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Ljung, Lennart
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Ljung, L., Rönnlund, P. & Jansson, T. (2013). Relevance found! The result perspective as a basis for practically applicable project typologies.. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 74, 101-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relevance found! The result perspective as a basis for practically applicable project typologies.
2013 (English)In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 74, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Result perspective, structured project analysis, SPA framework, project typology, strategic project archetypes, Operational logics, Complexity
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Projektledning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-28625 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.03.040 (DOI)000337227400011 ()
Note

The purpose of this paper is to advance project theory on how distinctive significant characteristics in different project types can be identified and utilized for the effective management of projects and project portfolios. The since long dominating view that all projects can be managed using a standardized set of methods and techniques is insufficient, since the most apparent feature of projects is that each project is unique. Several attempts have been made to develop typologies for diagnosing projects. The process perspective, based on a rationalistic standpoint, has long been the prevailing perspective in both project practice and project research. This perspective has since the mid ninetieth been challenged by an organizational perspective. We argue that the “result perspective”, a trivialized perspective within the project research field, can be utilized to increase the understanding of the project phenomenon, and to identify distinctive characteristics in projects. Partly conceptual, and partly based on findings from case studies in three multi project environments carried out during a doctoral study 2004-2009, we describe a framework for a Structured Project Analysis (SPA) based on variations in project deliverables, goals and effects. Three analysis models are outlined: 1) Operational logics - based on variations in the character of the deliverables. 2) Strategic archetypes - based on variations in the project goal and effects. 3) Complexity - based on the nature of complexity in the project deliverables, goal and effects.

Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Jansson, T. & Ljung, L. (2013). Strategic Project Archetypes for Effective Project Steering. In: Selected papers from the 26th IPMA (international project managment association) world congress: . Paper presented at 26th World Congress of the International-Project-Management-Association (IPMA), 2012, Crete, GREECE (pp. 112-122). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic Project Archetypes for Effective Project Steering
2013 (English)In: Selected papers from the 26th IPMA (international project managment association) world congress, Elsevier, 2013, p. 112-122Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ability to use the project work form tends to be increasingly important for long-term profitability in most organizations, thus, strategic management nowadays normally comprises management of projects and project portfolios. Many significant decisions concerning the organization's vision, goals and operations origins from a few basic questions in a strategic perspective. Some of these are related to developing a strategic position: Which products should we offer? How can we retain old customers and attract new ones? How can we increase our internal efficiency? The answers to these questions often results in decisions to initiate projects for product development, marketing campaigns or internal improvements. Other projects are related to operating from an established strategic position: delivering customer orders and producing events. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss a project typology, derived from a strategic management perspective. The typology consists of five project archetypes: Product development projects, Marketing projects, Internal improvement projects, Customer order projects, and Event projects. The typology highlights distinctive characteristics in the result perspective, i.e. variations in project deliverables, goals and intended effects, which have significant consequences for business oriented project steering in practice. Variations between project archetypes are described focusing on business decision processes, the purpose and content of project phases, progress control/follow-up, and organizational principles. The typology represents one of three analysis models in a framework for Structured Project Analysis (the SPA framework) developed during a doctoral study 2004-2009. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Series
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428 ; 74
Keywords
Project typology, product development projects, marketing projects, internal improvement projects, customer order projects, event projects
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38658 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.03.042 (DOI)000337227400012 ()
Conference
26th World Congress of the International-Project-Management-Association (IPMA), 2012, Crete, GREECE
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-10-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C. . & Ljung, L. (2011). A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills. In: Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) 2011 Conference: . Paper presented at http://www.fek.su.se/Global/Bildarkiv/NFF2011/Download/NFF_2011_Programme_and_Abstracts.pdf.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills
2011 (English)In: Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) 2011 Conference, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Project management skills are needed in a growing number of areas, all with specific requirements regarding technical and social competencies. Still, the majority of project management training is focusing on technical tools and techniques, emphasized in standards suggested by global professional project management associations. Uncertainties and unique social settings require a managerial approach different from the linear, rational and analytical view of the world provided by international standards such as the PMBOK Guide. A new approach to project management education is needed that deals with the complexity of today’s project environments. This paper describes a one year master program in project management at the KarlstadUniversity in Sweden. The program is general and focuses on issues regardless of business area or project type, and mix both technical and social skills. The program was initiated in 2002 and more than 200 students have until today been part of the program. In addition to the mandatory courses in the program, several students have, on voluntary basis, passed the IPMA D-level certification. The paper also presents the results from two different types of evaluations showing that the majority of the students have great use of their education in their current employment.

