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Hobbins, J. (2016). Samhälle, individ och ansvar: En studie om synen på arbetslöshet. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samhälle, individ och ansvar: En studie om synen på arbetslöshet
2016 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Societal and individual responsibility : A study of perceptions of unemployment
Abstract [en]

The aim of the thesis is to highlight and to problematize conceptions of unemployment in Swedish society. The questions guiding my work have been: Which conceptions of unemployment emerge in society? How are these dealt with by the unemployed? Work on the thesis has been guided by a social constructionist approach. The empirical findings are constituted by four publications which, in various ways, are linked to overarching aim of the thesis. These publications consist of an analysis of the legal regulation surrounding the unemployed, a study of the activities of civil society organisations working with unemployed and two publications based on interviews with long-term unemployed young adults.

The thesis provides increased knowledge of conceptions of unemployment in Swedish society. It shows that there is a widespread societal discourse concerning the individual being responsible for her/his unemployment, and that this conception has historically been well-grounded in Swedish labour market and social policy, as well as in people’s understandings. Among representatives of civil society organisations and unemployed individuals, there is also both a questioning of and a resistance to this understanding, indicating a possible change in the discourse. The thesis further shows that the individualisation of responsibility greatly affects individuals’ approaches in social contexts, as well as in their contacts with government agencies, but also when it comes to relationships with politics and political involvement. These insights are significant, for example during both policy formulation and efforts for the unemployed, bearing in mind that consideration needs to be paid to individual prerequisites in order for the individual’s strengths and abilities to be utilized. This is particulary important when it comes to those in an exposed position.

Abstract [sv]

”Men alltså grejen är ju att i dagens samhälle, i min ålder... Det är så många som är arbetslösa så det är så godkänt nu liksom. Folk tänker bara ’jaha är du också arbetslös’... Liksom antingen är dom arbetslösa själva, eller så har dom i alla fall en kompis eller tre som också är arbetslösa.”

Den bild som framkommer i intervjun med Fredrik skiljer sig betydligt från den bild som ofta återspeglas i medier och politiska debatter, där individens egna ansvar och skyldigheter för att befinna sig i arbetslöshet betonas i allt högre grad. Dessa skilda utgångspunkter kan få olika följder ifråga om exempelvis förväntningar på arbetslösa, arbetslösa människors självbild eller arbetslöshetspolitik. Denna avhandling ger en ökad kunskap om vilka föreställningar om arbetslöshet som finns i det svenska samhället idag. Genom analyser av rättslig reglering, civilsamhälleliga organisationers verksamheter samt intervjuer med arbetslösa människor söker denna avhandling att synliggöra och problematisera förståelser av arbetslöshet samt hur dessa förståelser hanteras av arbetslösa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. p. 112
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2016:12
Keywords
Unemployment, unemployment policy, civil society, political particiation, individualisation, individualised responsibility, positioning, qualitative, Arbetslöshet, arbetslöshetspolitik, civilsamhälle, politisk delaktighet, individualisering, individualiserat ansvar, förhållningssätt
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-40589 (URN)978-91-7063-691-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-15, Andersalen, 11D121, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2017-03-07Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J. (2016). Young long-term unemployed and the individualization of responsibilities. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 6(2), 43-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young long-term unemployed and the individualization of responsibilities
2016 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as in most Western societies, a common belief is that unemployment is somehow linked to the individual, her lack of work ethic, or other personal shortcomings rather than to structural causes. This is not only manifested in public arenas such as the media or political debates but also in our social surroundings. In recent years, these views have gained mportance, indicating a shift in the location of responsibilities from the welfare state to the ndividual. This shift entails high demands and expectations on unemployed people and is omething they have to deal with and relate to. One of the most exposed groups is young ong-term unemployed. The aim of this article is to highlight how the discourse of individualized responsibility is reflected in unemployed peoples’ stories, and to shed light on the ways in which young long-term unemployed adults relate to and position themselves toward this discourse. Based on 18 qualitative interviews with young Swedish long-term unemployed people, the findings how three approaches to the discourse: conformity, distancing, and resistance.

