Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Shams, Poja, Senior LecturerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9751-6000
Biography [eng]

Poja Shams är biträdande lektor vid Karlstads universitet Service Rasearch Center (CTF). Hans forskning har i första hand varit inriktad på konsumentbeteende och visuell uppmärksamhet i detaljhandeln. Hans forskning har tilldelats Gunnar Sundblad Forskningsfond och publicerats i flera utmärkta tidskrifter som Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Journal of Business Research and Psychology & Marketing.

Biography [swe]

Poja Shams is assistant professor at Karlstads universitet Service Rasearch Center(CTF). His research has primarily been focused on consumer decision making and visual attention in the retail environment. His research has been awarded by the Gunnar Sundblad Research Foundation and published in several distinguished journals such as Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Journal of Business Research and Psychology & Marketing.

Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Högberg, J., Shams, P. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 298-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Engagement, Gamification, Mobile in-store marketing
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69044 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004 (DOI)000471928200033 ()2-s2.0-85049647943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. & Shams, P. (2019). Mirror, mirror, on the menu: Visual reminders of overweight stimulate healthier meal choices. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 47, 177-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mirror, mirror, on the menu: Visual reminders of overweight stimulate healthier meal choices
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 47, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined whether viewing an overweight (vs. normal weight or no) female on a food menu influences women's visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy menu alternatives and, in turn, their actual food choices. Participants (N = 121) viewed a food menu depicting healthy and unhealthy food options, with their calorie content stated, and selected the food option they were most willing to eat. Depending on condition, the menu featured an overweight female (unhealthy), a normal weight female (healthy), or no female (control). Participants in the unhealthy condition looked more at healthy (vs. unhealthy) meal alternatives than participants in the other conditions and were more inclined to choose healthy food options with lower calorie content, with visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives mediating the effect of experimental condition on calorie content and food choices. These results suggest that exposure to overweight women in food settings may make customers more motivated to choose healthier meals. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Body type, Eye tracking, Food choice, Overweight stereotype, Visual attention
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70588 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.11.019 (DOI)000458215400020 ()2-s2.0-85057539884 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Vakulenko, Y., Shams, P., Hellstrom, D. & Hjort, K. (2019). Online retail experience and customer satisfaction: the mediating role of last mile delivery. International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, 29(3), 306-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online retail experience and customer satisfaction: the mediating role of last mile delivery
2019 (English)In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 306-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For various industries worldwide, recent years have been defined by the remarkable growth of e-commerce. Enabled by the Internet, retailers can reach more customers, spread much further in the distribution chain, and optimize their resources. In the new market environment, customer experience has become a source of competitive advantage. This study investigates the role of last mile delivery in the customer's e-retail experience. A quantitative methodology was used, which incorporated a survey that was conducted in Sweden and measured participants' most recent e-retail experience. The results indicate that the last mile delivery experience mediates the relationship between the customer's perception of the online shopping experience and customer satisfaction. These conclusions provide ground for further thorough investigations of the role of last mile delivery in the e-retail context and support e-retailers in increasing their customers' satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Customer experience, e-commerce, online retail, last mile delivery, customer satisfaction
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73218 (URN)10.1080/09593969.2019.1598466 (DOI)000470201900005 ()
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Vakulenko, Y., Shams, P., Hellström, D. & Hjort, K. (2019). Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey. Journal of Business Research, 101, 461-468
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The remarkable growth of e-commerce has defined the recent years of various industries worldwide. Driven by consumers, the e-commerce surge (e-retail in particular) stems from the final leg of the supply chain: the last mile. As the growing flow of e-commerce orders continues to generate new records for annual revenues, key actors in the last mile face the challenges of increasing customer demands and transportation volumes. In response, e-retailers and logistics service providers seek innovative service solutions, often powered by technological advancements. This study consisted of focus group interviews and a usability test that incorporated an innovative technology in the delivery service. The study provides insights into how service innovation affects e-customer behavior and presents a basic map of the e-customer journey. The findings also provide a foundation for improving management of the customer experience and aiding managerial decision-making when designing new e-commerce last mile services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Customer experience, Customer journey, e-Commerce, e-Customer, Last mile delivery, Service innovation
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71271 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.016 (DOI)000473379000041 ()2-s2.0-85059896365 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Wästlund, E. & Shams, P. (2019). Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model. Journal of Visualized Experiments (147), 1-6, Article ID e58846.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model
