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Grinnemo, Karl-JohanORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4147-9487
Publications (10 of 124) Show all publications
Mahjoubi, A., Ramaswamy, A. & Grinnemo, K.-J. (2024). An Online Simulated Annealing-based Task Offloading Strategy for a Mobile Edge Architecture. IEEE Access, 12, 70707-70718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Online Simulated Annealing-based Task Offloading Strategy for a Mobile Edge Architecture
2024 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 70707-70718Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel online task scheduling strategy called SATS, designed for a hierarchical Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) architecture. SATS utilizes a Simulated Annealing-based method for scheduling tasks and demonstrates that Simulated Annealing can be a viable solution for online task scheduling, not just for offline task scheduling. However, the paper also emphasizes that the effectiveness of SATS depends on the precision of service request predictions. The paper evaluates three types of predictors: neutral, conservative, and optimistic. It concludes that when using a conservative predictor that overestimates the number of service requests, SATS performs the best in terms of higher acceptance rates and shorter processing times. In fact, when using a conservative predictor, SATS can offer an acceptance ratio that is only 5% lower than what it could have been if SATS had known the frequency of service request arrivals beforehand and deviates less than 20% from this acceptance ratio in all conducted experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024
Keywords
online task scheduling, simulated annealing, mobile edge computing, task offloading
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-99693 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3402611 (DOI)001231444800001 ()2-s2.0-85193546863 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Data-driven Latency-sensitive Mobile Services for a Digitalized Society (DRIVE)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20220072
Available from: 2024-05-19 Created: 2024-05-19 Last updated: 2024-06-25Bibliographically approved
Abbas, M. T., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferré, G., Laurent, P., Alfredsson, S., Rajiullah, M. & Eklund, J. (2024). Towards zero-energy: Navigating the future with 6G in Cellular Internet of Things. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 230, Article ID 103945.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards zero-energy: Navigating the future with 6G in Cellular Internet of Things
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 230, article id 103945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Cellular Internet of Things (CIoT) has seen significant growth in recent years. With the deployment of 5G, it has become essential to reduce the power consumption of these devices for long-term sustainability. The upcoming 6G cellular network introduces the concept of zero-energy CIoT devices, which do not require batteries or manual charging. This paper focuses on these devices, providing insight into their feasibility and practical implementation. The paper examines how CIoT devices use simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, beamforming, and backscatter communication techniques. It also analyzes the potential use of energy harvesting and power management in zero-energy CIoT devices. Furthermore, the paper explores how low-power transceivers can lower energy usage while maintaining dependable communication functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
6G, Cellular Internet of Things, CIoT, Energy harvesting, Zero-energy devices, 5G mobile communication systems, Energy transfer, Inductive power transmission, Internet of things, Radio transceivers, Cellular internet of thing, Cellular network, Cellulars, Energy devices, Long-term sustainability, Zero energies, Zero-energy device
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-101112 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2024.103945 (DOI)2-s2.0-85197349319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-07-12 Created: 2024-07-12 Last updated: 2024-07-16Bibliographically approved
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2023). Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks. In: 2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit: . Paper presented at 2023 European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit) (pp. 508-513). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks
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2023 (English)In: 2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit, IEEE, 2023, p. 508-513Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The lack of consideration for application delay requirements in standard loss-based congestion control algorithms (CCAs) has motivated the proposal of several alternative CCAs. As such, Copa is one of the most recent and promising CCAs, and it has attracted attention from both academia andindustry. The delay performance of Copa is governed by amostly static latency-throughput tradeoff parameter, δ. However,a static δ parameter makes it difficult for Copa to achieve consistent delay and throughput over a range of bottleneck bandwidths. In particular, the coexistence of 4G and 5G networks and the wide range of bandwidths experienced in NG-RANs can result in inconsistent CCA performance. To this end, we propose a modification to Copa, Copa-D, that dynamically tunes δ to achieve a consistent delay performance. We evaluate the modification over emulated fixed, 4G, and 5G bottlenecks. The results show that Copa-D achieves consistent delay with minimal impact on throughput in fixed capacity bottlenecks. Copa-D also allows a more intuitive way of specifying the latency-throughput tradeoff and achieves more accurate and predictable delay invariable cellular bottleneck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
European Conference on Networks and Communications, ISSN 2475-6490, E-ISSN 2575-4912
Keywords
Copa, Delay, Throughput, 4G, 5G, QUIC
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94025 (URN)10.1109/EuCNC/6GSummit58263.2023.10188233 (DOI)2-s2.0-85168418872 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2023 European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit)
Note

Paper part of Haile's (2023) doctoral thesis Achieving Low Latency and High Throughput over Cellular Internet Connections as manuscript, now published.

