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Strandmark K, MargarethaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9021-3426
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Publications (10 of 50) Show all publications
Eriksson, A., Orvik, A., Strandmark K, M., Nordsteien, A. & Torp, S. (2017). Management and leadership approaches to health promotion and sustainable workplaces: A scoping review. Societies, 7(2), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management and leadership approaches to health promotion and sustainable workplaces: A scoping review
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2017 (English)In: Societies, ISSN 1090-9389, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whole-system approaches linking workplace health promotion to the development of a sustainable working life have been advocated. The aim of this scoping review was to map out if and how whole-system approaches to workplace health promotion with a focus on management, leadership, and economic efficiency have been used in Nordic health promotion research. In addition, we wanted to investigate, in depth, if and how management and/or leadership approaches related to sustainable workplaces are addressed. Eighty-three articles were included in an analysis of the studies' aims and content, research design, and country. For a further in-depth qualitative content analysis we excluded 63 articles in which management and/or leadership were only one of several factors studied. In the in-depth analysis of the 20 remaining studies, four main categories connected to sustainable workplaces emerged: studies including a whole system understanding; studies examining success factors for the implementation of workplace health promotion; studies using sustainability for framing the study; and studies highlighting health risks with an explicit economic focus. Aspects of sustainability were, in most articles, only included for framing the importance of the studies, and only few studies addressed aspects of sustainable workplaces from the perspective of a whole-system approach. Implications from this scoping review are that future Nordic workplace health promotion research needs to integrate health promotion and economic efficiency to a greater extent, in order to contribute to societal effectiveness and sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2017
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65682 (URN)10.3390/soc7020014 (DOI)000404639200011 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Strandmark, M. (2015). Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 43, 61-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. Aim: A description and comparison of these methods. Results: Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. Conclusions: There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
education; grounded theory; history; human; medical research; philosophy; procedures; public health; qualitative research; Scandinavia; school, Biomedical Research; Grounded Theory; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Philosophy; Public Health; Qualitative Research; Scandinavian and Nordic Countries; Schools, Public Health
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Research subject
Biomedical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42443 (URN)10.1177/1403494814568598 (DOI)000360414100013 ()26311801 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84940392052 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
Strandmark K, M. & Rahm, G. (2014). Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42, 66-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. Methods: The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Results: Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. Conclusions: The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
Awareness, bullying, collaboration, conflict management, humanistic values, intervention, setting, workplace bullying, workplace roles
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41491 (URN)10.1177/1403494814549494 (DOI)000345467900010 ()25416576 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hjalmarson, H. V., Åhgren, B. & Strandmark K, M. (2013). Developing interprofessional collaboration: a case of secondary prevention for patients with osteoporosis. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(2), 161-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing interprofessional collaboration: a case of secondary prevention for patients with osteoporosis
2013 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 161-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore the development of interprofessional collaboration aiming to improve secondary prevention of osteoporosis by studying this topic expansively from the perspectives of different stakeholders. The method used was a longitudinal single case study with both qualitative and quantitative data sources. The findings elucidate that the bottom-up structure used triggers a freedom to act for the professionals and a changed leadership. Such an approach seems to make managers aware of the need for a horizontal organizational focus that, in this case, was crucial for developing interprofessional collaboration. Furthermore, the study shows that continuous feedback was central to motivate professionals to collaborate. Constructive feedback was created by interprofessional and patient-centered interaction skills, facilitated by confirming leadership promoting ability to recognize the efficacy of joint collaboration. The interprofessional collaboration resulted in an improved chain of care with increased transparency and collective control with benefits for both patients and providers. Outcomes at the system level showed an appreciable increase in patients investigated for osteoporosis: 88% were followed up in primary care and nearly half had improved their health behavior. The implementation of a bottom-up structure where leaders and professionals are developing interdependency, measuring collective performance and using feedback loops generated, in this case, motivational forces for interprofessional collaboration. It is reasonable to assume that these findings could be transferable to similar healthcare settings. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13561820.2012.724123?prevSearch=allfield%253A%2528Hjalmarson%2529&searchHistoryKey=

