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Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Jansson, A. & Ryan Bengtsson, L. (2018). Artists out of Place: The Invalidation of Network Capital in a Small-Town Cultural Community. In: Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen (Ed.), Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds. London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artists out of Place: The Invalidation of Network Capital in a Small-Town Cultural Community
2018 (English)In: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2018
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65499 (URN)978-1-138-22152-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Nahnfeldt, C. (2018). Experiencing Gendered Work Life Dilemmas Through Virtual Reality. In: : . Paper presented at ECREA, the 7th European Communication Conference (ECC), "Centres and Peripheries: Communication, Research, Translation", October 31 - November 3, 2018, Lugano, Switzerland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiencing Gendered Work Life Dilemmas Through Virtual Reality
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the finding and learning outcomes from a practice-based exploratory study investigating how immersive experiences in Virtual Reality (VR) environments can communicate awareness of structural gender inequality. Studies within organizational change show that working with real life stories in familiar situations is more likely to make individuals understand and change their attitude towards gender inequality. However, most organizations lack time, knowledge, and experience in conducting such work. We also know that for long-term organizational change, these issues need to be addressed over time, rather as one-time events. This suggests that to boost awareness and change attitudes to gender inequality in organizations, there is a need to explore different forms of representations that can emotionally engage individuals, represent subtle everyday situations and be used over time.

 

Virtual Reality has the potential to offer engagement as they are immersive: individuals react to virtual situations and events as if they were real. Studies show that VR environments can evoke emotional responses from users even though the visual representation is not an exact copy of a real environment. Features that allow for experiences of immersion are: presence (being within the represented space), interactivity (responding to the actions by the user) and plausibility (representations are reasonable in relation to what is conveyed). Even though VR-technology has this potential the design of the interface is essential. This raises the following research questions: What types of stories function within such environments? How should stories be represented to evoke engagement in Virtual Reality? In addition, if a person feels intimidated or forced into a situation, they are less likely learn. What type of design allow users to feel immersed without overstepping their personal boundaries? To examine these issues, we put together an interdisciplinary team of interactive storytellers, VR-developers and researchers to develop and test an immersive VR-environment. 

 

The material used in the VR-environment originates from a research based method developed specifically to work with issues of gender inequality in work places. It uses real life scenarios of gendered work life dilemmas abstracted from anonymous qualitative research interviews. Three different scenarios were developed to be able to investigate experience in relation to immersion, emotion, presence, interactivity and plausibility. The VR-environment was then tested by educated discussants with extended experiences in the method, followed by individual interviews and a group discussion. The study show that the scenarios conveyed plausibility and that users felt immersed and present, especially when addressed by someone in the environment and when using real film-footage. Interactivity ad to the experience of immersion when relating to body movement, however frustrating and insufficient when users are to be engaged in the scenario. However, a central learning outcome was that limitations of interactivity, experience of presence and plausibility can be beneficial. Using these limitations within the design can effectively convey frustration, go beyond stereotypical settings and ensure not to trespass personal boundaries. 

National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70525 (URN)
Conference
ECREA, the 7th European Communication Conference (ECC), "Centres and Peripheries: Communication, Research, Translation", October 31 - November 3, 2018, Lugano, Switzerland
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Jansson, A., Lindell, J., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Tesfahuney, M. (Eds.). (2018). Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds. London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds
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2018 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This book introduces and develops the concept of geomedia studies as the name of a particular subfield of communication geography. Despite the accelerating societal relevance of 'geomedia' technologies for the production of various spaces, mobilities, and power-relations, and the unquestionable emergence of a vibrant research field that deals with questions pertaining to such topics, the term geomedia studies remains surprisingly unestablished. By addressing imperative questions about the implications of geomedia technologies for organizations, social groups and individuals (e.g. businesses profiting from geo-surveillance, refugees or migrants moving across national borders, or artists claiming their rights to public space) the book also aims to contribute to ongoing academic and societal debates in our increasingly mediatized world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2018. p. 277
National Category
Media and Communications Cultural Studies Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65497 (URN)978-1-138-22152-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Jansson, A., Lindell, J., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Tesfahuney, M. (2018). Introducing Geomedia Studies. In: Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen (Ed.), Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds. London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Geomedia Studies
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2018 (English)In: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2018
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65498 (URN)978-1-138-22152-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Jansson, A., Tesfahuney, M., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Lindell, J. (2018). Introduction to Geomedia Studies. In: Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan-Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, mekonnen (Ed.), Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds (pp. 1-18). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to Geomedia Studies
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2018 (English)In: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan-Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, mekonnen, Routledge, 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70053 (URN)978-1-138-22152-9 (ISBN)9781315410210 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Ryan Bengtsson, L., Edlom, J. & Fast, K. (2018). "#LookWhatYouMadeMeDo" Mobilizing fans in the contemporary music industry: - the Taylor Swift case. In: : . Paper presented at ECREA, the 7th European Communication Conference (ECC), "Centres and Peripheries: Communication, Research, Translation", October 31 - November 3, 2018, Lugano, Switzerland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"#LookWhatYouMadeMeDo" Mobilizing fans in the contemporary music industry: - the Taylor Swift case
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On August 21, 2017, American superstar Taylor Swift launched an immersive marketing campaign for her upcoming album “Reputation”. Her first action consisted in a 10 second black and white film clip of a rattling snake. The clip was posted simultaneously on her personal Facebook and Instagram accounts and, generated massive response from her fans, who immediately started to speculate about Swift’s intentions with the video footage. The clip was the first of several efforts to invite consumers to participate in the album’s transmedia marketing campaign. The rattling snake video was followed by an international social media campaign effectively interconnecting diverse digital media platforms (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr). The campaign involved very few traditional media appearances, but relied all the more on fan-based content and fan-initiated events. The fan base was anticipated to co-create content and take part in different joint events, not only online but also offline through for example pop-up museums, home-visits, and pop-up stores. 

