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Santos, R., Koslowski, K., Daube, J., Ghazzai, H., Kassler, A., Sakaguchi, K. & Haustein, T. (2019). mmWave Backhaul Testbed Configurability Using Software-Defined Networking. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, 1-24, Article ID 8342167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>mmWave Backhaul Testbed Configurability Using Software-Defined Networking
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2019 (English)In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, p. 1-24, article id 8342167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future mobile data traffic predictions expect a significant increase in user data traffic, requiring new forms of mobile network infrastructures. Fifth generation (5G) communication standards propose the densification of small cell access base stations (BSs) in order to provide multigigabit and low latency connectivity. This densification requires a high capacity backhaul network. Using optical links to connect all the small cells is economically not feasible for large scale radio access networks where multiple BSs are deployed. A wireless backhaul formed by a mesh of millimeter-wave (mmWave) links is an attractive mobile backhaul solution, as flexible wireless (multihop) paths can be formed to interconnect all the access BSs. Moreover, a wireless backhaul allows the dynamic reconfiguration of the backhaul topology to match varying traffic demands or adaptively power on/off small cells for green backhaul operation. However, conducting and precisely controlling reconfiguration experiments over real mmWave multihop networks is a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based approach to enable such a dynamic backhaul reconfiguration and use real-world mmWave equipment to setup a SDN-enabled mmWave testbed to conduct various reconfiguration experiments. In our approach, the SDN control plane is not only responsible for configuring the forwarding plane but also for the link configuration, antenna alignment, and adaptive mesh node power on/off operations. We implement the SDN-based reconfiguration operations in a testbed with four nodes, each equipped with multiple mmWave interfaces that can be mechanically steered to connect to different neighbors. We evaluate the impact of various reconfiguration operations on existing user traffic using a set of extensive testbed measurements. Moreover, we measure the impact of the channel assignment on existing traffic, showing that a setup with an optimal channel assignment between the mesh links can result in a 44% throughput increase, when compared to a suboptimal configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2019
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71786 (URN)10.1155/2019/8342167 (DOI)000465345700001 ()
Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Alizadeh Noghani, K., Ghazzai, H. & Kassler, A. (2018). A Generic Framework for Task Offloading in mmWave MEC Backhaul Networks. In: 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 9-13 dec (pp. 1-7).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generic Framework for Task Offloading in mmWave MEC Backhaul Networks
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2018, p. 1-7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the emergence of millimeter-Wave (mmWave) communication technology, the capacity of mobile backhaul networks can be significantly increased. On the other hand, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) provides an appropriate infrastructure to offload latency-sensitive tasks. However, the amount of resources in MEC servers is typically limited. Therefore, it is important to intelligently manage the MEC task offloading by optimizing the backhaul bandwidth and edge server resource allocation in order to decrease the overall latency of the offloaded tasks. This paper investigates the task allocation problem in MEC environment, where the mmWave technology is used in the backhaul network. We formulate a Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming (MINLP) problem with the goal to minimize the total task serving time. Its objective is to determine an optimized network topology, identify which server is used to process a given offloaded task, find the path of each user task, and determine the allocated bandwidth to each task on mmWave backhaul links. Because the problem is difficult to solve, we develop a two-step approach. First, a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) determining the network topology and the routing paths is optimally solved. Then, the fractions of bandwidth allocated to each user task are optimized by solving a quasi-convex problem. Numerical results illustrate the obtained topology and routing paths for selected scenarios and show that optimizing the bandwidth allocation significantly improves the total serving time, particularly for bandwidth-intensive tasks.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71436 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2018.8647559 (DOI)000465774302096 ()978-1-5386-4727-1 (ISBN)978-1-5386-6976-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 9-13 dec
Projects
Socra, 4840
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Marotta, A., Avallone, S. & Kassler, A. (2018). A Joint Power Efficient Server and Network Consolidation approach for virtualized data centers. Computer Networks, 130, 65-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Joint Power Efficient Server and Network Consolidation approach for virtualized data centers
2018 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 130, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cloud computing and virtualization are enabling technologies for designing energy-aware resource management mechanisms in virtualized data centers. Indeed, one of the main challenges of big data centers is to decrease the power consumption, both to cut costs and to reduce the environmental impact. To this extent, Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation is often used to smartly reallocate the VMs with the objective of reducing the power consumption, by exploiting the VM live migration. The consolidation problem consists in finding the set of migrations that allow to keep turned on the minimum number of servers needed to host all the VMs. However, most of the proposed consolidation approaches do not consider the network related consumption, which represents about 10–20% of the total energy consumed by IT equipment in real data centers. This paper proposes a novel joint server and network consolidation model that takes into account the power efficiency of both the switches forwarding the traffic and the servers hosting the VMs. It powers down switch ports and routes traffic along the most energy efficient path towards the least energy consuming server under QoS constraints. Since the model is complex, a fast Simulated Annealing based Resource Consolidation algorithm (SARC) is proposed. Our numerical results demonstrate that our approach is able to save on average 50% of the network related power consumption compared to a network unaware consolidation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Cloud, Virtualization, Power, Green computing, Simulated annealing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65324 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2017.11.003 (DOI)
