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Gerber, M., Best, S., Meerstetter, F., Walter, M., Ludyga, S., Brand, S., . . . Gustafsson, H. (2018). Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M = 16.82 years, SD = 1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North–Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. Results: The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. Conclusions: About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Burnout, Depressive symptoms, Elite athletes, Quality of life, Stress
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67664 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047603225 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Appleby, R., Davis, P., Davis, L. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout. Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12(3), 316-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout
2018 (English)In: Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2018
Keywords
Exhaustion, global burnout, team sports, teammates, training load
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69403 (URN)10.1123/jcsp.2017-0037 (DOI)000444270200003 ()
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Borjesson, M., Lundqvist, C., Gustafsson, H. & Davis, P. (2018). Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, 12(3), 333-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance
2018 (English)In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2018
Keywords
Cognitive anxiety; electromyography; flotation REST; golf putting; somatic anxiety
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69404 (URN)10.1123/jcsp.2017-0032 (DOI)000444270200004 ()
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Carlin, M., Podlog, L., Stenling, A. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 35, 118-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach
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2018 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66778 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.009 (DOI)000426331600014 ()
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., Martinent, G., Isoard-Gautheur, S., Hassmén, P. & Guillet-Descas, E. (2018). Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 38, 56-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach
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2018 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Performance-based self-esteem and a self-identity dominated by being an athlete have been associated with athlete burnout. Our aim is to extend previous research by adopting a person-centered approach and examining whether profiles of burnout can be identified based on the athletes’ identity and performance-based self-esteem. Swedish junior athletes completed measures of athlete burnout, athlete identity, and performance-based self-esteem. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: Low burnout profile (n = 131), Moderate burnout profile (n = 178), Moderately high burnout profile (n = 125) and High burnout profile (n = 37). Higher scores of athletic identity were significantly less likely to be in the high burnout profile and athletes with higher scores of performance-based self-esteem were significantly more likely to be in the high burnout profile compared to the other three burnout profiles. These findings suggest that athletes with a performance-based self-esteem might be at greater risk of experiencing burnout.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Elite sport, Identity, Stress, Talent development, adult, article, athlete, burnout, controlled study, female, human, major clinical study, male, self esteem, sport
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68060 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.017 (DOI)000441687300007 ()2-s2.0-85047957090 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Davis, L., Appleby, R., Davis, P., Wetherell, M. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 1985-1992
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Coach-athlete relationship, exhaustion, performance, team sports, teammate
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66208 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2018.1429176 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041014754 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, E., Gustafsson, H., Davis, P. A., Holmstrom, S., Lemyre, N. & Ivarsson, A. (2018). The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(3), 1215-1226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
athlete burnout, athlete stress, burnout, causality, multivariate latent curve model with structured residuals
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66777 (URN)10.1111/sms.13000 (DOI)000426529300049 ()29087026 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Røynesdal, Ø., Toering, T. & Gustafsson, H. (2018). Understanding players' transition from youth to senior professional football environments: A coach perspective. International journal of sports science & coaching, 13(1), 26-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding players' transition from youth to senior professional football environments: A coach perspective
2018 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sociocultural features of a first team environment perceived to influence a player's progression, (b) the ways in which young players should manage these features and (c) how coaches operate to assist young players during specific phases in the youth-to-senior transition. Semi-structured interviews with eight elite development coaches in English Premier League football clubs generated two higher order categories: fitting in with standards of first team environment (e.g. handling social dynamics in the first team group) and facilitating shared perception of transition across key stakeholders (e.g. communicating with first team staff). Together, these findings indicate the need for young players to navigate between conforming, adapting to and breaking with specific features of the first team environment to successfully progress in the youth-to-senior transition to professional football.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66714 (URN)10.1177/1747954117746497 (DOI)000425985400003 ()
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Gerber, M., Gustafsson, H., Seelig, H., Kellmann, M., Ludyga, S., Colledge, F., . . . Bianchi, R. (2018). Usefulness of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms among young elite athletes. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 39, 104-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usefulness of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms among young elite athletes
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2018 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 39, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Having psychometrically sound instruments is essential to the understanding of the determinants and consequences of athlete burnout. Therefore, this study examines the psychometric properties of a German version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and its usefulness as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Design: Prospective study. Method: 257 young elite athletes were recruited from Swiss Olympic Sport Classes (37% females; M = 16.8 years, SD = 1.4). 197 students were assessed a second time after six months. All students filled in a standardized questionnaire about domain-specific and domain-unspecific burnout symptoms, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the ABQ. Moreover, all subscales had acceptable internal consistency. Support was also found for the convergent validity of the ABQ; all subscales were positively correlated with perceived stress, burnout and depression, whereas negative correlations existed with life satisfaction. By contrast, some ABQ subscales shared only limited variance, the three ABQ subscales did not predict each other across time, and none of the ABQ subscales was suitable for the screening of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Conclusions: While the factor structure and internal consistency of the ABQ was supported, our study corroborates previous concerns about the psychometric properties and validity of the ABQ. While the ABQ has advanced research on athlete burnout, we hold that further debates about the most suitable way to assess burnout among elite athletes are urgently needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Adolescents, Athlete burnout, Confirmatory factor analysis, Convergent validity, Depression, Psychometric properties, Sensitivity, Specificity, Stress
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69096 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.005 (DOI)000448093200013 ()2-s2.0-85051113759 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, H., DeFreese, J. D. & Madigan, D. J. (2017). Athlete burnout: review and recommendations. Current opinion in psychology, 16, 109-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Athlete burnout: review and recommendations
2017 (English)In: Current opinion in psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last two decades, growing concerns regarding the negative implications of athlete burnout have spurred empirical research on the topic. In their citation network analysis of the burnout literature, Gustafsson et al. (2014), cited well over 100 publications on the syndrome. Despite considerable investigation into athlete burnout, there remain a number of unresolved questions and issues. Four main aims guide the current review. First, we highlight various models of athlete burnout. Second, we discuss the measurement of athlete burnout. Third, we describe the symptoms, antecedents, and consequences of athlete burnout with a focus on social perceptions and perfectionism. Finally, we provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of athlete burnout via an illustration of links between theory and practice. It is our hope that this review can stimulate future research in order to help athletes avoid burnout and other severe forms of training maladaptation.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65828 (URN)10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.002 (DOI)000410679900023 ()28813331 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4495-6819

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