Keywords
long-term unemployment, individual perspective, discourse, positioning, qualitative, responsibilities, Work Sciences, Arbetslivsstudier
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-54919 (URN)10.19154/njwls.v6i2.4971 (DOI)000388663100004 ()
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J. & Lahusen, C. (2015). Between evasion and activism. A qualitative inquiry into the political behaviour of German and Swedish long-term unemployed. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 8(3), 788-813
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between evasion and activism. A qualitative inquiry into the political behaviour of German and Swedish long-term unemployed
2015 (English)In: Partecipazione e Conflitto, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 788-813Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences.

Keywords
Long-term unemployment; political participation; informal networks; qualitative methods; Germany; Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences Work Sciences
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-40587 (URN)10.1285/i20356609v8i3p788 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2016-03-24Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J. (2015). Unga långtidsarbetslösa och det individualiserade ansvaret. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 21(2), 58-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga långtidsarbetslösa och det individualiserade ansvaret
2015 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 58-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Arbetslöshet förknippas med individen, hennes bristande arbetsmoral och andra personliga tillkortakommanden. Detta är något arbetslösa måste hantera och förhålla sig till. Artikeln syftar till att belysa på vilket sätt diskursen om det individualiserade ansvaret speglas i unga långtidsarbetslösas berättelser och, i synnerhet, hur de arbetslösa unga vuxna tar ställning till den. Resultaten visar tre förhållningssätt till diskursen: konformitet, distansering och motstånd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015
Keywords
Arbetslöshet, arbetsmoral, konformitet, distansering, motstånd
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38032 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Grimmer, B. & Hobbins, J. (2014). Active entrepreneurs and blue-collar workers.: Cultural understandings mirrored in European youth unemployment policies. International journal of sociology and social policy, 34(7/8), 559-576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active entrepreneurs and blue-collar workers.: Cultural understandings mirrored in European youth unemployment policies
2014 (English)In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 34, no 7/8, p. 559-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – With a particular focus on cultural understandings and the concepts behind welfare policies, the purpose of this paper is to analyse commonalities and dissimilarities in the patterns of social policy, and more precisely youth unemployment policies, in Sweden and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach – A document analysis of Swedish and German youth unemployment policies was conducted with regard to how the two welfare regimes’ policies define the underlying problem, the instruments through which this problem is tackled, and the aim of youth activation policies.

Findings – The findings show congruency concerning the definitions of the problem of youth unemployment, in which the unemployed are regarded as lacking in discipline, as well as in the policies through which the problem is tackled: through conditionality and pastoral power as policy tools. The solution of the problem on the other hand, found in the notion of the ideal worker to be produced, diverges between active entrepreneurs in one country, and blue-collar workers in the other. The authors conclude that the introduction of supranational policy concepts is not a matter of mere implementation, and that concepts like activation are reinterpreted according to differing cultural ideologies and accommodated into the context of particular welfare states.

Originality/value – This paper provides an innovative framework for the understanding of the influence of cultural understandings on policy making, but also on challenges facing activation governance on the one hand and European Union policy initiatives and transnational policy diffusion on the other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
Keywords
Activation, Policy reforms, Political sociology, Unemployment policies, Welfare regimes, Youth unemployment
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33388 (URN)10.1108/IJSSP-07-2013-0084 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J., Eriksson, B. & Bacia, E. (2014). Addressing unemployment in different welfare regimes. Civil society organizations and their strategies (1ed.). In: Baglioni, Simone; Giugni, Marco (Ed.), Civil Society, Unemployment and Precarity in Europe.: Between Service and policy (pp. 32-55). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing unemployment in different welfare regimes. Civil society organizations and their strategies
2014 (English)In: Civil Society, Unemployment and Precarity in Europe.: Between Service and policy / [ed] Baglioni, Simone; Giugni, Marco, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 1, p. 32-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 Edition: 1
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33389 (URN)10.1057/9780230391437 (DOI)9780230391420 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2016-03-24Bibliographically approved
Scott, D., Brandow, C., Hobbins, J., Nilsson, S. & Enander, A. (2014). Capturing the citizen perspective in crisis management exercises: possibilities and challenges. International Journal of Emergency Services, 04(1), 82-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing the citizen perspective in crisis management exercises: possibilities and challenges
Show others...
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 04, no 1, p. 82-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – Supporting and communicating with citizens is a vital part of societal crisis management. Training exercises may offer an opportunity to develop capabilities among managers in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to examine this potential in an analysis of how citizens were portrayed and perceived by participants in a major crisis management exercise.