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Gokan Khan, M., Taheri, J., Kassler, A. & Darula, M. (2018). Automated Analysis and Profiling of VirtualNetwork Functions: the NFV-Inspector Approach. In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN): . Paper presented at IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtulization and Software defined Networks, Verona, Italy, 27-29 November 2018. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Analysis and Profiling of VirtualNetwork Functions: the NFV-Inspector Approach
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Discovering insights about Virtual Network Function (VNFs) resource demand characteristics will enable cloud vendors to optimize their underlying Network Function Virtualization (NFV) system orchestration and dramatically mitigate CapEx and OpEx spendings. However, analyzing large-scale NFV systems, especially in mobile network environments, is a challenging task and requires tailor-made approaches for each particular application. In this demo, we showcase NFV-Inspector, an open source and extensible VNF analysis platform that is capable of systematically benchmark and profile NFV deployments. Based on its pluggable framework, NFV-Inspector classifies VNFs resource demand characteristics and correlate their Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) with system-level Quality of Service (QoS) measurements. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Classification, Network Function Virtualization, Platform, Profiling, Quality of Service
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71388 (URN)10.1109/NFV-SDN.2018.8725697 (DOI)000475896900023 ()978-1-5386-8281-4 (ISBN)978-1-5386-8282-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtulization and Software defined Networks, Verona, Italy, 27-29 November 2018
Projects
NFV Optimizer, 5276
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160182
Note

Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Tran, G. K., Santos, R., Ogawa, H., Nakamura, M., Sakaguchi, K. & Kassler, A. (2018). Context-based dynamic meshed backhaul construction for 5G heterogeneous networks. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 7(4), Article ID 43.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context-based dynamic meshed backhaul construction for 5G heterogeneous networks
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Five-G heterogeneous network overlaid by millimeter-wave (mmWave) access employs mmWave meshed backhauling as a promising cost-efficient backhaul architecture. Due to the nature of mobile traffic distribution in practice which is both time-variant and spatially non-uniform, dynamic construction of mmWave meshed backhaul is a prerequisite to support the varying traffic distribution. Focusing on such scenario of outdoor dynamic crowd (ODC), this paper proposes a novel method to control mmWave meshed backhaul for efficient operation of mmWave overlay 5G HetNet through Software-Defined Network (SDN) technology. Our algorithm is featured by two functionalities, i.e., backhauling route multiplexing for overloaded mmWave small cell base stations (SC-BSS) and mmWave SC-BSS' ON/OFF status switching for underloaded spot. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed meshed network is confirmed by both numerical analyses and experimental results. Simulations are conducted over a practical user distribution modeled from measured data in realistic environments. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can cope with the locally intensive traffic and reduce energy consumption. Furthermore, a WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance certified) device based testbed is developed for Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and preliminary measurement results confirm the proposed dynamic formation of the meshed network's efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2018
Keywords
5G heterogeneous network, Dynamic construction, Experimental validation, Meshed backhaul, Mmwave, Numerical analysis, Outdoor dynamic crowd, SDN, Testbed
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70358 (URN)10.3390/jsan7040043 (DOI)000455415600002 ()2-s2.0-85056267796 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Alizadeh Noghani, K., Kassler, A. & Sankar Gopannan, P. (2018). EVPN/SDN Assisted Live VM Migration between Geo-Distributed Data Centers. In: 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft): . Paper presented at 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization and Workshops (NetSoft), Montreal, Canada, June 25-29, 2018. (pp. 105-113).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EVPN/SDN Assisted Live VM Migration between Geo-Distributed Data Centers
2018 (English)In: 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft), 2018, p. 105-113Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Live Virtual Machine (VM) migration has significantly improved the flexibility of modern Data Centers (DC). However, seamless live migration of a VM between geo-distributed DCs faces several challenges due to difficulties in preserving the network configuration after the migration paired with a large network convergence time. Although SDN-based approaches can speed up network convergence time, these techniques have two limitations. First, they typically react to the new topology by installing new flow rules once the migration is finished. Second, because the WAN is typically not under SDN control, they result in sub-optimal routing thus severely degrading the network performance once the VM is attached at the new location.

