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Christiansson, Marie-ThereseORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4468-7524
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Wagner, S., Fernández, D. M., Felderer, M., Vetrò, A., Kalinowski, M., Wieringa, R., . . . Winkler, D. (2019). Status quo in requirements engineering: A theory and a global family of surveys. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 28(2), 1-48, Article ID 9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Status quo in requirements engineering: A theory and a global family of surveys
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2019 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 1-48, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Requirements Engineering (RE) has established itself as a software engineering discipline over the past decades. While researchers have been investigating the RE discipline with a plethora of empirical studies, attempts to systematically derive an empirical theory in context of the RE discipline have just recently been started. However, such a theory is needed if we are to define and motivate guidance in performing high quality RE research and practice. We aim at providing an empirical and externally valid foundation for a theory of RE practice, which helps software engineers establish effective and efficient RE processes in a problem-driven manner. We designed a survey instrument and an engineer-focused theory that was first piloted in Germany and, after making substantial modifications, has now been replicated in 10 countries worldwide. We have a theory in the form of a set of propositions inferred from our experiences and available studies, as well as the results from our pilot study in Germany. We evaluate the propositions with bootstrapped confidence intervals and derive potential explanations for the propositions. In this article, we report on the design of the family of surveys, its underlying theory, and the full results obtained from the replication studies conducted in 10 countries with participants from 228 organisations. Our results represent a substantial step forward towards developing an empirical theory of RE practice. The results reveal, for example, that there are no strong differences between organisations in different countries and regions, that interviews, facilitated meetings and prototyping are the most used elicitation techniques, that requirements are often documented textually, that traces between requirements and code or design documents are common, that requirements specifications themselves are rarely changed and that requirements engineering (process) improvement endeavours are mostly internally driven. Our study establishes a theory that can be used as starting point for many further studies for more detailed investigations. Practitioners can use the results as theory-supported guidance on selecting suitable RE methods and techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
Replication, Requirements engineering, Survey research, Theory, Software engineering, Confidence interval, Elicitation techniques, Engineering disciplines, Requirements specifications, Survey instruments, Surveys
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71737 (URN)10.1145/3306607 (DOI)000468030900005 ()2-s2.0-85062345543 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-11-09Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. & Van Looy, A. (2017). Elements for Tailoring a BPM Maturity Model to Simplify its Use. In: Carmona J., Engels G., Kumar A. (Ed.), Business Process Management Forum. BPM 2017: . Paper presented at BMP 2017 - International Conference on Business Process Management 10-15 September 2017, Barselona, Spain (pp. 3-18). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elements for Tailoring a BPM Maturity Model to Simplify its Use
2017 (English)In: Business Process Management Forum. BPM 2017 / [ed] Carmona J., Engels G., Kumar A., Springer, 2017, p. 3-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although research exists on Business Process Management (BPM) maturity models, few studies report on their practical use. This paper explores the situational needs and practitioner's views on assessing BPM maturity. Data triangulation uncovered different applications in Swedish industry and public sector organizations through three phases: 1) data collection in a practitioner-driven BPM maturity model design, 2) validation of the design in a workshop and follow-up interviews, and 3) testing the BPM maturity model by practitioners. The basic assumption is that a generic BPM maturity model will most likely not fit all organizations. Therefore, a framework is presented with elements (e.g. scope and measures) for a BPM maturity model to be customized to an organization’s needs, supplemented by a practical ‘tailoring template’. The framework and template contribute to the BPM discipline with a Swedish example, and allows twelve design propositions with recommendations to simplify the application of BPM maturity models and enhance their fit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing ; 297
Keywords
Business Process Management, Lifecycle management, Maturity Model, Adoption and practice, Tailoring, Customization
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65438 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-65015-9_1 (DOI)000434673400001 ()
Conference