Design/methodology/approach – Observation, document analysis and short interviews during the exercise were used as data collection methods. Data were subjected to thematic analysis to capture core themes in relation to the research aim. Findings – Patterns in how citizens’ reactions were portrayed in the exercise were identified to form a citizen behaviour typology. Observations during the exercise also demonstrated some of the challenges in incorporating the citizen perspective. However, findings regarding the perception of the citizen perspective also demonstrate the ability of exercise participants to meet and respond to public behaviours with respect and seriousness.

Originality/value – Variation is an important condition for learning in exercises, and the identified typology is suggested as a starting point for achieving this in incorporation of the citizen perspective in training scenarios. The results of the study are discussed in terms of a learning framework with the aim of explicitly developing crisis managers’ ability to interact and communicate with citizens in crisis situations.

Keywords
Crisis management, crisis management exercise, citizen perspective, crisis communication, variation theory
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37123 (URN)10.1108/IJES-12-2014-0024 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-07-10 Created: 2015-07-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J. (2013). Från flit till flexibilitet: om idealarbetarens egenskaper. Tam-revy, 17(1), 6-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Från flit till flexibilitet: om idealarbetarens egenskaper
2013 (Swedish)In: Tam-revy, ISSN 1654-6997, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

En svärmorsdröm är någon med ett välbetalt jobb som har ett behagligt yttre och är hjälpsam och trevlig. På motsvarande sätt skulle en ”arbetsgivardröm” om en arbetstagare med idealiska egenskaper kunna beskrivas. Men i motsats till svärmorsdrömmen, vars egenskaper har varit ganska stabila åtminstone under det senaste århundradet, har arbetsgivardrömmen varierat. Den här artikeln är en resa genom tid och beskriver strömningar kring vilka egenskaper som betraktats som attraktiva hos anställda – hur idealarbetaren sett ut.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bromma: Tam-arkiv, 2013
Keywords
Arbetstagare, egenskaper, historisk utveckling
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociology; Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27065 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-25 Created: 2013-04-25 Last updated: 2013-05-03Bibliographically approved
Hobbins, J., Eriksson, B. & Bacia, E. (2012). Civil society organizations and unemployment in Europe. Paper presented at Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Civil society organizations and unemployment in Europe
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Studies of unemployment have traditionally focused on the welfare state as a framework. In that context, the third sector has been neglected, despite a considerable contribution to the field of unemployment. This comparative study will take a closer look at the activities offered by organizations working with unemployed, which will serve as a basis for exploring the relationship between civil society and state in four European countries. Associations in one city per country, active on this particular field within the third sector, will serve as case studies with the cases representing their welfare regime. Data comprises quantitative data gathered in corporatist Germany, Southern European Italy, paternalistic-market hybrid Poland and Social democratic Sweden. We argue that the role of the civil society organizations active on this area has changed in regard to the traditional pattern of classical welfare state models. This study shows that, regardless of welfare regime type as described in literature, the activities and strategies of the organizations are similar in all four countries.

Keywords
civil society, welfare regimes, unemployment, comparative study
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13646 (URN)
Conference
Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF)
Projects
Younex
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2012-06-18Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, B., Bergqvist, T. & Hobbins, J. (2012). Young Adults and the Consequences of Labour Market Status from aEuropean Perspective. In: Ann Bergman & Henrietta Huzell (Ed.), Segregationens seghet och dess föränderliga former: (pp. 109-125). Karlstad: Karlstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young Adults and the Consequences of Labour Market Status from aEuropean Perspective
2012 (English)In: Segregationens seghet och dess föränderliga former / [ed] Ann Bergman & Henrietta Huzell, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 109-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:25
Keywords
Young adults, Labour market status, Unemployment
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37983 (URN)978-91-7063-429-1 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2716-3577

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