In this paper, we identify networking challenges for VM migration across geo-distributed DCs. Based on those observations, we design a novel long-haul VM migration scheme that overcomes those limitations. First, instead of reactively restoring connectivity after the migration, our SDN-based approach proactively restores flows across the WAN towards the new location with the help of EVPN and VXLAN overlay technologies. Second, the SDN controller accelerates the network convergence by announcing the migration to other controllers using MP-BGP control plane messages. Finally, the SDN controller resolves the sub-optimal routing problem that arises as a result of migration implementing a distributed anycast gateway. We implement our approach as extensions to the OpenDaylight controller. Our evaluation shows that our approach outperforms existing approaches in reducing the downtime by 400 ms and increasing the application performance up to 12 times.

Keywords
Data Center, Ethernet VPN, Software Defined Networks, Distributed Gateway, VM Migration
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70164 (URN)10.1109/NETSOFT.2018.8459946 (DOI)000455125000012 ()978-1-5386-4633-5 (ISBN)
Conference
4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization and Workshops (NetSoft), Montreal, Canada, June 25-29, 2018.
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Vestin, J., Kassler, A. & Akerberg, J. (2018). FastReact: In-Network Control And Caching For Industrial Control Networks Using Programmable Data Planes. In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA): . Paper presented at 23rd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), SEP 04-07, 2018, Politecnico Torino, Torino, ITALY (pp. 219-226).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FastReact: In-Network Control And Caching For Industrial Control Networks Using Programmable Data Planes
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), 2018, p. 219-226Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Providing network reliability as well as low and predictable latency is important especially for Industrial Automation and Control Networks. However, diagnosing link status from the control plane has high latency and overhead. In addition, the communication with the industrial controller may impose additional network latency. We present FastReact - a system enabling In-Network monitoring, control and caching for Industrial Automation and Control Networks. FastReact outsources simple monitoring and control actions to evolving programmable data planes using the P4 language. As instructed by the Industrial Controller through a Northbound API, the SDN controller composes control actions using Boolean Logic which are then installed in the data plane. The data plane parses and caches sensor values and performs simple calculations on them which are connected to fast control actions that are executed locally. For resiliency, FastReact monitors liveness and response of sensors/actuators and performs a fast local link repair in the data plane if a link failure is detected. Our testbed measurement show that FastReact can reduce the sensor/actuator delay while being resilient against several failure events.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation-ETFA, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70292 (URN)000449334500026 ()978-1-5386-7108-5 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), SEP 04-07, 2018, Politecnico Torino, Torino, ITALY
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Pieskä, M., Kassler, A., Lundqvist, H. & Cai, T. (2018). Improving TCP Fairness over Latency Controlled 5G mmWave Communication Links. In: WSA 2018; 22nd International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas: . Paper presented at WSA 2018; 22nd International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 14 June, 2018 Bochum, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving TCP Fairness over Latency Controlled 5G mmWave Communication Links
2018 (English)In: WSA 2018; 22nd International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase the capacity of 5G networks, using mmWave band communication links both for access and backhaul are an important alternative due to the large spectrum portion available at those frequency bands. However, mmWave bands exhibit special propagation characteristics which require the usage of highly directional and beam-steerable antennas in order to cope with the significantly higher path loss. Using such links in urban scenarios may lead to frequent blocking events due to moving pedestrians or cars, which may result in the links dynamically changing their characteristics from Line-of-Sight (LOS) to Non Line-of- Sight (NLOS) or outage (OUT). Due to the immediate significant variation in available capacity when changing the link states, TCP connections may experience rapid spikes in end-to-end latency and severe bufferbloat may build up. Although bufferbloat solutions such as CoDel can be deployed to control the delay, they significantly impact capacity and fairness between different TCP flows sharing the same mmWave link. In this paper, we study this fairness issue when running multiple TCP connections over fluctuating mmWave links and deploying AQM schemes to control the latency. We study the effect of length and severity of the NLOS episode upon fairness and latency. Finally, we develop an algorithm that tunes the AQM parameters in order to increase fairness across flows having different RTTs while at the same time reduce their latency.

