond to the mere presence of others in the shopping environment, and only one article (Söderlund, 2017) has investigated the unique impact that employee presence has on key customer outcomes. Söderlund (2017) found that customers entering a store with an employee present (vs. absent) reported significantly higher levels of customer satisfaction, with their increased levels of pleasurable feelings mediating this effect. However, similar to the majority of theorizing on customer satisfaction, that article was restricted to data collected in a Western society. Given the rapid economic growth in many Asian regions, there is a need to examine the applicability of such Western-based findings from an Asian perspective, and hence include participants from Eastern societies. Accordingly, the present research investigated whether Söderlund's (2017) results could be replicated among Asian customers. The current work also sought to extend prior findings beyond pleasure and customer satisfaction while simultaneously documenting a boundary condition for the hitherto positive employee mere presence effects. To this end, two between-subjects experiments with a total sample of 498 Chinese customers were conducted. Study 1, which involved a shopping situation in a clothing store, replicated Söderlund's (2017) main results and further found that employee mere presence (vs. absence) had a significant positive impact on customers' loyalty intentions. These results were reversed in Study 2, in which the shopping situation involved the purchase of an embarrassing product. Under such circumstances, employee presence (vs. absence) consistently produced negative effects on customers' levels of pleasure, satisfaction, and loyalty intentions.

Keywords
customer satisfaction; embarrassment; employee presence, loyalty, pleasure, purchase intentions, word-of-mouth
National Category
Business Administration Applied Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67367 (URN)10.1002/mar.21098 (DOI)000432032200006 ()
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. & Mitkidis, P. (2018). Commentary: Folk-Economic Beliefs: An Evolutionary Cognitive Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commentary: Folk-Economic Beliefs: An Evolutionary Cognitive Model
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69010 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01120 (DOI)000436476000001 ()29997560 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. (2018). Decompression zone deconstructed: Products located at the store entrance do have an impact on sales. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 46(11-12), 1108-1116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decompression zone deconstructed: Products located at the store entrance do have an impact on sales
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1108-1116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Researchers have hypothesized that products located at the decompression zone of a store (the entrance area where customers adjust to the retail environment) do not influence sales of these particular products, because customers do not register things that are too close to store entrances. The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of such a decompression zone account in actual field settings, and hence investigate whether or not placing products at the store entrance would increase customers’ likelihood to purchase these products. Design/methodology/approach: Two field studies with a total sample of 715 customers were conducted, in which the entrance area of a home goods store was manipulated using a two-group quasi-experimental design. In Study 1, customers were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance. In Study 2, an employee greeted customers at the store entrance with (vs without) the store’s products nearby. Findings: Study 1 found that customers who were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance purchased a significantly larger number of both these products. Study 2 replicated and generalized these findings. Although customers in the employee + products condition spent less money than customers in the employee-alone condition, the former group still purchased a significantly larger number of candles and candle holders. These findings go directly against a decompression zone account, but are consistent with research on exposure effects. Originality/value: This paper is the first to empirically examine the validity of the decompression zone account in real retail settings. The paper also fills a more general gap in the store atmospherics literature, as only a very limited number of studies have dealt with the external parts of the retail environment, such as the store entrance area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Atmospherics, Decompression zone, Exposure effects, External variables, Field study, Store entrance
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70362 (URN)10.1108/IJRDM-03-2017-0053 (DOI)000450812100007 ()2-s2.0-85056194742 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. (2018). Healthy or wealthy?: Attractive individuals induce sex-specific food preferences. Paper presented at 7th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, SEP 11-14, 2016, Dijon, FRANCE. Food Quality and Preference, 70, 11-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthy or wealthy?: Attractive individuals induce sex-specific food preferences
2018 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 70, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research shows that the mere presence of others and their physical appearance can influence people's meal choices and food intake. Studies also suggest that such effects are sex-specific and depend on whether the eating occasion includes same-sex or opposite-sex individuals. In five experiments (N = 530; 49% female), the author investigates whether mate attraction, induced by exposure to attractive opposite-sex individuals, has a differential effect on the foods and beverages that men and women prefer to consume. The results revealed that prior exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) men decreased women's willingness to spend money on unhealthy foods, and increased their inclination to spend money on healthy foods. Restrained eating moderated this effect, which means that women who scored high (versus low) on restrained eating were particularly motivated to spend money on healthy foods after exposure to an attractive male individual. On the contrary, exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) women did not influence men's consumption preferences for healthy or unhealthy foods. However, men were more motivated to spend money on expensive drinking and dining options after exposure to an attractive female individual, and their desire to display status mediated this effect. Importantly, none of these effects occurred after exposure to attractive same-sex individuals, which provides converging evidence that mate attraction is the fundamental motive underlying these findings. Taken together, this research reveals how, why, and when appearance-induced mate attraction leads to sex-specific consumption preferences for various foods and beverages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Attractiveness, Sex differences, Food consumption, Food preferences, Mate attraction, Evolutionary psychology
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69033 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.02.014 (DOI)000436914200002 ()
Conference
7th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, SEP 11-14, 2016, Dijon, FRANCE
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Piha, S., Pohjanheimo, T., Lahteenmaki-Uutela, A., Kreckova, Z. & Otterbring, T. (2018). The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe. Paper presented at 7th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, SEP 11-14, 2016, Dijon, FRANCE. Food Quality and Preference, 70, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe
