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Hassmén, P., Kenttä, G., Hjälm, S., Lundkvist, E. & Gustafsson, H. (2019). Burnout symptoms and recovery processes in eight elite soccer coaches over 10 years. International journal of sports science & coaching, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Burnout symptoms and recovery processes in eight elite soccer coaches over 10 years
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2019 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Elite sport can be stressful, which increases the risk for burnout symptoms to develop. Especially when not balanced with sufficient recovery. To study the burnout–recovery process, eight elite soccer coaches were followed for 10 years. All eight were active elite coaches at the inception of this study and reported elevated emotional exhaustion scores on Maslach’s Burnout Inventory Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The coaches completed MBI-ES three additional times (year 3, 7, and 10), and they were also interviewed on the same occasions. At the 3-year follow-up, seven of the eight coaches reduced their exhaustion scores. The coach presenting with unchanged scores both at the 3 - and 7-year follow-up was the only one still coaching at the elite level. All coaches revealed during the interviews that they struggled to manage their work–life balance well; some worked too many hours, some experienced difficulty in managing conflicting role-demands, and some wrestled with external pressures. Their approach to recovery was, however, similar. Apart from moving away from coaching at the elite level, they unanimously mentioned that they changed their approach to coaching to make recovery possible. They achieved the latter by, for example, increasing control and delegating responsibility. According to our longitudinal results, burnout frequently regarded as an end-state can decrease over time. Provided that decisive action is taken to change situational factors and personal demands. This frequently meant withdrawing from coaching, which in turn explains why coach retention remains a serious challenge for most organizations with teams/athletes competing at the elite level. © The Author(s) 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Burnout, coaches, elite-sport, exhaustion, soccer, stress
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73568 (URN)10.1177/1747954119851246 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067638596 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A., Gustafsson, H., Stenling, A., Lindwall, M., Tornberg, R. & Boeroey, J. (2019). Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study. Mindfulness, 10(8), 1518-1529
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study
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2019 (English)In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.MethodsSixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).ResultsFindings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC- group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.ConclusionsOverall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Emotion regulation, MAC, Mediation analysis, Mindfulness, Mindfulness-acceptance-commitment, Performance, PST
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74218 (URN)10.1007/s12671-019-01098-7 (DOI)000473450900006 ()
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Gerber, M., Brand, R., Antoniewicz, F., Isoard-Gautheur, S., Gustafsson, H., Bianchi, R., . . . Ludyga, S. (2019). Implicit and explicit attitudes towards sport among young elite athletes with high versus low burnout symptoms. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(14), 1673-1680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implicit and explicit attitudes towards sport among young elite athletes with high versus low burnout symptoms
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, no 14, p. 1673-1680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of cynical attitudes towards elite sport is a core symptom of athlete burnout and has been associated with dropout from elite sport. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been studied by investigating explicit attitudes towards sport, whereas athletes’ automatic evaluations (i.e. implicit attitudes) that have been shown to influence behavior as well were not considered. This study aimed to compare explicit and implicit attitudes towards sport of young elite athletes with high (N = 24) versus low (N = 26) burnout symptoms. Using self-reported measures, general and athlete burnout symptoms were assessed. Additionally, a single-target implicit association test was administered to examine participants’ automatic evaluation of sport. Statistical analysis revealed greater emotional/physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in athletes reporting high compared to low burnout symptoms. Implicit attitudes towards sport did not significantly differ between the groups. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed between different athlete burnout symptoms and implicit attitudes. Athletes with high burnout symptoms show a tendency to explicitly detach themselves from sport, thus fostering sport devaluation as a core symptom of athlete burnout. However, this process does not seem to be reflected in their implicit attitudes towards sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Adolescents, automatic evaluations, dual mode model, reflective processes, sport
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71742 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2019.1585313 (DOI)000473472400013 ()2-s2.0-85062475337 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Li, C., Zhu, Y., Zhang, M., Gustafsson, H. & Chen, T. (2019). Mindfulness and Athlete Burnout: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3), 449
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mindfulness and Athlete Burnout: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 449-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This review aims to identify, appraise, and synthesize studies reporting the relationship between mindfulness and athlete burnout and the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on athlete burnout. Methods: Studies were identified through searching six electronic databases using combinations of three groups of keywords and manual search. Two independent reviewers screened the searched studies, extracted data of the included studies, and assessed the study quality. The extracted data were synthesized qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: Ten studies consisting of two controlled trials, six surveys, and two interview studies met the inclusion criteria. The two controlled trials had weak methodological quality, and the remaining studies were of moderate to high research quality. Results of controlled trials and interview research generally showed that MBIs had positive effects in burnout prevention. Meta-analytic results indicated a negative association between mindfulness and burnout. Conclusions: There is some evidence showing that mindfulness was negatively associated with athlete burnout. However, given the small number of interventions and qualitative studies, there is limited evidence on whether MBIs are useful in preventing athlete burnout. More studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2019
