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Mohideen, A. C., Rajiullah, M., Secchi, R., Fairhurst, G., Brunström, A. & Weinrank, F. (2019). Evaluating the impact of transport mechanisms on web performance for effective web access. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 137, 25-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the impact of transport mechanisms on web performance for effective web access
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 137, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the design trade-offs required for an Internet transport protocol to effectively support web access. It identifies a set of distinct transport mechanisms and explores their use with a focus on multistreaming. The mechanisms are studied using a practical methodology that utilise the range of transport features provided by TCP and SCTP. The results demonstrate the relative benefit of key transport mechanisms and analyse how these impact web access performance. Our conclusions help identify the root causes of performance impairments and suggest appropriate choices guiding the design of a web transport protocol. Performing this analysis at the level of component transport mechanisms enables the results to be utilised in the design of new transport protocols, such as IETF QUIC.

Keywords
Web performance; SCTP; Transport mechanisms
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71847 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2019.04.006 (DOI)000470940500003 ()
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Mancuso, V., Peón Quirós, M., Midoglu, C., Moulay, M., Comite, V., Lutu, A., . . . Hirsch, T. (2019). Results from running an experiment as a service platform for mobile broadband networks in Europe. Computer Communications, 33, 89-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results from running an experiment as a service platform for mobile broadband networks in Europe
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2019 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 33, p. 89-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article we present a selection from a vast range of experiments run with MONROE, our open experiment as a service (EaaS) platform for measurements and experimentation in Mobile Broadband Networks. We show that the platform can be used to benchmark network performance in a repeatable and controlled manner thanks to the collection of a rich set of geotagged metadata and the execution of discretionary user experiments. Indeed, with the sheer amount of data collected from 12 commercial mobile operators across Europe, MONROE offers an unprecedented opportunity to monitor, analyze and ultimately improve the status of current and future mobile broadband networks. Besides, we show how flexibly the platform allows combining metadata and experimental data series during the experiments or by means of post-processing, and show results produced by our own experiments as well as comment on results obtained by external research groups and developers that have been granted access to our platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Mobile broadband, EaaS, Measurements, Network experimentation, Large testbed, Metadata, Performance analysis, Repeatability and reproducibility
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69491 (URN)10.1016/j.comcom.2018.09.004 (DOI)000453619200010 ()
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Rajiullah, M., Lutu, A., Ali, S. K., Fida, M.-r., Mellia, M., Alay, Ö., . . . Mancuso, V. (2019). Web Experience in Mobile Networks: Lessons from Two Million Page Visits. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 World Wide Web Conference (WWW ’19) 13-17 May San Francisco (pp. 1532-1543). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Web Experience in Mobile Networks: Lessons from Two Million Page Visits
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Measuring and characterizing web page performance is a challeng- ing task. When it comes to the mobile world, the highly varying technology characteristics coupled with the opaque network con- figuration make it even more difficult. Aiming at reproducibility, we present a large scale empirical study of web page performance collected in eleven commercial mobile networks spanning four countries. By digging into measurement from nearly two million web browsing sessions, we shed light on the impact of different web protocols, browsers, and mobile technologies on the web per- formance. We found that the impact of mobile broadband access is sizeable. For example, the median page load time using mobile broadband increases by a third compared to wired access. Mobility clearly stresses the system, with handover causing the most evi- dent performance penalties. Contrariwise, our measurements show that the adoption of HTTP/2 and QUIC has practically negligible impact. To understand the intertwining of all parameters, we adopt state-of-the-art statistical methods to identify the significance of different factors on the web performance. Our analysis confirms the importance of access technology and mobility context as well as webpage composition and browser. Our work highlights the importance of large-scale measurements. Even with our controlled setup, the complexity of the mobile web ecosystem is challenging to untangle. For this, we are releasing the dataset as open data for validation and further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
Monroe; HTTP2, Quic, TCP, Mobile Broadband
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71117 (URN)10.1145/3308558.3313606 (DOI)000483508401054 ()2-s2.0-85066916953 (Scopus ID)9781450366748 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 World Wide Web Conference (WWW ’19) 13-17 May San Francisco
Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Grinnemo, K.-J., Bozakov, Z., Brunström, A., Isabel Bueno, M., Damjanovic, D., Rikter Evensen, K., . . . Welzl, M. (2017). Deliverable D3.1 - Initial Report on the Extended Transport System.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliverable D3.1 - Initial Report on the Extended Transport System
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The NEAT System offers an enhanced API for applications that disentangles them from the actual transport protocol being used. The system also enables applications to communicate their service requirements to the transport system in a generic, transport-protocol independent way. Moreover, the architecture of the NEAT System promotes the evolution of new transport services. Work Package 3 (WP3) enhances and extends the core parts of the NEAT Transport. Efforts have been devoted to developing transport-protocol mechanisms that enable a wider spectrum of NEAT Transport Services, and that assist the NEAT System in facilitating several of the commercial use cases. Work has also started on the development of optimal transport-selection mechanisms; mechanisms that enable for the NEAT System to make optimal transport selections on the basis of application requirements and network measurements. Lastly, another research activity has been initiated on how to use SDN to signal application requirements to routers, switches, and similar network elements. This document provides an initial report on all these WP3 activities—both on completed and on near-termplanned work.