Keywords: project management education; project management knowledge; soft skills; hard skills; pedagogic

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16322 (URN)
Conference
http://www.fek.su.se/Global/Bildarkiv/NFF2011/Download/NFF_2011_Programme_and_Abstracts.pdf
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2015-01-23Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C. E. & Ljung, L. (2011). A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills. In: Nordic Academy of Management conference 2011: . Paper presented at Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) 2011 Conference, Stockholm, 20-24/8 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills
2011 (English)In: Nordic Academy of Management conference 2011, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Project management skills are needed in a growing number of areas, all with specific requirements regarding technical and social competencies. Still, the majority of project management training is focusing on technical tools and techniques, emphasized in standards suggested by global professional project management associations. Uncertainties and unique social settings require a managerial approach different from the linear, rational and analytical view of the world provided by international standards such as the PMBOK Guide. A new approach to project management education is needed that deals with the complexity of today’s project environments. This paper describes a one year master program in project management at theKarlstadUniversityinSweden. The program is general and focuses on issues regardless of business area or project type, and mix both technical and social skills. The program was initiated in 2002 and more than 200 students have until today been part of the program. In addition to the mandatory courses in the program, several students have, on voluntary basis, passed the IPMA D-level certification. The paper also presents the results from two different types of evaluations showing that the majority of the students have great use of their education in their current employment.

Keywords
project management education; project management knowledge; soft skills; hard skills; pedagogic
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Projektledning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-12543 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) 2011 Conference, Stockholm, 20-24/8 2011
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2012-03-26 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Jansson, T. & Ljung, L. (2011). Individer, grupper och ledarskap i projekt (1:1ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individer, grupper och ledarskap i projekt
2011 (Swedish)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Att arbeta i projektform har i många organisationer blivit ett vanligt arbetssätt. Att kunna samarbeta med människor från andra delar av organisationen, med olika kompetenser, mål och förutsättningar har därför blivit en viktig framgångsfaktor.Litteratur om hur människor i samarbete fungerar brukar inte ha projekt och tillfälliga arbetsgrupper som utgångspunkt. Detsamma gäller också för en stor del av forskningen om individer, grupper och ledarskap. Den här boken ändrar på det.Med projektet som utgångspunkt beskrivs vad som händer i det första mötet med andra och hur samarbetsnormer och lärstilar skapar en gruppdynamik som leder gruppen framåt. Boken skapar förståelse för hur konflikter uppstår och hanteras samt ger perspektiv på spelet i mötet mellan olika människor. Vidare behandlas hur samarbete i arbetsgrupper förändras över tid, hur man gör för att kunna ta upp och reagera på varandras beteende och hur man leder andra. Texten illustreras med många exempelsituationer från verkligheten.På bokens webbplats www.studentlitteratur.se/janssonochljung finns ett omfattande digitalt material med bland annat övningar, lästips och bildmaterial från boken.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011. p. 290 Edition: 1:1
Keywords
projekt, grupper, ledarskap
National Category
Business Administration Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-9022 (URN)978-91-44-06807-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-01-02 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2015-03-17Bibliographically approved
Ljung, L. (2011). Särdrag i projekt: utformning av ett ramverk för strukturerad projektanalys. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Särdrag i projekt: utformning av ett ramverk för strukturerad projektanalys
2011 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Distinctive characteristics of projects : framework design for structured project analysis
Abstract [sv]

En utgångspunkt för den föreliggande avhandlingen och doktorsstudien är den spridning och ökning av projektarbetsformens tillämpning, som skett sedan mitten av 1900-talet. Det har blivit allt vanligare med så kallade multiprojektmiljöer, dvs. verksamheter där projekt är en normalt förkommande arbetsform och av så stor betydelse att projektledning och projektstyrning (t.ex. värdering och uppföljning av projekt) är en viktig fråga för organisationens ledning. För många organisationer där förmågan att hantera projektarbetsformen blivit avgörande för överlevnad och lönsamhet finns därför ett stort behov av att förbättra projekthanteringen. Det dominerande synsättet har länge varit att alla projekt i grunden är likartade och kan ledas och styras effektivt med standardiserade projektledningstekniker och modeller. Alltfler forskare menar dock att det är så stora skillnader mellan olika projekttyper att projekthanteringen måste anpassas efter projektens särdrag, vilket förutsätter en möjlighet att analysera det aktuella projektet – att kunna ställa en ”projektdiagnos”.