 

The music industry utilizes transmedia marketing due to its potential to foster fan engagement, or, as we understand it in this paper – fan labour. Fans produce and circulate content and facilitate the engineering of targeted marketing initiatives. The Swift campaign is thus an up-to-date example of how contemporary transmedia marketingemploy offline and online spaces to mobilize fans across and beyond media platforms. Buthow do fans responds to transmedia marketing and how do they navigate, act and perform across these online and offline spaces?

 

This study investigates fan labour through a digital multi-method approach to the Swifttransmedia campaign. By collecting data from the artist’s social media accounts and hashtags specified by the campaign, we capture fan responses, actions, interactions and productions related to ‘laid out’ trails between the campaign’s online and offline spaces. The quantitative material allows us to map how fans move in the marketing time-space. Furthermore, the quantitative method guides us to places where more advanced forms of fan labour occur. As to deepen our understanding of how fan labour is performed within the Swiftmarketing universe, we complement the big data sampling with qualitative studies of specific transmedia places of engagement.

 

Our results show that Swift fans (or ‘Swifties’) follow the paths prepared by the marketers. By placing events in different campaign milieus and by taking full advantage of technological affordances, fans are encouraged to migrate between campaign places. We identify different forms of labour in these places; notably, fans produce and share content with campaign producers as well as within their own networks, thus giving the campaign access to their social media networks and their productions. However, our study also detects instances of fan resistance. Fans use their voice to question specific campaign activities or if they feel sidestepped. Ultimately, our paper scrutinizes the blurry interplay between industry and fan engagement in transmedia spaces and offer – much needed – spatial perspectives on fan labour.

 

National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70524 (URN)
Conference
ECREA, the 7th European Communication Conference (ECC), "Centres and Peripheries: Communication, Research, Translation", October 31 - November 3, 2018, Lugano, Switzerland
Funder
Interreg Sweden-Norway, 20200011
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Ferrer Conill, R. (2017). A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing. In: : . Paper presented at Locating Imagination: Popular Culture, Tourism and Belonging conference, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 5th – 7th April, 2017, Rotterdam, The Netherlands..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production.

Keywords
Fan labour, transmediascapes, affect, mobility, marketing
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62524 (URN)
Conference
Locating Imagination: Popular Culture, Tourism and Belonging conference, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 5th – 7th April, 2017, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Available from: 2017-07-22 Created: 2017-07-22 Last updated: 2018-03-01Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Ferrer Conill, R. (2017). A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing. In: : . Paper presented at Locating imagination: Popular culture, tourism and belonging. April 5-7, 2017, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Erasmus University of Rotterdam
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Erasmus University of Rotterdam, 2017
Keywords
Transmediascape, free labour, geographies, transmedia, political ecology, case study, One Direction
National Category
Media and Communications Cultural Studies Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66556 (URN)
Conference
Locating imagination: Popular culture, tourism and belonging. April 5-7, 2017, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Ferrer Conill, R. (2017). Geographies of free labor: Conceptualizing and Analyzing the 'Transmediascape'. In: : . Paper presented at 67th Annual ICA Conference. Interventions: Communication research and practice. 25-29 May, 2017. International Communication Association, San Diego, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geographies of free labor: Conceptualizing and Analyzing the 'Transmediascape'
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62528 (URN)
Conference
67th Annual ICA Conference. Interventions: Communication research and practice. 25-29 May, 2017. International Communication Association, San Diego, USA
Available from: 2017-07-22 Created: 2017-07-22 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Fast, K., Ryan Bengtsson, L. & Ferrer Conill, R. (2017). Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes. In: : . Paper presented at NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, the 23rd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research, Tampere, Finland, Aug 17-19, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

National Category
Media and Communications Communication Studies Cultural Studies
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67219 (URN)
Conference
NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, the 23rd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research, Tampere, Finland, Aug 17-19, 2017
Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
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