Publisher
p. 144
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70624 (URN)
Projects
A New, Evolutive API and Transport-Layer Architecture for the Internet (NEAT)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 644334
Available from: 2018-12-22 Created: 2018-12-22 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Grinnemo, K.-J., Bozakov, Z., Brunström, A., Isabel Sanchez Bueno, M., Dreibholz, T., Rikter Evensen, K., . . . Vyncke, E. (2017). Deliverable D3.3 - Extended Transport System and Transparent Support of Non-NEAT Applications.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliverable D3.3 - Extended Transport System and Transparent Support of Non-NEAT Applications
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This deliverable summarises and concludes our work in Work Package 3 (WP3) to extend the transport services provided by the NEAT System developed in Work Package 2, and to enable non-NEAT applications to harness the transport services offered by NEAT. We have demonstrated how a policy- and information-based selection of transport protocol by NEAT could provide a more efficient transport service for web applications. The information on which NEAT makes its transport selection decisions resides in the Characteristics Information Base (CIB). The CIB is populated by various CIB sources, and in WP3 we have designed, implemented, and evaluated various CIB sources, including meta data from mobile broadband networks, passive measurements, IPv6 Provisioning Domain protocols and the Happy Eyeballs mechanism, which caches the outcome of its connection attempts. A key property of NEAT is that it not only “vertically” decouples applications from transport protocols, but also “horizontally”. Particularly, it enables applications to harness information about resource availability and policies from Software Defined Networking (SDN) controllers in managed networks, without these applications actually being SDN-aware. To extend the use of NEAT to non-NEAT applications, we have implemented a BSDcompatible sockets API on top of NEAT and a NEAT proxy that intercepts and replaces standard TCP connections with NEAT flows, i.e., with the transport solutions deemed most appropriate by NEAT.We have also proposed a way for non-NEAT applications to make use of NEAT through the deployment of NEAT-enabled virtual appliances in SDN-controlled networks: connections from these applications are routed via an SDN-controlled proxy that terminates the original connection and replaces it with a NEAT-selected connection.

Publisher
p. 141
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70626 (URN)
Projects
A New, Evolutive API and Transport-Layer Architecture for the Internet (NEAT)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 644334
Available from: 2018-12-22 Created: 2018-12-22 Last updated: 2018-12-28Bibliographically approved
Fida, M.-R., Kousias, K., Lutu, A., Rajiullah, M., Alay, Ö., Brunström, A. & Argyriou, A. (2017). Demo: experimentation in controlled and operational LTE settings with FLEX-MONROE. In: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization WiNTECH '17: . Paper presented at WiNTECH-2017 - the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization, October 20, 2017, Snowbird, Utah, US (pp. 93-94). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo: experimentation in controlled and operational LTE settings with FLEX-MONROE
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization WiNTECH '17, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 93-94Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This demo paper presents FLEX-MONROE, a platform that facilitates better understanding of current LTE Mobile Broadband(MBB) networks and enables performance improvementsby allowing experimentation with controllable LTE parameters. The platform enables investigating impact oflow-level network parameter tweaks in LTE infrastructure onthe application performance. We argue that FLEX-MONROEis crucial to provide guidelines on improving application performance both in the current and future MBB networks

