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Rahm, GullBritt
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Strandmark K, M., Rahm, G., Rystedt, I., Nordström, G. & Wilde-Larsson, B. (2019). Managing bullying in Swedish workplace settings: A concealed and only partially acknowledged problem. Journal of Nursing Management, 27, 339-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing bullying in Swedish workplace settings: A concealed and only partially acknowledged problem
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 27, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The purpose of this article was to explore workplace routines and strategies for preventing and managing bullying in the context of health and elderly care. Background: Bullying is a serious problem in workplaces with consequences for the individual, the organisation and the quality of care. Method: Open-ended interviews were conducted with 12 participants, including managers and specialists within one hospital and three municipalities. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results: Bullying was often concealed, due to avoidance, unclear definition and lack of direct strategies against bullying. No preventative work focusing on bullying existed. Psychosocial issues were not prioritized at workplace meetings. The supervisor had the formal responsibility to identify, manage and solve the bullying problem. The most common decision to solve the problem was to split the group. Conclusions: The findings showed that bullying was a concealed problem and was first acknowledged when the problem was acute. Implications for Nursing Management: Crucial strategies to prevent and combat bullying consist of acknowledgement of the problem, transformational leadership, prioritization of psycho-social issues, support of a humanistic value system and work through bullying problems to achieve long-term changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019
Keywords
management, preventative work, solutions, workplace bullying, aged, article, avoidance behavior, bullying, clinical article, content analysis, elderly care, female, human, human experiment, interview, leadership, male, manager, nursing management, responsibility, workplace
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Nursing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70245 (URN)10.1111/jonm.12668 (DOI)000461576900014 ()2-s2.0-85054593876 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Rahm, G., Rystedt, I., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark, M. (2019). Workplace bullying among healthcare professionals in Sweden: a descriptive study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workplace bullying among healthcare professionals in Sweden: a descriptive study
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Workplace bullying is a taboo event which occurs worldwide, although the prevalence varies significantly between and within countries. Nurses have been regarded an occupational risk group for bullying at the work place. Bullying in health and social care contexts is sometimes reported as frequent and, other times, as not occurring, which sparked our interest in mapping the occurrence of bullying in the health and social care system in Sweden. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of bullying, and to discuss cultural traditions and environmental factors that affect bullying in workplaces. The sample (n = 2810) consisted of employees at inpatient wards at four hospitals, and employees at municipal eldercare wards in Sweden. A questionnaire including NAQ‐22 R was distributed and subsequently analysed with descriptive statistics using SPSS. The youngest group of respondents scored higher than the older groups. Using contrasting estimates of bullying, the prevalence varied between 4.1 and 18.5%, with the lowest prevalence in regards to self‐reported exposure. According to the cut‐off scores, NAQ‐22 R, 8.6% of the respondents were occasionally exposed to bullying while 2.3% were considered to be victims of severe bullying. Work‐related negative acts were more common than personal negative acts. The variations in prevalence of bullying as a result of contrasting estimation strategies are discussed from perspective of the 'law of Jante', the 'tall poppy syndrome' and shame. Bullying deteriorates the working conditions which may have an impact on quality of patient care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71542 (URN)10.1111/scs.12633 (DOI)000486090000007 ()
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, J., Rahm, G., Jernbro, C. & Nilson, F. (2017). Effects of Impact-Absorbing Flooring in Residential Care from the Perspectives of Enrolled Nurses. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 31(4), 367-381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Impact-Absorbing Flooring in Residential Care from the Perspectives of Enrolled Nurses
2017 (English)In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Falls are a daily occurrence in nursing homes and few interventions for reducing fall-related injuries have proven to be effective. Impact absorbing flooring (IAF) in residential care has shown promising results in reducing fail-injuries and in the process of developing and implementing IAF all aspects are valuable to explore. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study is to describe the enrolled nurses (ENs) experiences of IAF. We carried out focus group interviews with ENs and used content analysis to process the data. The ENs experienced both negative and positive aspects with the IAF. Importantly, the ENs perceived the IAF as effective in preventing fall-injuries. They also appreciated the improvements in acoustics. Negative aspects were that the flooring initially was challenging to walk on and that it made it harder to maneuver heavy equipment. A significant and transferable finding in this study was the importance of the ENs' perceived difficulty in preventing fall-injuries amongst elderly people living in nursing homes. This seemed to be a driving force to accept the intervention. Although IAF affects the working conditions in a nursing home, ENs are willing to accept these issues given the perceived effectiveness of the intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65975 (URN)10.1080/02763893.2017.1335670 (DOI)000419504100004 ()
Note