Keywords
emotional exhaustion, meditation, research synthesis, sport, stress
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71288 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16030449 (DOI)000459113600155 ()2-s2.0-85061046534 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, T., Tornberg, R., Gustafsson, H. & Ivarsson, A. (2019). Practitioners’ reflections of working with the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach in team sport settings. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practitioners’ reflections of working with the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach in team sport settings
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of a team-based MAC intervention, and discuss important aspects to consider when implementing the MAC protocol in elite team sports. The MAC program contains seven modules in which core concepts such as mindfulness, acceptance, and values-driven behavior are being taught and practiced. We experienced conceptual as well as practical challenges in the application of the MAC protocol. A general recommendation in implementing MAC concepts and exercises for teams is to make the content of the program sport-specific.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Acceptance, commitment, intervention, MAC, mindfulness
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71280 (URN)10.1080/21520704.2018.1549641 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060629790 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Davis, L., Stenling, A., Gustafsson, H., Appleby, R. & Davis, P. (2019). Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches. International journal of sports science & coaching, 14(4), 444-452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches
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2019 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Past research suggests that athletes’ relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach–athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Age, burnout, coach–athlete relationships, gender, sport type
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74242 (URN)10.1177/1747954119861076 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068621028 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09
Gerber, M., Best, S., Meerstetter, F., Isoard-Gautheur, S., Gustafsson, H., Bianchi, R., . . . Brand, S. (2018). Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Athlete Burnout, Insomnia, and Polysomnographic Indices in Young Elite Athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), 40(6), 312-324
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Athlete Burnout, Insomnia, and Polysomnographic Indices in Young Elite Athletes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 312-324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies have examined the association between sleep and burnout symptoms in elite athletes. We recruited 257 young elite athletes (M-age = 16.8 years) from Swiss Olympic partner schools. Of these, 197 were reassessed 6 months later. Based on the first assessment, 24 participants with clinically relevant burnout symptoms volunteered to participate in a polysomnographic examination and were compared with 26 (matched) healthy controls. Between 12% and 14% of young elite athletes reported burnout symptoms of potential clinical relevance, whereas 4-11% reported clinically relevant insomnia symptoms. Athletes with clinically relevant burnout symptoms reported significantly more insomnia symptoms, more dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions, and spent less time in bed during weeknights (p<.05). However, no significant differences were found for objective sleep parameters. A cross-lagged panel analysis showed that burnout positively predicted self-reported insomnia symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions might be a promising measure to reduce subjective sleep complaints among young elite athletes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CHAMPAIGN, IL, USA: , 2018
Keywords
EEG, polysomnography, rumination, sleep complaints
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70965 (URN)10.1123/jsep.2018-0083 (DOI)000453552300003 ()30514157 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Gerber, M., Best, S., Meerstetter, F., Walter, M., Ludyga, S., Brand, S., . . . Gustafsson, H. (2018). Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(12), 1200-1205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1200-1205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M = 16.82 years, SD = 1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North–Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. Results: The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. Conclusions: About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Burnout, Depressive symptoms, Elite athletes, Quality of life, Stress
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67664 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.018 (DOI)000454188600005 ()2-s2.0-85047603225 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Appleby, R., Davis, P., Davis, L. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout. Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12(3), 316-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout
2018 (English)In: Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2018
Keywords
Exhaustion, global burnout, team sports, teammates, training load
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69403 (URN)10.1123/jcsp.2017-0037 (DOI)000444270200003 ()
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Borjesson, M., Lundqvist, C., Gustafsson, H. & Davis, P. (2018). Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, 12(3), 333-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance
2018 (English)In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2018
Keywords
Cognitive anxiety; electromyography; flotation REST; golf putting; somatic anxiety
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69404 (URN)10.1123/jcsp.2017-0032 (DOI)000444270200004 ()
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4495-6819

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