National Category
Computer Sciences Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71477 (URN)978-3-8007-4541-8 (ISBN)
Conference
WSA 2018; 22nd International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 14 June, 2018 Bochum, Germany
Projects
Socra, 4840
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Cardellini, V., Galinac Grbac, T., Kassler, A., Kathiravelu, P., Lo Presti, F., Marotta, A., . . . Luís, V. (2018). Integrating SDN and NFV with QoS-Aware Service Composition Cardellini (1ed.). In: Ivan Ganchev, Robert D. van der Mei and J.L. van den Berg (Ed.), Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services: Methods, Models, Approaches, Techniques, Algorithms, and Tools (pp. 212-240). Cham, Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating SDN and NFV with QoS-Aware Service Composition Cardellini
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2018 (English)In: Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services: Methods, Models, Approaches, Techniques, Algorithms, and Tools / [ed] Ivan Ganchev, Robert D. van der Mei and J.L. van den Berg, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 212-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traditional networks are transformed to enable full integrationof heterogeneous hardware and software functions, that are configuredat runtime, with minimal time to market, and are provided to theirend users on “as a service” principle. Therefore, a countless number ofpossibilities for further innovation and exploitation opens up. NetworkFunction Virtualization (NFV) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN)are two key enablers for such a new flexible, scalable, and service-orientednetwork architecture. This chapter provides an overview of QoS-awarestrategies that can be used over the levels of the network abstractionaiming to fully exploit the new network opportunities. Specifically, wepresent three use cases of integrating SDN and NFV with QoS-awareservice composition, ranging from the energy efficient placement of virtualnetwork functions inside modern data centers, to the deployment ofdata stream processing applications using SDN to control the networkpaths, to exploiting SDN for context-aware service compositions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Computer Communications Networks and Telecommunications ; 10768
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67474 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-90415-3 (DOI)978-3-319-90415-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-90414-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-07-13Bibliographically approved
Hernandez Benet, C., Kassler, A., Benson, T. & Pongracz, G. (2018). MP-HULA: Multipath transport aware load balancing using programmable data planes. In: NetCompute 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 Morning Workshop on In-Network Computing, Part of SIGCOMM 2018: . Paper presented at ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on In-Network Computing, NetCompute 2018, 20 August 2018 (pp. 7-13). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MP-HULA: Multipath transport aware load balancing using programmable data planes
2018 (English)In: NetCompute 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 Morning Workshop on In-Network Computing, Part of SIGCOMM 2018, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, p. 7-13Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Datacenter networks ofer a large degree of multipath in order to provide large bisectional bandwidth. The end-to-end performance is determined by the load-balancing strategy which needs to be designed to efectively manage congestion. Consequently, congestion aware load-balancing strategies such as CONGA or HULA have been designed. Recently, more and more applications that are hosted on cloud servers use multipath transport protocols such as MPTCP. However, in the presence of MPTCP, existing load-balancing schemes including ECMP, HULA or CONGA may lead to suboptimal forwarding decisions where multiple MPTCP subfows of one connection are pinned on the same bottleneck link. In this paper, we present MP-HULA, a transport layer multi-path aware load-balancing scheme using Programmable Data Planes. First, instead of tracking congestion information for the best path towards the destination, each MP-HULA switch tracks congestion information for the best-k paths to a destination through the neighbor switches. Second, we design MP-HULA using Programmable Data Planes, where each leaf switch can identify, using P4, which MPTCP subfow belongs to which connection. MP-HULA then load-balances diferent MPTCP subfows of a MPTCP connection on diferent next hops considering congestion state while aggregating bandwidth. Our evaluation shows that MP-HULA with MPTCP outperforms HULA in average flow completion time (2.1x at 50% load, 1.7x at 80% load).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2018
Keywords
In-network load balancing, Multipath, Network congestion, Programmable switches, Bandwidth, End-to-end performance, In networks, Load balancing strategy, Load-balancing schemes, Multipath transport protocols, Network congestions, Traffic congestion
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70360 (URN)10.1145/3229591.3229596 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056382917 (Scopus ID)9781450359085 (ISBN)978-1-4503-5908-5 (ISBN)
Conference
ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on In-Network Computing, NetCompute 2018, 20 August 2018
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9446-8143

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