Artikeln ingick i författarens licentiatuppsats, då med titeln Working in a nursing home with Impact Absorbing Flooring - a qualitative study on the experiences of licensed practical nurses.

Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Engh Kraft, L., Rahm, G. & Eriksson, U.-B. (2017). School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse. The Journal of school nursing, 33(2), 133-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse
2017 (English)In: The Journal of school nursing, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an available person prepared to listen. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of the school nurses to detect and support sexually abused children. It is a secondary analysis of focus group interviews with school nurses. Thematic analysis was performed. Results showed that the school nurses avoided addressing CSA due to arousal of strong emotions, ambivalence, and a complicated disclosure process. In order to detect CSA and support abused children, attentiveness of sexual abuse as a possible cause of physical and mental illhealth is crucial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Open, 2017
Keywords
Abuse, mental health, middle/junior/high school, school nurse knowledge/perceptions/self-efficacy, qualitative research
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41102 (URN)10.1177/1059840516633729 (DOI)000397984300006 ()
Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Strandmark K, M., Rahm, G., Wilde-Larsson, B., Nordström, G. & Rystedt, I. (2016). Preventive Strategies and Processes to Counteract Bullying in Health Care Settings: Focus Group Discussions.. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38(2), 113-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preventive Strategies and Processes to Counteract Bullying in Health Care Settings: Focus Group Discussions.
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2016 (English)In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to explore preventive strategies and processes to counteract bullying in workplaces. Data were collected by individual interviews and focus group discussions at one hospital and two nursing home wards for elderly, a total of 29 participants. In the analysis of the interviews we were inspired by constructivist grounded theory. Persistent work with a humanistic value system by supervisor and coworkers, raising awareness about the bullying problem, strong group collaboration, and conflict management, along with an open atmosphere at the workplace, appears to be imperative for accomplishing a policy of zero tolerance for bullying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47582 (URN)10.1080/01612840.2016.1253805 (DOI)000395131000003 ()27937001 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Strandmark K, M. & Rahm, G. (2014). Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42, 66-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. Methods: The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Results: Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. Conclusions: The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
Awareness, bullying, collaboration, conflict management, humanistic values, intervention, setting, workplace bullying, workplace roles
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41491 (URN)10.1177/1403494814549494 (DOI)000345467900010 ()25416576 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Rahm, G., Renck, B. & Ringsberg, K. C. (2013). Psychological distress among women who were sexually abused as children. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22(3), 269-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological distress among women who were sexually abused as children
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the aims of the study was to investigate how participants in self-help groups (SHG) for women (n = 87) who had been sexually abused in childhood rated their mental health and to what extent they were at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A further aim was to investigate the relationship between the ratings of mental health, occurrence of PTSD, women's interpersonal relationships, reasons for participating in an SHG and characteristics of the childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The participants completed questionnaires regarding their personal relationships, reasons for joining a group, abuse characteristics, mental health (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised) and PTSD (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). The women showed poor mental health, and more than half of them were at risk of developing PTSD. Lack of social support and feelings of shame correlated with poor mental health, whereas guilt did not. Relationships with female friends had a positive association. Further research is needed to determine whether participating in an SHG could provide adequate social support and reduce feelings of shame, thereby contributing to the healing process in the aftermath of CSA.