BMP 2017 - International Conference on Business Process Management 10-15 September 2017, Barselona, Spain
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Méndez Fernández, D., Christiansson, M.-T. & Wieringa, R. (2016). Naming the pain in requirements engineering: Contemporary problems, causes, and effects in practice. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, 1-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naming the pain in requirements engineering: Contemporary problems, causes, and effects in practice
2016 (English)In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, p. 1-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Requirements Engineering (RE) has received much attention in research andpractice due to its importance to software project success. Its interdisciplinary nature, thedependency to the customer, and its inherent uncertainty still render the discipline diffi-cult to investigate. This results in a lack of empirical data. These are necessary, however, todemonstrate which practically relevant RE problems exist and to what extent they matter.Motivated by this situation, we initiated the Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineer-ing (NaPiRE) initiative which constitutes a globally distributed, bi-yearly replicated family of surveys on the status quo and problems in practical RE. In this article, we report on thequalitative analysis of data obtained from 228 companies working in 10 countries in variousdomains and we reveal which contemporary problems practitioners encounter. To this end,we analyse 21 problems derived from the literature with respect to their relevance and crit-icality in dependency to their context, and we complement this picture with a cause-effectanalysis showing the causes and effects surrounding the most critical problems. Our resultsgive us a better understanding of which problems exist and how they manifest themselvesin practical environments. Thus, we provide a first step to ground contributions to RE onempirical observations which, until now, were dominated by conventional wisdom only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Requirements engineering, Survey research
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46926 (URN)10.1007/s10664-016-9451-7 (DOI)
Projects
Naming the pain in requirements engineering
Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T., Axelsson, K. & Melin, U. (2015). Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective. In: Efthimios Tambouris, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Mila Gascó, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek (Ed.), Electronic Government: 14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece, August 30 -- September 2, 2015, Proceedings. Paper presented at 14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece (pp. 183-196). Cham: Springer, 9248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective
2015 (English)In: Electronic Government: 14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece, August 30 -- September 2, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Efthimios Tambouris, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Mila Gascó, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 183-196Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9248
Keywords
Public e-service, Inter-organizational, IO e-service development, IO dimension, Government, IS development
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38065 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-22479-4_14 (DOI)000362426900014 ()978-3-319-22479-4 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, I. & Christiansson, M.-T. (2015). Stakeholder analysis in public e-service development: exploring a possible research-practice gap. In: : . Paper presented at The 12th Scandinavian Workshop on E-government (SWEG 2015) 3-4 feb Köpenhamn.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stakeholder analysis in public e-service development: exploring a possible research-practice gap
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Municipal development of public e-services in Sweden has been criticized by researchers for being steered by quantitative measures, rather than by the actual demands and needs of these services. The results are public e-services that few citizens use. Several scholars have urged municipalities to adopt a stakeholder approach to the development of e-services in order to better understand the actors involved in public e-service development, implementation, and use. The need for a deeper understanding of stakeholders and their various needs are recognized also by practitioners. There are several analytical tools for stakeholder analysis presented by researchers, but these have not yet been widely adopted by practitioners. We present preliminary results from a workshop, with practitioners engaged in public e-service development, designed to investigate this possible research-practice gap. By asking practitioners to react on scholarly work designed for their practice, we investigate their perceptions on a research-based text and their view on its possible utility in their everyday work. The preliminary results show that there are indeed challenges concerning communicating analytical tools, authored by and for researchers, to practitioners. Some tips on how to adjust scholarly text to better fit practitioners needs are extracted and presented, and the paper is concluded with suggestions on how to further explore this knowledge domain. 

