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Friman, M., Maier, R. & Olsson, L. E. (2019). Applying a motivational stage-based approach in order to study a temporary free public transport intervention. Transport Policy, 81, 173-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying a motivational stage-based approach in order to study a temporary free public transport intervention
2019 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 81, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examines temporary free public transport as an intervention for increasing public transport use, hence promoting sustainable mobility. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to understand how psychological mechanisms relate to motivational stage-based models of behavioral change, and the role of such a model when implementing temporary free public transport, and (2) to determine the effectiveness of temporary free public transport on car-use behavior, public transport satisfaction and attitudes. A literature review of studies reporting temporary free public transport interventions was first carried out, resulting in 13 studies that yielded non-conclusive results. We then conducted an intervention and follow-up surveys of 190 participants who tested public transport for free for one month in the County of Värmland (Sweden). The results show that psychological mechanisms are crucial determinants of motivational stage-based models, whereby personal norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control form the stage of change, and that social norms have an indirect effect through personal norms. Although an increased use of public transport was observed, only minor reduction in car use occurred. It was also found that participants moved up their motivational ladders, indicating a stronger motivation to reduce their car use post-intervention, something that may lead to a change in behavior over time. It is concluded that, although weak effects were observed on behavior in the short-term perspective, a temporary free public transport intervention may not be a waste of money, nevertheless, in a long-term perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Travel behavior change, Stage-based models, Sustainable mobility, Temporary free public transport, Theory of planned behavior, Work commute
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73104 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2019.06.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067605047 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43210-1
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Waygood, O., Olsson, L. E., Taniguchi, A. & Friman, M. (2019). Children’s independent mobility and social media use on face-to-face social interactions with friends. In: : . Paper presented at Transport Research Board (TRB) 2019 Annual Meeting, 13-17 January Washington, US..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s independent mobility and social media use on face-to-face social interactions with friends
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71187 (URN)
Conference
Transport Research Board (TRB) 2019 Annual Meeting, 13-17 January Washington, US.
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Waygood, E. O., Friman, M., Taniguchi, A. & Olsson, L. E. (2019). Children's life satisfaction and travel satisfaction: Evidence from Canada, Japan, and Sweden. Travel Behaviour & Society, 16, 214-223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's life satisfaction and travel satisfaction: Evidence from Canada, Japan, and Sweden
2019 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 16, p. 214-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Travel satisfaction has been linked to life satisfaction for adults, but no evidence exists currently for children's travel. Children's travel differs from adult's in numerous ways including limitations related to independent travel and available transport options. Children's travel is often more local and their desire to explore and learn about their environment may be higher than for adults. The importance of social interaction during travel or at locations may also be a greater consideration for children. Further, many of their destinations are pre-determined such as going to school (not all adults work, but nearly all children of school age attend school). This paper analyzes the relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction for children aged 9–12 in Canada, Japan, and Sweden (n = 425) using partial least squares structural equation modeling. In line with previous findings among adults, the analyses show a significant path from travel satisfaction to life satisfaction among children, suggesting a moderate relationship. Unexpectedly, negative relationships for increased frequency of nearly all mode uses (walking, bus, and car) on travel satisfaction (directly) and life satisfaction (indirectly) were found, which may suggest that children do not enjoy frequent travel. These results suggest a relationship that is likely important, but not necessarily in the ways anticipated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Children, Everyday travel, Life satisfaction, Satisfaction with travel
National Category
Sociology Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67404 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.04.004 (DOI)000471170100023 ()2-s2.0-85046661396 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Waygood, O., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E. & Ayako, T. (2019). Children’s virtual and face-to-face social interactions outside of school. In: : . Paper presented at Active Living Conference 2019 February 17-20, 2019 | Charleston, SC, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s virtual and face-to-face social interactions outside of school
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71182 (URN)
Conference
Active Living Conference 2019 February 17-20, 2019 | Charleston, SC, USA
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Skarin, F., Olsson, L. E., Friman, M. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 62, 451-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs
2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 62, p. 451-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present field study investigates the reduction of car use through a voluntary travelbehavior intervention program that provides participants with temporary free publictransportation. Three factors – self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction – have previ-ously been shown to be important for behavior change during physical activity interven-tion programs. In travel behavior interventions, however, these factors have often beenstudied individually and less is known about their combined effects on travel behaviorchange. Furthermore, while motives for participating in travel behavior interventions havebeen frequently studied within travel behavior interventions research, there is a lack ofstudies investigating the influence of motives on travel behavior change. To better under-stand the importance of different motives as well as the importance of self-efficacy, socialsupport, and satisfaction with travel on behavior change, a series of surveys were admin-istered to 181 participants before, during, and after their participation in a voluntary travelbehavior intervention. The results show that greater self-efficacy and social support duringthe intervention led to greater travel behavior change. These results indicate that in orderto gain better results from travel behavior interventions, individuals should be helped toincrease their travel-related self-efficacy, and significant others should be involved to pro-vide social support. We discuss possible ways of accomplishing this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71179 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.02.002 (DOI)000468709800034 ()
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Waygood, O., Olsson, L. E., Taniguchi, A. & Friman, M. (2019). The role of children’s independent mobility and social media use for face-to-face social interaction with friends. Transportation, 173-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of children’s independent mobility and social media use for face-to-face social interaction with friends
2019 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 173-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social interaction with friends is an important contributor to children’s well-being, but how transport affects this is rarely studied. For two or more children (not of the same household) to have social interaction where they are physically present (i.e. face-to-face), requires at least one of them to make a trip. Qualitative work has found that children mention the possibility to socialize with friends as a desirable attribute of independent travel, and independent travel is associated with knowing where to find friends. However, little is known quantitatively. Thus, the first objective of this article is to examine whether general travel patterns and licenses to travel independently relate to face-to-face interaction. Further, children in this era have new tools of communication that were not available widely in previous generations. Are those tools being used to replace face-to-face interaction? Thus, a second objective is to examine whether virtual social interaction affects face-to-face social interaction. Next, would it be more likely that replacement would occur if children’s independence was restricted? Which leads to this question, is there any influence of travel patterns and licences on virtual interaction? The findings suggest that virtual social interaction may be complementary to face-to-face interaction and that being allowed to travel independently increases those physically present social interactions.