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
Keywords
Mobile Networks; Experimentation; Testbeds; Performance
National Category
Computer Sciences Telecommunications Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65024 (URN)10.1145/3131473.3133329 (DOI)
Conference
WiNTECH-2017 - the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization, October 20, 2017, Snowbird, Utah, US
Projects
MONROE (4806)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2019-11-09Bibliographically approved
Fida, M.-R., Kousias, K., Lutu, A., Rajiullah, M., Alay, O., Brunström, A. & Argyriou, A. (2017). FLEX-MONROE: A unified platform for experiments under controlled and operational LTE settings. In: WiNTECH 2017 Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & CHaracterization: . Paper presented at 11th ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation & Characterization (WiNTECH2017), Snowbird, Utah, USA, October 20-20, 2017 (pp. 1-8). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FLEX-MONROE: A unified platform for experiments under controlled and operational LTE settings
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2017 (English)In: WiNTECH 2017 Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & CHaracterization, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents FLEX-MONROE, a unique platform that facilitates achieving a thorough understanding of LTE networks, one that captures the status of current operational MBB networks and that also enables LTE performance improvements by allowing experimentation in an environment with controllable LTE parameters. Using this platform, we propose to investigate how variations in the LTE network parameters influence the network characteristics, which, in turn, translate to application performance metrics that represent the end-user experience. We argue that the FLEX-MONROE platform is crucial to understand, validate and ultimately improve how current operational MBB networks perform, towards providing guidelines for designing future 5G architectures. Furthermore, understanding the effects of low-level tweaks in network parameters in the LTE infrastructure on the application performance is critical to provide guidelines on how to improve the application performance in the current but also future MBB networks

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Sciences Telecommunications Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62644 (URN)10.1145/3131473.3131477 (DOI)
Conference
11th ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation & Characterization (WiNTECH2017), Snowbird, Utah, USA, October 20-20, 2017
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2019-11-09Bibliographically approved
Rajiullah, M., Mohideen, A. C., Weinrank, F., Seechi, R., Fairhurst, G. & Brunström, A. (2017). Understanding Multistreaming for Web Traffic: An Experimental Study. In: Gunnar Karlsson, Anna Brunstrom, Hongbo Jiang, Tilman Wolf, Viktoria Fodor (Ed.), 16th International IFIP TC6 Networking Conference, Networking 2017: . Paper presented at IFIP Networking 2017 Conference and Workshops: IFIP/TC6 Networking Workshop on Future of Internet Transport, Stockholm, 12-15 June 2017. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Multistreaming for Web Traffic: An Experimental Study
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2017 (English)In: 16th International IFIP TC6 Networking Conference, Networking 2017 / [ed] Gunnar Karlsson, Anna Brunstrom, Hongbo Jiang, Tilman Wolf, Viktoria Fodor, IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the design trade-offs needed for an Internet transport protocol to effectively support web access over HTTP/1.1. It explores use of a multistreaming transport protocol mechanism and studies these using a practical methodology utilising the transport features of TCP and SCTP. This is used to evaluate the relative benefit of key transport mechanisms and analyse how these impact web access performance. Our conclusions help identify the root causes of performance impairments and suggest appropriate choices when selecting a suitable transport protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
TCP, SCTP, Web, performance analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48430 (URN)10.23919/IFIPNetworking.2017.8264875 (DOI)000425452000052 ()978-3-901882-94-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IFIP Networking 2017 Conference and Workshops: IFIP/TC6 Networking Workshop on Future of Internet Transport, Stockholm, 12-15 June 2017
Projects
NEAT
Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Rajiullah, M., Hurtig, P., Brunstrom, A., Petlund, A. & Welzl, M. (2015). An Evaluation of Tail Loss Recovery Mechanisms for TCP. Computer communication review, 45(1), 6-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of Tail Loss Recovery Mechanisms for TCP
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2015 (English)In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interactive applications do not require more bandwidth to go faster. Instead, they require less latency. Unfortunately, the current design of transport protocols such as TCP limits possible latency reductions. In this paper we evaluate and compare different loss recovery enhancements to fight tail loss latency. The two recently proposed mechanisms "RTO Restart" (RTOR) and "Tail Loss Probe" (TLP) as well as a new mechanism that applies the logic of RTOR to the TLP timer management (TLPR) are considered. The results show that the relative performance of RTOR and TLP when tail loss occurs is scenario dependent, but with TLP having potentially larger gains. The TLPR mechanism reaps the benefits of both approaches and in most scenarios it shows the best performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2015
Keywords
TCP; Congestion Control; Latency; Packet Loss; Recovery
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34860 (URN)10.1145/2717646.2717648 (DOI)000354951000002 ()
Available from: 2015-01-01 Created: 2015-01-01 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Rajiullah, M. (2015). Towards a Low Latency Internet: Understanding and Solutions. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Low Latency Internet: Understanding and Solutions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Networking research and development have historically focused on increasing network throughput and path resource utilization, which particularly helped bulk applications such as file transfer and video streaming. Recent over-provisioning in the core of the Internet has facilitated the use of interactive applications like interactive web browsing, audio/video conferencing, multi- player online gaming and financial trading applications. Although the bulk applications rely on transferring data as fast as the network permits, interactive applications consume rather little bandwidth, depending instead on low latency. Recently, there has been an increasing concern in reducing latency in networking research, as the responsiveness of interactive applications directly influences the quality of experience.