Keywords
research-practice gap, stakeholder analysis, public e-services, municipalities, inter-organizational development
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35399 (URN)
Conference
The 12th Scandinavian Workshop on E-government (SWEG 2015) 3-4 feb Köpenhamn
Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. & Wik, M. (2014). A Process Oriented User Test on Public e-Services: The Swedish Municipality Case. In: Jan Devos, Steven De Haes (Ed.), Proceedings of The 8th European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation – ECIME 2014 held at the University of Ghent, Ghent, Belguim: . Paper presented at The 8th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ECIME) 11-12 september Ghent Belgium (pp. 39-48). Academic Conferences Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Process Oriented User Test on Public e-Services: The Swedish Municipality Case
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of The 8th European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation – ECIME 2014 held at the University of Ghent, Ghent, Belguim / [ed] Jan Devos, Steven De Haes, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014, p. 39-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper elaborates on the potential to design and conduct process-oriented user tests on public e-Services. The purpose is to use key constructs of business process orientation (BPO) to develop a basis for design and communicating the value of user tests in a public e-Service context. Our hypotheses are that user tests can provide valuable results for all actors involved in e-Service development, not only in terms of how to conduct user tests per se, but also to provide incentives for a customer driven focus and highlighting the value derived from user tests. In the municipality case, actors and stakeholders are involved municipalities in an inter-organisational collaboration on e-Service development, i.e. different municipalities, locally and regionally, as well as the supplier.  Citizens partaking in a university course conduct the user tests with the eye tracking technology. In total 71 users performed in test sessions on 11 different e-Services in a standard platform provided by one supplier. In this paper, we elaborate on a BPO test design based on basic constructs in the approach compared with findings from reconstructing the test process design used with an implicit approach 2012 and an explicit BPO approach in 2013. Contributions include a generic test-process design for data collection, analysis and delivery to stakeholders in an overall e-Service development. Furthermore, findings from our test sessions and test process design will inspire and guide other universities to collaborate with practitioners. Beside the strength with a real case for the students, user test sessions in collaboration can be an eye-opener to not only for municipalities but also suppliers. Thus, the potential for impacts from test results to be applied in the further development of e-Services has thereby increased.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Conferences Limited, 2014
Series
Proceedings of t he 8th European Conference on IS Manageme nt and Evaluation, ECIME, ISSN 2048-8912, E-ISSN 2048-8920
Keywords
e-Service evaluation, process orientation, test process design, user tests, eye tracking
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34368 (URN)000351437200005 ()978-1-910309-41-4 (ISBN)978-1-5106-0276-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ECIME) 11-12 september Ghent Belgium
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. & Wik, M. (2014). Testing Communicability in Municipality e-Services. In: : . Paper presented at Scandinavian Workshop on E-Government (SWEG 2014).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing Communicability in Municipality e-Services
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the ability to communicate public e-Services, as one part of e-Service evaluation. The purpose is to use and further develop the emerging concept of “communicability” to be used as a base in an evaluation tool in the context of public e-Services. The ability of citizens’ to find, understand and use the e-Services provided is return on investment for public sectors, governments and agencies. The point of departure in this paper is to elaborate on a test process design for data collection and analysis from an empirical driven approach. Empirical grounding is based on a Swedish municipality case with a pilot usability test with eye tracking in 2012 and a second further improved test sessions 2013 on e-Services with citizens partaking in a university course. The research contributions include a further defined concept together with a generic test process for data collection and analysis to be useful as an evaluation tool, in research as in practice. Our research design and experiences from test sessions might also work as an inspiration to other university courses. Further more, findings from our test sessions can be used as a point of departure in formulating guidelines in a handbook to improve communicability in public e-Services.