2019 (English)In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 147, p. 1-6, article id e58846Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several models of the in-store search process exist in the fields of retailing, marketing, and consumer-based research. The present article presents a new conceptualization of this search process, which captures customers' visual attention at three distinct levels of analysis: Stock, Shelf, and Store. We refer to this conceptualization as the 3S Model and illustrate its usefulness through three eye-tracking studies, one from each level of analysis. Our experimental examples, which range from manipulating certain stimuli on a single product (e.g., the placement of textual and pictorial packaging elements) to manipulating the entire shopping trip for customers during their stay in a store (e.g., through more or less specific shopping tasks), highlight the broad applicability of this alternative approach for understanding customers' in-store search behavior. Thus, our model can be seen as a helpful tool for researchers interested in how to conduct experimental eye-tracking studies that shed light on the perceptual processes preceding product choices and purchase decisions. The 3S Model is equally suitable in controlled lab conditions and under ecologically valid settings in the real retail environment. Furthermore, it can be used from the micro level, with a focus on the meaningful metrics on a particular product, through the intermediate level, with the emphasis on the area surrounding products in shelves and other in-store spaces, all the way to the macro level, examining customers' navigational paths throughout a store as a function of their shopping tasks, cognitive capacity, or ability to acquire in-store information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2019
Keywords
Behavior, Issue 147, Visual attention, Eye tracking, In-store search, 3S model, Store, Shelf, Stock, Packaging design, Shelf design, Store design
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Psychology; Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73213 (URN)10.3791/58846 (DOI)000469977600014 ()31180363 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Caruelle, D., Gustafsson, A., Shams, P. & Lervik-Olsen, L. (2019). The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action. Journal of Business Research, 104, 146-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 146-160Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a psychophysiological indicator of emotional arousal. EDA measurement was first employed in consumer research in 1979 but has been scarcely used since. In the past decade, the ease of access to EDA recording equipment made EDA measurement more frequent in studies of consumer emotions. Additionally, recent calls to include physiological data in consumer studies have been voiced, which in turn is increasing the interest in EDA. Such a growing interest calls for assessing why and how EDA measurement has been used and should be used in consumer research. To this end, we undertook a critical review of studies of consumer emotions that employed EDA measurement. We found that most of these studies did not sufficiently report how they recorded and analyzed EDA data, which in turn impeded the replication of the findings. We therefore make recommendations derived from the psychophysiology literature to help consumer researchers get meaningful insights from EDA measurements. Finally, we call on researchers to be more transparent when reporting how they recorded and analyzed EDA data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: , 2019
Keywords
Electrodermal activity, Customer experience, Emotion, Physiological measurement, Arousal
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75097 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.06.041 (DOI)000484647500011 ()
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Wästlund, E., Shams, P., Otterbring, T. & Ricardo, M. (2019). Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience. In: Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell (Ed.), Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation (pp. 179-202). New Jersey: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience
2019 (English)In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019
Keywords
Service, Innovation, Creativity; Ideas, Value, Customer, Marketing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72191 (URN)9789813273375 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Wästlund, E., Shams, P. & Otterbring, T. (2018). Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology. Appetite, 120, 49-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology
2018 (English)In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Decision making, eye tracking, grocery shopping, goal-directed attention, peripheral vision, retailing
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63948 (URN)10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.024 (DOI)000416616400007 ()
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Huneke, T., Benoit (nee Moeller), S., Shams, P. & Gustafsson, A. (2015). Does Service Employees' Appearance Affect the Healthiness of Food Choice?. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1), 94-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Service Employees' Appearance Affect the Healthiness of Food Choice?
2015 (English)In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Derived from previous research on social influence on food consumption and social comparison theory, this article examines the effect of service employees' appearance on consumers' food choice using an experimental study, involving a video manipulation and eye-tracking technique. The video shows a menu being proffered by a waitress whose degree of apparent healthiness varies (healthy, overweight, unhealthy lifestyle). The menu contains both healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives. The analysis of participants' eye movements demonstrated that exposure to the overweight employee did not stimulate greater (i.e., earlier or longer) attention to unhealthy meal alternatives, whereas exposure to the employee who displayed an unhealthy lifestyle did. These findings have social and managerial implications: The postulated stigma according to which the presence of overweight others encourages unhealthy eating appears questionable. Service providers that might secretly hire according to body weight have no grounds to do so. In contrast, employees signaling an unhealthy lifestyle through their style choices prompt patrons to pay more attention to unhealthy meal alternatives. Food service providers might want to take this factor into consideration and actively manage the aspects that can be altered by simple measures. (C) 2014 The Authors. Psychology & Marketing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41660 (URN)10.1002/mar.20765 (DOI)000349071500007 ()
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Wästlund, E., Shams, P. & Otterbring, T. (2015). Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process. In: : . Paper presented at AMA/ACRA TRIENNIAL CONFERENCE, March 4-7, Miami, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35919 (URN)
Conference
AMA/ACRA TRIENNIAL CONFERENCE, March 4-7, Miami, USA
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9751-6000

Search in DiVA

Show all publications

Profile pages

CTF Consumer Lab