I en ambition att öka kunskapen om projekten i sig, är syftet med doktorsstudien att utveckla beskrivningar av de särdrag i projekt som har avgörande betydelse för projekthantering i multiprojektmiljöer. Tre fallstudier har genomförts i tre organisationer som utvecklat och implementerat en projektmodell för att förbättra sin projekthantering. Fallstudierna har delvis genomförts med aktionsforskning som metod. Detta har gjort det möjligt att studera projekthanteringen under lång tid, och att skapa nyanserade beskrivningar av särdragen i respektive multiprojektmiljö. Utifrån fallstudierna, projektforskningen och egna erfarenheter från projektmiljöer, har ett ramverk för strukturerad projektanalys utformats i syfte att öka resultatens generaliserbarhet. Ramverket, som består av tre analysmodeller och tre grundläggande perspektiv på projekt, utgör en begreppsapparat för strukturerad projektanalys som är fristående från fallstudierna.

Studien visar hur särdragen i olika projekttyper, t.ex. förekomsten av dubbla operativa logiker och olika slag av komplexitet, är avgörande dels för projekthanteringen, dels för vilka förbättringsåtgärder som är effektiva i en multiprojektmiljö. Ytterligare ett bidrag från studien är det ramverk som utformats med utgångspunkt i den stora variation som olika projekt uppvisar ur ett resultatperspektiv.

Abstract [en]

A starting point for the present thesis is the increased application of the project work form, a form that has been growing in usage since the mid 1900s. Today, multiproject environments have become increasingly common, i.e. organisations where projects are a normal part of the working environment and where they are of such great importance that project management and project steering (e.g. evaluation and follow-up) are considered important for the organisation's management. In many organisations where the ability to apply the project work form is critical for survival and profitability, there is a great need to improve the management of projects. The dominating view has long been that all projects are inherently alike, and can be effectively managed and controlled with standardised project management techniques and models. However, more and morere searchers are pointing out that because there are in fact quite distinct differences between different types of projects, project management must be adapted to the distinctive characteristics of the project, which presupposes the possibility of analysing the project in question – of being able to make a "project diagnosis".

In an attempt to increase knowledge about projects as a type of work form, this doctoral study aims to develop descriptions of distinctive characteristics in projects that are essential for project management in multiproject environments. Three case studies have been performed in three organisations that have developed and implemented a project model to improve their project management. The case studies have been performed using action research methodology. This has made it possible to study project management during an extended period of time, creating nuanced descriptions of the distinctive characteristics in each multiproject environment. From the case studies, project research and personal experience in project environments, a framework for Structured Project Analysis (SPA) has been designed with the aim of increasing the generalisation of the results. The framework, based on three analysis models and three basic perspectives of projects, provides a conceptual model for structured project analysis independent of the case studies.

The study shows how the various distinctive characteristics of different project types, such as the presence of dual operational logics and varying types of complexity, are crucial for both management of projects and for deciding which improvement measures are most effective in a multiproject environment. A further contribution of the study is the framework that has been designed based on the wide variation presented by different projects through a results perspective. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2011. p. 310
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:50
Keywords
action research, analysis model, case study, multiproject environment, perspective, project management, project model, framework, structured project analysis (SPA), distinctive characteristics in projects, typology, aktionsforskning, analysmodell, fallstudie, multiprojektmiljö, perspektiv, projekthantering, projektledning, projektmodell, ramverk, strukturerad projektanalys (SPA), särdrag i projekt, typologi
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8486 (URN)978-91-7063-386-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-01-20, Ljungbergssalen, 21A 244, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2012-02-06Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, O. & Ljung, L. (2010). Critical Success Conditions for Enterprise Systems Change Projects. Paper presented at AMCIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 413. Paper presented at AMCIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 413.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Success Conditions for Enterprise Systems Change Projects
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract

