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Gerber, M., Best, S., Meerstetter, F., Walter, M., Ludyga, S., Brand, S., . . . Gustafsson, H. (2018). Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M = 16.82 years, SD = 1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North–Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. Results: The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. Conclusions: About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Burnout, Depressive symptoms, Elite athletes, Quality of life, Stress
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67664 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047603225 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Carlin, M., Podlog, L., Stenling, A. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 35, 118-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach
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2018 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66778 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.009 (DOI)000426331600014 ()
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Martinent, G., Isoard-Gautheur, S., Hassmén, P. & Guillet-Descas, E. (2018). Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 38, 56-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach
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2018 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Performance-based self-esteem and a self-identity dominated by being an athlete have been associated with athlete burnout. Our aim is to extend previous research by adopting a person-centered approach and examining whether profiles of burnout can be identified based on the athletes’ identity and performance-based self-esteem. Swedish junior athletes completed measures of athlete burnout, athlete identity, and performance-based self-esteem. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: Low burnout profile (n = 131), Moderate burnout profile (n = 178), Moderately high burnout profile (n = 125) and High burnout profile (n = 37). Higher scores of athletic identity were significantly less likely to be in the high burnout profile and athletes with higher scores of performance-based self-esteem were significantly more likely to be in the high burnout profile compared to the other three burnout profiles. These findings suggest that athletes with a performance-based self-esteem might be at greater risk of experiencing burnout.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Elite sport, Identity, Stress, Talent development, adult, article, athlete, burnout, controlled study, female, human, major clinical study, male, self esteem, sport
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68060 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.017 (DOI)000441687300007 ()2-s2.0-85047957090 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Davis, L., Appleby, R., Davis, P., Wetherell, M. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 1985-1992
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Coach-athlete relationship, exhaustion, performance, team sports, teammate
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66208 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2018.1429176 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041014754 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, E., Gustafsson, H., Davis, P. A., Holmstrom, S., Lemyre, N. & Ivarsson, A. (2018). The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(3), 1215-1226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
athlete burnout, athlete stress, burnout, causality, multivariate latent curve model with structured residuals
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66777 (URN)10.1111/sms.13000 (DOI)000426529300049 ()29087026 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Røynesdal, Ø., Toering, T. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). Understanding players' transition from youth to senior professional football environments: A coach perspective. International journal of sports science & coaching, 13(1), 26-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding players' transition from youth to senior professional football environments: A coach perspective
2018 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sociocultural features of a first team environment perceived to influence a player's progression, (b) the ways in which young players should manage these features and (c) how coaches operate to assist young players during specific phases in the youth-to-senior transition. Semi-structured interviews with eight elite development coaches in English Premier League football clubs generated two higher order categories: fitting in with standards of first team environment (e.g. handling social dynamics in the first team group) and facilitating shared perception of transition across key stakeholders (e.g. communicating with first team staff). Together, these findings indicate the need for young players to navigate between conforming, adapting to and breaking with specific features of the first team environment to successfully progress in the youth-to-senior transition to professional football.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66714 (URN)10.1177/1747954117746497 (DOI)000425985400003 ()
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., DeFreese, J. D. & Madigan, D. J. (2017). Athlete burnout: review and recommendations. Current opinion in psychology, 16, 109-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Athlete burnout: review and recommendations
2017 (English)In: Current opinion in psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last two decades, growing concerns regarding the negative implications of athlete burnout have spurred empirical research on the topic. In their citation network analysis of the burnout literature, Gustafsson et al. (2014), cited well over 100 publications on the syndrome. Despite considerable investigation into athlete burnout, there remain a number of unresolved questions and issues. Four main aims guide the current review. First, we highlight various models of athlete burnout. Second, we discuss the measurement of athlete burnout. Third, we describe the symptoms, antecedents, and consequences of athlete burnout with a focus on social perceptions and perfectionism. Finally, we provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of athlete burnout via an illustration of links between theory and practice. It is our hope that this review can stimulate future research in order to help athletes avoid burnout and other severe forms of training maladaptation.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65828 (URN)10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.002 (DOI)000410679900023 ()28813331 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Lundqvist, C. & Tod, D. (2017). Cognitive behavioral intervention in sport psychology: A case illustration of the exposure method with an elite athlete. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 8(3), 152-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive behavioral intervention in sport psychology: A case illustration of the exposure method with an elite athlete
2017 (English)In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One common method in Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to treat anxiety problems is exposure, but there are few articles examining its applicability to sport. The aim of this article is to give a background of the use of exposure in sport and present a case of how exposure can be used with athletes. The athlete was a 17-year-old female cross-country skier with high levels of performance anxiety. In the case description, common procedures in CBT such as behavioral analysis, psychoeducation, and exposure are presented, as well as how anxiety can be managed. After the intervention the athlete perceived lower levels of anxiety as well as improved behavioral repertoire (e.g., less avoidant behaviors and more functional sport-specific behaviors). This case may be used to help practitioners consider the use of exposure in competitive sports.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66462 (URN)10.1080/21520704.2016.1235649 (DOI)000424512700002 ()
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Sagar, S. S. & Stenling, A. (2017). Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(12), 2091-2102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2091-2102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2017
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65932 (URN)10.1111/sms.12797 (DOI)000416411800059 ()27882607 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A., Lindwall, M., Gustafsson, H., Stenling, A., Boroy, J., . . . Falkevik, E. (2017). Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping. Mindfulness, 8(5), 1354-1363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping
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2017 (English)In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65824 (URN)10.1007/s12671-017-0711-4 (DOI)000411241000022 ()28989551 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-04-18
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4495-6819

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