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73620 (URN)10.1007/s11116-019-10037-3 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-28 Created: 2019-07-28 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. E. & Friman, M. (2019). Vad avgör om man samåker eller inte?. In: : . Paper presented at Transportforum 2019, Linköping.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad avgör om man samåker eller inte?
2019 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71185 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum 2019, Linköping
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. E., Maier, R. & Friman, M. (2019). Why do they ride with others? Meta-analysis of factors influencing travelers to carpool. Sustainability, 11(8), 1-16, Article ID 2414.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why do they ride with others? Meta-analysis of factors influencing travelers to carpool
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 1-16, article id 2414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carpooling can be viewed as a simple intervention to reduce congestion, environmental problems, and land use for parking spaces. The present study assembled 18 studies on carpooling from all over the world that were published during the last five years (2014–2018) for a meta-analysis. By calculating effect sizes of 20 different factors, the study aimed to understand user characteristics, motives, and barriers to carpooling, and to gain insights about carpool interventions. Our results indicate that carpooling is very weakly related to socio-demographic variables, and that psychological factors are becoming more important, including monetary and time benefits, reducing congestion, and environmental concerns. Policy-makers can increase carpooling by offering cheaper parking or special parking spaces for carpoolers and introducing high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Not surprisingly, fuel prices influence mode choice. The overall findings support previous results, but we found judgmental factors becoming more important for the choice to carpool. We conclude that carpooling services still fail to include many potential users and to serve users adequately. The challenge of meeting the needs of all users requires new approaches to designing carpool concepts, systems, and encounters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
behavior, carpool, effect size, intervention, motivation, meta-analysis
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71924 (URN)10.3390/su11082414 (DOI)000467752200227 ()
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-05-31Bibliographically approved
Lättman, K., Olsson, L. E. & Friman, M. (2018). A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel. Research in Transportation Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Accessibility has conventionally been measured and evaluated ignoring user perceptions in favor of focusing on travel time and distance to a number of pre-determined destinations. Acknowledging this gap, we recently developed a scale for perceived accessibility PAC (Lättman, Friman, & Olsson 2016b) aimed at capturing the individual perspective of accessibility with a certain travel mode. In this paper, we 1) further develop the PAC measure of perceived accessibility in order to capture how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, 2) compare levels of perceived accessibility between residential areas and main travel modes, and 3) compare residents’ perceived accessibility to the objective accessibility level for the same residential area. Data from 2711 residents of Malmö, Sweden show that perceived accessibility is consistently different from objective accessibility across 13 residential areas, with minor differences in levels of perceived accessibility between areas. Surprisingly, bicycle users rate their accessibility significantly higher than those who mainly use the car or public transport for daily travel, contrary to objective accessibility assumptions. These differences point at the importance of including perceived accessibility as a complementary tool when planning for and evaluating transport systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Perceived accessibility;Accessibility; Accessibility measure; Transport planning; Sustainable transport
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68045 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2018.06.002 (DOI)000454975000058 ()
Projects
MistraSAMS
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. E. & Friman, M. (2018). Applying A Stage-Based Approach to Study Effects of Temporary Free Public Transport on Psychological Mechanisms and Behavior.. In: : . Paper presented at 7:e nationella konferensen i Svensk transportforskning, 15-16 oktober, GU, Göteborg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying A Stage-Based Approach to Study Effects of Temporary Free Public Transport on Psychological Mechanisms and Behavior.
2018 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71189 (URN)
Conference
7:e nationella konferensen i Svensk transportforskning, 15-16 oktober, GU, Göteborg
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6570-6181

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