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
interprofessional collaboration, osteoporosis, secondary prevention, bottom-up
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-12552 (URN)10.3109/13561820.2012.724123 (DOI)000315410900009 ()23043549 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-03-27 Created: 2012-03-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hjalmarson, H. V., Strandmark K, M. & Ahgren, B. (2013). Developing interprofessional collaboration: a longitudinal case of secondary prevention for patients with osteoporosis. In: Haglund and Fosse (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 7th Nordic Health Promotion Conference (NHPC)Vestfold University College 17-19 june 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing interprofessional collaboration: a longitudinal case of secondary prevention for patients with osteoporosis
2013 (English)In: / [ed] Haglund and Fosse, 2013Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore the development of interprofessional collaboration aiming to improve secondary prevention of osteoporosis by studying this topic expansively from the perspectives of different stakeholders. The method used was a longitudinal single case study with both qualitative and quantitative data sources. The findings elucidate that the bottom-up structure used triggers a freedom to act for the professionals and a changed leadership. Such an approach seems to make managers aware of the need for a horizontal organisational focus which, in this case, was crucial for developing interprofessional collaboration. Furthermore, the study shows that continuous feedback was central to motivate professionals to collaborate. Constructive feedback was created by interprofessional and patient-centered interaction skills, facilitated by confirming leadership promoting ability to recognise the efficacy of joint collaboration. The interprofessional collaboration resulted in an improved chain of care with increased transparency and collective control with benefits for both patients and providers. Outcomes at the system level showed an appreciable increase in patients investigated for osteoporosis: 88% were followed up in primary care and nearly half had improved their health behaviour. The implementation of a bottom-up structure where leaders and professionals are developing interdependency, measuring collective performance and using feedback loops generated, in this case, motivational forces for interprofessional collaboration. It is reasonable to assume that these findings could be transferable to similar health care settings.

 

Keywords: interprofessional collaboration, bottom-up approach, case study, secondary prevention and osteoporosis

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34717 (URN)
Conference
7th Nordic Health Promotion Conference (NHPC)Vestfold University College 17-19 june 2013
Note

Innehåll från presentationen härstammar från publicerad artikel

Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2013 (27) 161-170.

Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-04 Last updated: 2016-05-25Bibliographically approved
Rystedt, I., Notelaers, G., Rahm, G., Nordström, G., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark K, M. (2012). An Integrated Apporach to Identify Victims of Workplace Bullying. In: : . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment - Future Challenges, Copenhagen June 12-15, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrated Apporach to Identify Victims of Workplace Bullying
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16023 (URN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment - Future Challenges, Copenhagen June 12-15, 2012
Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Hjalmarson, H. V. & Strandmark K, M. (2012). Forming a learning culture to promote fracture prevention activities. Health Education, 112(5), 421-435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forming a learning culture to promote fracture prevention activities
2012 (English)In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 421-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach.

Design/methodology/approach – Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took place in a health-care district in a county in Sweden and involved health professionals from primary health care and orthopaedic departments.

Findings – The findings generated the core category forming a learning culture in managing to incorporate fracture prevention activities in clinical practice. In this learning culture, new forms of interaction with patients were practised and the collaboration developed between multidisciplinary teams added meaning and triggered personal and collective learning in particular about the need for breaking professional patterns, creating more empowering meetings, making the preventive links visible and constructing a greater sense of prevention within the community.

Practical implications – The findings show that learning processes through patient-centred interaction and face-to face collaboration based on the professionals' own requests and experiences can be an important motivator to promote fracture prevention activities.

Originality/value – This study provides some interprofessional elements in achieving a learning culture concerning health education and fracture prevention.

Keywords
Interprofessional collaboration, empowerment, health education, organizational culture
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-12550 (URN)10.1108/09654281211253434 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-03-27 Created: 2012-03-27 Last updated: 2016-05-25Bibliographically approved
Rahm, G., Strandmark K, M., Wilde-Larsson, B., Nordström, G. & Rystedt, I. (2012). “Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop andprevent bullying”. In: : . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop andprevent bullying”
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop and prevent bullying

Background & Context: Bullying is a public health problem that negatively affects health at workplaces. In the public sectors, including health care, it is more common with bullying problems compared to other sectors. Earlier research has primarily focused on incidence, prevalence, risk factors and relationships between bullying and ill-health.  To a much lesser degree, research has focused on prevention. The aim of this study was to develop and implement an intervention to stop and prevent bullying at workplaces in collaboration with employees.

Methodology

This intervention study is integrated in a larger research project. Based on results from questionnaires targeting bullying, three workplaces in the healthcare sector were invited to participate. After approval from superiors, employees were invited to participate in focus-groups (FG), resulting in groups of 6-8 participants at one psychiatric ward in a county council, and two elderly care wards in respective municipalities. FG interviews were conducted twice; the first interview captured views on bullying, the second interview prepared for and developed the intervention. No superior participated in the first interview in order to have employees feel free expressing their views. Instead the department head was interviewed individually. The second included both employees and department heads. The FG interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory.