Enterprise systems are configurable and customized computer-based information systems, claiming to provide a total, integrated solution to firms' information-processing needs. 'Management support', 'User Involvement', and 'Project Management Experience' are considered as three of the most important critical success conditions for Enterprise systems change projects. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss new preconditions for established critical success conditions in Enterprise systems change projects. Traditional Enterprise systems technology and traditional plan-driven project management methods are not in an effective way supporting the established critical success conditions for Enterprise systems change projects. Supported by the findings from one case study, we propose that new preconditions, such as modern Enterprise systems technology, more narrowly defined projects and agile methods are matching each other. We also propose that this combination of new preconditions is more appropriate for supporting the realization of critical success conditions for Enterprise systems change projects

Keywords
enterprise systems, critical success conditions, enterprise systems change, project management, agile methods, web-based enterprise systems, sales portals, sales order processes
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10163 (URN)
Conference
AMCIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 413
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, O. & Ljung, L. (2010). Modern Enterprise Systems as Enablers of Agile Development. Paper presented at Information Systems Development - Asian Experiences (Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2009), September 16-19, Nanchang, China). Paper presented at Information Systems Development - Asian Experiences (Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2009), September 16-19, Nanchang, China). New York: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern Enterprise Systems as Enablers of Agile Development
2010 (English)In: / [ed] Wei Song, WW, Xu, S, Wan C, Zhong, Y, Wojtkowski, W, Wojtkowski, G and Linger, H, New York: Springer , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract

Traditional ES technology and traditional project management methods are supporting and matching each other. But they are not in an effective way sup-porting the critical success conditions for ES development. Although the findings from one case study of a successful modern ES change project is not strong empirical evidence, we carefully propose that the new modern ES technology is sup-porting and matching agile project management methods. In other words, it pro-vides the required flexibility which makes it possible to put into practice the agile way of running projects, both for the system supplier and for the customer. In addition, we propose that the combination of modern ES technology and agile project management methods are more appropriate for supporting the realization of critical success conditions for ES development. The main purpose of this paper is to compare critical success conditions for modern enterprise systems development projects with critical success conditions for agile information systems development projects

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2010
Keywords
affärssystem, enterprise systems, framgångsfaktorer, success conditions, projektledning, project management, agila metoder, agile methods, Webbaserade affärssystem, Web-based enterprise system, säljportal, sales portal, säljorderprocess, sales order proce
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-11096 (URN)9781441972057 (ISBN)
Conference
Information Systems Development - Asian Experiences (Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2009), September 16-19, Nanchang, China)
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Jansson, T. & Ljung, L. (2010). New times, new projects, new tools required. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 24th IPMA World Congress 1-3 November, 2010, in Istanbul. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 24th IPMA World Congress 1-3 November, 2010, in Istanbul. Istanbul: International Project Management Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New times, new projects, new tools required
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract

Today, it is almost impossible to find organisations without any ongoing projects. Projects seem to play an increasingly important role in most organisations. Projects are nowadays often small, frequent and a normal way of organising work. Most project managers are working in arenas quite different compared with those where the standard toolbox was originally developed, i.e. large construction and development projects. During the last two decades, several researchers have stressed the necessity of adapting leadership style and usage of techniques, e.g. for project planning, to meet the specific requirements of each project type. In this paper we move one step further, and suggest that the choice of project management methods and techniques must be based on the characteristics of each individual project. If there would be only one common tool in the toolbox for every project manager it ought to be an analysis model or method to create an understanding of the actual projects characteristics. Supported by three comprehensive case studies in three different organisations, carried out through an action research methodology during 5 years (2004-2009), this paper presents two models for such project analysis. The first model is a suggested project typology consisting of five project archetypes derived from a strategic management perspective. The second is a project diagnosis, featuring 15 questions formulated to reveal important project characteristics with relevance for the required leadership. We argue that these two models can serve as useful tools for project management and business oriented steering, since they are aiming at guiding leaders towards effectively focusing their attention to the areas most critical for project success

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Istanbul: International Project Management Association, 2010
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10385 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 24th IPMA World Congress 1-3 November, 2010, in Istanbul
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Jansson, T. & Ljung, L. (2009). Hemligheten med projektledning. Karlstad: TUK Förlag AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemligheten med projektledning
2009 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: TUK Förlag AB, 2009. p. 237
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-11438 (URN)9186419005 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
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