To appreciate the significance of latency-sensitive applications for today's Internet, we need to understand their traffic pattern and quantify their prevalence. In this thesis, we quantify the proportion of potentially latency-sensitive traffic and its development over time. Next, we show that the flow start-up mechanism in the Internet is a major source of latency for a growing proportion of traffic, as network links get faster.

The loss recovery mechanism in the transport protocol is another major source of latency. To improve the performance of latency-sensitive applications, we propose and evaluate several modifications in TCP. We also investigate the possibility of prioritization at the transport layer to improve the loss recovery. The idea is to trade reliability for timeliness. We particularly examine the applicability of PR-SCTP with a focus on event logging. In our evaluation, the performance of PR-SCTP is largely influenced by small messages. We analyze the inefficiency in detail and propose several solutions. We particularly implement and evaluate one solution that utilizes the Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) mechanism, which has been proposed for standardization in the IETF. According to the results, PR-SCTP with NR-SCAKs significantly improves the application performance in terms of low latency as compared to SCTP and TCP.

Abstract [en]

Interactive applications such as web browsing, audio/video conferencing, multi-player online gaming and financial trading applications do not benefit (much) from more bandwidth. Instead, they depend on low latency. Latency is a key determinant of user experience. An increasing concern for reducing latency is therefore currently being observed among the networking research community and industry.

In this thesis, we quantify the proportion of potentially latency-sensitive traffic and its development over time. Next, we show that the flow start-up mechanism in the Internet is a major source of latency for a growing proportion of traffic, as network links get faster.

The loss recovery mechanism in the transport protocol is another major source of latency. To improve the performance of latency-sensitive applications, we propose and evaluate several modifications in TCP. We also investigate the possibility of prioritization at the transport layer to improve the loss recovery. The idea is to trade reliability for timeliness. We particularly examine the applicability of PR-SCTP with a focus on event logging. In our evaluation, the performance of PR-SCTP is largely influenced by small messages. We analyze the inefficiency in detail and propose several solutions. We particularly implement and evaluate one solution that utilizes the Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) mechanism, which has been proposed for standardization in the IETF. According to the results, PR-SCTP with NR-SCAKs significantly improves the application performance in terms of low latency as compared to SCTP and TCP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2015. p. 39
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 41
Keywords
latency; traffic classification; slow-start; TCP; SCTP; PR-SCTP; NR-SACKs; event logging; performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37487 (URN)978-91-7063-659-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-12, Lagerlöfsalen, 1A305, Karlstads universitet, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2765-7873

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