Findings: The first interview revealed that the employees had insufficient knowledge about bullying and how to manage it. The second FG demonstrated that there were insufficient opportunities for reflections about bullying problems.  Employees also expressed that they did not feel recognized and valued by superiors in higher levels of the organization.

 

Given this, the researchers have, as part of the intervention, held half-day lectures on the phenomena of bullying, conflict management, communication and shame. The intervention also contained discussions in small groups focused around game-cards that were specifically designed to initiate discussions about specific situations where bullying may occur and how one may prevent or manage this.

 

In the FGs, it was furthermore suggested to write a contract that ensured that everyone treats each other with tolerance and respect at the workplace. Both interviews revealed that managers play key roles in preventing workplace bullying.  Appropriate leadership creates safety at the work-places, whereas inappropriate leadership creates fear.

Building on these findings from the FGs, next steps include plan of action, targeting e.g., compulsory, continuing discussions concerning bullying improved contact with the superior level and a workplace contract of mutual respect.

Suggestions for the action plan will be discussed in one additional FG, upon which the plan will be introduced to the directors of the workplaces for their support.

 In summary the results of the findings are a developed intervention/action program consisting of lectures, game card-discussions and an action plan in collaboration with employees and managers.

 Implications for practice, training and organization: 

Systematic longitudinal workplace interventions is one way of shouldering the responsibility of tackling bullying in workplaces, highlighting this often hidden problem.

 

 

3 learning objectives:

  • Bullying in the workplace is prevalent, and yet  not acknowledged
  • Managers play key roles in preventing workplace bullying
  • Leadership can contribute to safety as well as fear in the workplace
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29829 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Rystedt, I., Rahm, G., Notelaers, G., Nordström, G., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark, M. (2012). Work-place bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden: Perspectives on identifying and defining victims. In: : . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October 24-26, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-place bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden: Perspectives on identifying and defining victims
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Nursing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16025 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October 24-26, 2012
Note

kan inte belägga konferensen. aea

Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rahm, G., Rystedt, I., Nordström, G., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark K, M. (2012). Workplace bullying in the health and social caresystems in Sweden: A descriptive study. In: : . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying & Harassment: Future Challenges, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workplace bullying in the health and social caresystems in Sweden: A descriptive study
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract 

Workplace bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden. A descriptive study.

Aims

This study aims to map and describe the problem of bullying within the health and social care systems as a foundation for an intervention. In this presentation we will present the study and preliminary results concerning negative acts and work-place health in Sweden.   

Methods

Baseline data for this quantitative study was collected at nursing wards at five hospitals and five wards for eldercare in municipalities. Questionnaires were sent by post to 2810 employees.  Response-rate was 55% (n=1550).

Bullying was measured both with an operationalized and a self-labelling method. The instrument used in the former were The Negative Acts Questionnaire, NAQ-R, and bullying was assessed according to the operational criterion suggested  by Leyman (1996) “exposure to at least one negative act/week during six months” and a stricter criterion by Mikkelsen & Einarsen, (2001)  suggesting 2 negative acts/week during six months.  

As for the self-labelling of bullying a definition of bullying was presented and questions were asked whether the person had been bullied or had witnessed bullying the last 6 months. A further question was asked regarding previous life-time experiences of bullying.

To assess work-place environment the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at work, QPSNordic34+ was utilized. In addition a questionnaire made for this study concerning demographic information and specific workplace related questions were included.

Primarily descriptive statistics was used.

Results

Bullying measured by NAQ-R, using the operational criterion, reported results of bullying at 18,5 % (Leyman) and for the stricter criterion 6.8% (Mikkelsen & Einarsen). Four percent (4 %) reported bullying relating to the self-labelling question. A higher proportion, 22%, had witnessed bullying and an even higher proportion, 38%, reported having experienced bullying earlier in life.

 An association was shown between having been bullied earlier in life and experiencing bullying at the work-place at the present time. Also work-place environment, age, where you were born, living in a relationship, education and length of employment were, respectively, associated to more negative acts in the workplace.

Conclusion

The operationalized method yields a higher percent of bullying compared to the self-labelling method. This is also shown in earlier studies and might be due to bullying being stigmatizing and shameful and therefore difficult to express in a straight-forward way.

A significant relationship was observed between being bullied earlier in life-time and current exposure. As far as we know this represents new knowledge and should be further investigated.

National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Other Health Sciences Social Psychology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29830 (URN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying & Harassment: Future Challenges, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2018-07-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9021-3426

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