Keywords
childhood sexual abuse, mental health, PTSD
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29524 (URN)10.1111/j.1468-2397.2012.00898.x (DOI)000318442800005 ()
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rystedt, I., Notelaers, G., Rahm, G., Nordström, G., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark K, M. (2012). An Integrated Apporach to Identify Victims of Workplace Bullying. In: : . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment - Future Challenges, Copenhagen June 12-15, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrated Apporach to Identify Victims of Workplace Bullying
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16023 (URN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment - Future Challenges, Copenhagen June 12-15, 2012
Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Rahm, G., Strandmark K, M., Wilde-Larsson, B., Nordström, G. & Rystedt, I. (2012). “Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop andprevent bullying”. In: : . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop andprevent bullying”
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integrating an action program in daily practice to stop and prevent bullying

Background & Context: Bullying is a public health problem that negatively affects health at workplaces. In the public sectors, including health care, it is more common with bullying problems compared to other sectors. Earlier research has primarily focused on incidence, prevalence, risk factors and relationships between bullying and ill-health.  To a much lesser degree, research has focused on prevention. The aim of this study was to develop and implement an intervention to stop and prevent bullying at workplaces in collaboration with employees.

Methodology

This intervention study is integrated in a larger research project. Based on results from questionnaires targeting bullying, three workplaces in the healthcare sector were invited to participate. After approval from superiors, employees were invited to participate in focus-groups (FG), resulting in groups of 6-8 participants at one psychiatric ward in a county council, and two elderly care wards in respective municipalities. FG interviews were conducted twice; the first interview captured views on bullying, the second interview prepared for and developed the intervention. No superior participated in the first interview in order to have employees feel free expressing their views. Instead the department head was interviewed individually. The second included both employees and department heads. The FG interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory.

Findings: The first interview revealed that the employees had insufficient knowledge about bullying and how to manage it. The second FG demonstrated that there were insufficient opportunities for reflections about bullying problems.  Employees also expressed that they did not feel recognized and valued by superiors in higher levels of the organization.

 

Given this, the researchers have, as part of the intervention, held half-day lectures on the phenomena of bullying, conflict management, communication and shame. The intervention also contained discussions in small groups focused around game-cards that were specifically designed to initiate discussions about specific situations where bullying may occur and how one may prevent or manage this.

 

In the FGs, it was furthermore suggested to write a contract that ensured that everyone treats each other with tolerance and respect at the workplace. Both interviews revealed that managers play key roles in preventing workplace bullying.  Appropriate leadership creates safety at the work-places, whereas inappropriate leadership creates fear.

Building on these findings from the FGs, next steps include plan of action, targeting e.g., compulsory, continuing discussions concerning bullying improved contact with the superior level and a workplace contract of mutual respect.

Suggestions for the action plan will be discussed in one additional FG, upon which the plan will be introduced to the directors of the workplaces for their support.

 In summary the results of the findings are a developed intervention/action program consisting of lectures, game card-discussions and an action plan in collaboration with employees and managers.

 Implications for practice, training and organization: 

Systematic longitudinal workplace interventions is one way of shouldering the responsibility of tackling bullying in workplaces, highlighting this often hidden problem.

 

 

3 learning objectives:

  • Bullying in the workplace is prevalent, and yet  not acknowledged
  • Managers play key roles in preventing workplace bullying
  • Leadership can contribute to safety as well as fear in the workplace
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29829 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Rystedt, I., Rahm, G., Notelaers, G., Nordström, G., Wilde-Larsson, B. & Strandmark, M. (2012). Work-place bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden: Perspectives on identifying and defining victims. In: : . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October 24-26, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-place bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden: Perspectives on identifying and defining victims
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Nursing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16025 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Violence in the Health Care Sector, Vancouver, Canada, October 24-26, 2012
Note

kan inte belägga konferensen. aea

Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
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