Keywords
e-Service evaluation, communicability in e-Services, test process design, eye tracking
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33461 (URN)
Conference
Scandinavian Workshop on E-Government (SWEG 2014)
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. & Wik, M. (2014). Testing Communicability in Public e-Services: Process and Outcomes. In: Marijn F.W.H.A. Janssen, Frank Bannister, Olivier Glassey, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria A. Wimmer, Ann Macintosh (Ed.), Electronic government and electronic participation: . Paper presented at IFIP EGOV 1-3 sept 2014 (pp. 244-253). IOS Press, 21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing Communicability in Public e-Services: Process and Outcomes
2014 (English)In: Electronic government and electronic participation / [ed] Marijn F.W.H.A. Janssen, Frank Bannister, Olivier Glassey, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria A. Wimmer, Ann Macintosh, IOS Press, 2014, Vol. 21, p. 244-253Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a case of testing public e-Service communicability is analysed in terms of process as well as outcomes. Key elements in test processes are defined, together with the meaning of communicability identified in terms of information-oriented metrics. The purpose of our paper is to develop knowledge about how e-Service providers should improve their ability to communicate and support users in finding, understanding and using e-Services. The reconstructed test process design is based of an analysis of gaze replays in citizen test sessions by means of eyetracking technology. Empirical findings on communicability metrics are further grounded in theory. Our main contribution to the research community and the field of practice, are a test process and a communicability framework to support the assessing of e-Service information. The use of wireframes for the e-Service five layers, together with a multifunctional template for data collection, analysis and presentation are introduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2014
Series
Innovation and the public sector, ISSN 1871-1073
Keywords
Communicability, Information-oriented metrics, Test process, e- Service layers
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33469 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-429-9-244 (DOI)000355825600024 ()978-1-61499-428-2 (ISBN)978-1-61499-429-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IFIP EGOV 1-3 sept 2014
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. (2013). Challenges in an Evolving e-Service Landscape - The Contact Centre Case: A Position Paper. In: : . Paper presented at The 10th Scandinavian Workshop on E-Government (SWEG) 5-6 Februari Oslo Norge.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges in an Evolving e-Service Landscape - The Contact Centre Case: A Position Paper
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Public e-Services must be designed and made available in accordance with the demands and needs of the citizens. One way to meet these requirements is to establish contact centres in the municipalities to guide citizens and employees in their handling of public services to improve business processes and to incorporate social media and e-Services into the daily business. With an evolving e-Service landscape, new challenges arise  and the role of a contact centre is likely to change from a purely advising function to being a central player in developing the service game in municipalities. The paper presents arguments and plans for using a mix of methods in data collection aimed at identifying challenges in the pre-implementation phase as well as in the handling of e-Services and in the local administrations's outsourcing business processes to the new organisational body (the contact centre). Limitations in the design of the case study include the restricted focus on challenges in communicating e-Service offerings to citizens and employees, based on the overall municipality portfolio. Expected contributions are an “e-Service Communication Map” as a modelling technique for use in service performance and e-Service development.

Keywords
Business-IT alignment, contact centre, e-Service communication map
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34366 (URN)
Conference
The 10th Scandinavian Workshop on E-Government (SWEG) 5-6 Februari Oslo Norge
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2014-10-29Bibliographically approved
Christiansson, M.-T. (2013). Improving citizens’ ability to find, understand and use e-services: Communicating the social interaction dimension. Systems, Signs & Actions, 7(2), 177-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving citizens’ ability to find, understand and use e-services: Communicating the social interaction dimension
2013 (English)In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 177-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the ability to communicate public e-Services, as a part of e-Service development. The purpose is to elaborate on the concept “communicability”, and to define elements and criteria useful in the evaluation and improvement of public e-Services. In terms of public e-Services, communication takes place in a context based on an understanding and relation between the public sector and the citizens using the provider’s e-Service solution. Public sectors are increasing their e-Service offers, making communicating e-Services an important part of the service delivery. The citizens’ ability to find, understand, and use the service is a return on investment. This paper combines a business process and a social interac- tion approach to e-Services. The empirical grounding is a Swedish municipality case study with a pilot evaluation, interviews with developers, and an eye tracking usability test on e- Services with citizens partaking in a university course. The research contributions include a first version of a defined concept of communicability in the e-Service context together with a conceptual basis for evaluation purposes. Findings can be used as a basis for developing an evaluation tool and a handbook to improve communicability in public e-Service solutions.

Keywords
e-Services, e-Service context, social interaction dimension, communicate, communicability
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33468 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4468-7524

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