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2018 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 70, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This exploratory study investigates how consumer knowledge influences willingness to buy (WTB) insect food products. A comparative approach between Northern and Central Europe is adopted to explore whether consumer knowledge has different effects on WTB across cultural areas in Europe. The study analyses consumer survey data collected in Finland, Sweden, Germany, and the Czech Republic (N = 887) with structural equation modelling and multi-group models. The results suggest that the effects of distinct types of knowledge and food neophobia on WTB are mainly indirect and mediated by general attitudes, with these effects differing significantly between Northern and Central Europe. In Northern Europe, the consumers' objective and subjective knowledge of insect food predict WTB as much as previous product-related experiences and food neophobia. In Central Europe, product-related experiences and food neophobia are superior predictors to subjective and objective knowledge. Moreover, consumers in Northern Europe generally have a more positive attitude towards insect food than consumers in Central Europe. Possible explanations for the regional differences are discussed, and implications are suggested on how the region-specific features should be regarded when developing consumer education and promotion strategies for insect food.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Insect food, Subjective knowledge, Objective knowledge, Product-related experiences, Willingness to buy, Food neophobia
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69032 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.12.006 (DOI)000436914200001 ()
Conference
7th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, SEP 11-14, 2016, Dijon, FRANCE
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Pareigis, J., Wästlund, E., Makrygiannis, A. & Lindstrom, A. (2018). The relationship between office type and job satisfaction: Testing a multiple mediation model through ease of interaction and well-being. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 44(3), 330-334
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between office type and job satisfaction: Testing a multiple mediation model through ease of interaction and well-being
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 330-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between office type (cellular, shared-room, small open-plan, and medium-sized open-plan) and employees' ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective well-being, and job satisfaction. Methods A brief survey including measures of office type, ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective wellbeing, and job satisfaction was sent electronically to 1500 Swedish real-estate agents, 271 of whom returned usable surveys. The data were analyzed using a regression-based serial multiple mediation model (PROCESS Model 6), which tested whether the relationship between office type and job satisfaction would be mediated by ease of interaction and, in turn, subjective well-being. Results A negative relationship was found between the number of coworkers sharing an office and employees' job satisfaction. This association was serially mediated by ease of interaction with coworkers and subjective well-being, with employees working in small and medium-sized open-plan offices reporting lower levels of both these aspects than employees who work in either cellular or shared-room offices. Conclusions Open-plan offices may have short-term financial benefits, but these benefits may be lower than the costs associated with decreased job satisfaction and well-being. Therefore, decision-makers should consider the impact of office type on employees rather than focusing solely on cost-effective office layout, flexibility, and productivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsingfors, Finland: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL WORK ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH, 2018
Keywords
cellular office, open office, open-plan office, productivity, shared-room office, subjective well-being
National Category
Architectural Engineering Work Sciences Business Administration Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Business Administration; Working Life Science; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67360 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3707 (DOI)000431142500013 ()29334117 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. (2017). Smile for a while: The effect of employee-displayed smiling on customer affect and satisfaction. Journal of Service Management, 28(2), 284-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smile for a while: The effect of employee-displayed smiling on customer affect and satisfaction
2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 284-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers' affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure. Design/methodology/approach - The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction. Findings - A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter. Practical implications - Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic. Originality/value - This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers' affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
Keywords
Affect, Customer satisfaction, Emotional contagion, Feelings-as-information, Field study, Smiling
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65528 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-11-2015-0372 (DOI)000401069200005 ()
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Wastlund, E. & Gustafsson, A. (2016). Eye-tracking customers' visual attention in the wild: Dynamic gaze behavior moderates the effect of store familiarity on navigational fluency. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 165-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eye-tracking customers' visual attention in the wild: Dynamic gaze behavior moderates the effect of store familiarity on navigational fluency
2016 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 28, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A retail store is a multi-sensory environment filled with messages to tempt customers into making unplanned purchases. The purpose of this field study was to examine the interplay between three factors claimed to precede and influence unplanned purchases: store familiarity, visual attention, and navigational fluency (the subjective ease of navigating). Eye-tracking recordings and post-study questionnaires from 100 grocery store shoppers showed that store familiarity was positively associated with navigational fluency. However, customers' levels of dynamic gaze behavior (a frequent, widely distributed viewing pattern) moderated this effect. Dynamic gaze behavior significantly predicted navigational fluency among customers with low and moderate store familiarity, but not among customers familiar with the store. These findings challenge the formerly held assumption that store familiarity automatically implies navigational ease, and store unfamiliarity implies navigational difficulty. The results have implications for navigational aspects in stores. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Eye tracking, Visual attention, Navigation, Navigational fluency, Store familiarity, Field study
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41199 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.09.004 (DOI)000370753500017 ()
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0283-8777

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