Available from: 2023-03-28 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2024-07-08Bibliographically approved
Rico, D., Grinnemo, K.-J., Brunstrom, A. & Merino, P. (2023). Performance analysis of The Multi-connection Tactile Internet Protocol over 5G. Journal of Network and Systems Management, 31(3), Article ID 49.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis of The Multi-connection Tactile Internet Protocol over 5G
2023 (English)In: Journal of Network and Systems Management, ISSN 1064-7570, E-ISSN 1573-7705, Vol. 31, no 3, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tactile Internet is an Internet network that combines ultra-low latency with extremely high availability and reliability. Since traditional protocols, such as UDP and TCP, cannot support this operation, other transport protocols are required to meet the stringent requirements of the Tactile Internet. This paper evaluates the implementation of the Multi-connection Tactile Internet Protocol (MTIP), a multi-connectivity transport protocol for the Tactile Internet.MTIP uses application and network status information to select network paths intelligently and, in so doing, to improve reliability and latency. The paper studies how different configurations of the MTIP algorithm impact its path selection and the effect on lost and late packets. This evaluation is performed in an emulated environment and in a 4G/5G lab to evaluate the protocol in diverse scenarios. The results show a direct trade-off between higher reliability requirements and the number of duplicate packets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Multi-connectivity, Remote Control, Transport Protocol, Tactile Internet, Industrial Robot, Context Awareness
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94298 (URN)10.1007/s10922-023-09737-0 (DOI)000999625100001 ()2-s2.0-85161012330 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Data-driven Latency-sensitive Mobile Services for a Digitalized Society (DRIVE)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101016608
Available from: 2023-04-15 Created: 2023-04-15 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
Mahjoubi, A., Grinnemo, K.-J. & Taheri, J. (2022). An Efficient Simulated Annealing-based Task Scheduling Technique for Task Offloading in a Mobile Edge Architecture. In: Secci S., Durairajan R., Linguaglossa L., Kamiyama N., Nogueira M., Rovedakis S. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2022 IEEE Conference on Cloud Networking 2022, CloudNet 2022: . Paper presented at 11th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, (CloudNet), Paris, France, November 7-10, 2022. (pp. 159-167). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Efficient Simulated Annealing-based Task Scheduling Technique for Task Offloading in a Mobile Edge Architecture
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2022 IEEE Conference on Cloud Networking 2022, CloudNet 2022 / [ed] Secci S., Durairajan R., Linguaglossa L., Kamiyama N., Nogueira M., Rovedakis S., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 159-167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a fundamental cornerstone in the digitalization of industry and society. Still, IoT devices’ limited processing and memory capacities pose a problem for conducting complex and time-sensitive computations such as AI-based shop floor monitoring or personalized health tracking on these devices, and offloading to the cloud is not an option due to excessive delays. Edge computing has recently appeared to address the requirements of these IoT applications. This paper formulates the scheduling of tasks between IoT devices, edge servers, and the cloud in a three-layer Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) architecture as a Mixed- Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem. The paper proposes a simulated annealing-based task scheduling technique and demonstrates that it schedules tasks almost as time-efficient as if the MILP problem had been solved with a mixed integer programming optimization package; however, at a fraction of the cost in terms of CPU, memory, and network resources. Also, the paper demonstrates that the proposed task scheduling technique compares favorably in terms of efficiency, resource consumption, and timeliness with previously proposed techniques based on heuristics, including genetic programming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
task offloading, task scheduling, edge/cloud computing, simulated annealing, time sensitivity I.
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92092 (URN)10.1109/CloudNet55617.2022.9978900 (DOI)2-s2.0-85146121455 (Scopus ID)9781665486279 (ISBN)
Conference
11th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, (CloudNet), Paris, France, November 7-10, 2022.
Available from: 2022-10-01 Created: 2022-10-01 Last updated: 2023-06-20Bibliographically approved
Prakash, A., Eichhorn, F., Keil, O., Emmelmann, M., Gutiérrez, J., Maletic, N., . . . Saiz, E. (2022). Deliverable D6.3: Trials and experimentation (cycle 3). 5 GENESIS Consortium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliverable D6.3: Trials and experimentation (cycle 3)
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2022 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This deliverable presents the third and final cycle of trials and experimentation activities executed over 5GENESIS facilities. The document is the continuation of deliverables D6.1 and D6.2, in the sense that it captures tests carried out over the evolved infrastructures hosting 5GENESIS facilities following the methodology defined in the previous editions of this deliverable. The tests reported in this document focus on i) the final 5G infrastructure deployments that includes radio and core elements mostly in Stand-Alone (SA) deployment configurations based on commercial and open implementations, and ii) the various use cases/applications, some of them also involving field trials. Most of the tests described herein, especially the generic/lab ones are performed using the Open5GENESIS experimentation suite. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
5 GENESIS Consortium, 2022. p. 226
Keywords
5G, 5G NR, 5G-PPP, eMBB, EPC, E-UTRAN, KPI, LTE, MANO, NB-IoT, MME, mmWave, QoE, QoS
National Category
Engineering and Technology Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88405 (URN)
Projects
5th Generation End-to-end Network, Experimentation, System Integration, and Showcasing (5GENESIS)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 815178
Available from: 2022-02-04 Created: 2022-02-04 Last updated: 2022-04-22Bibliographically approved
Mahjoubi, A., Grinnemo, K.-J. & Taheri, J. (2022). EHGA: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Scheduling Tasks on Distributed Edge-Cloud Infrastructures. In: Wautres T., Khabbaz M., Paganelli F., Idzikowski F., Zhu Z. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2022 13th International Conference on the Network of the Future: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on the Network of the Future,Ghent, Belgium, October 5-7, 2022.. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EHGA: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Scheduling Tasks on Distributed Edge-Cloud Infrastructures
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2022 13th International Conference on the Network of the Future / [ed] Wautres T., Khabbaz M., Paganelli F., Idzikowski F., Zhu Z., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to cloud computing’s limitations, edge computing has emerged to address computation-intensive and time-sensitive applications. In edge computing, users can offload their tasks to edge servers. However, the edge servers’ resources are limited, making task scheduling everything but easy. In this paper, we formulate the scheduling of tasks between the user equipment, the edge, and the cloud as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem that aims to minimize the total system delay. To solve this MILP problem, we propose an Enhanced Healed Genetic Algorithm solution (EHGA). The results with EHGA are compared with those of CPLEX and a few heuristics previously proposed by us. The results indicate that EHGA is more accurate and reliable than the heuristics and Quicker than CPLEX at solving the MILP problem. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
computation offloading, Integer programming, Scheduling, Algorithm solution, Cloud-computing, Edge clouds, Edge computing, Edge/cloud computing, Mixed integer linear programming problems, Problem solving time, Problem-solving, System delay, Task offloading, Genetic algorithms
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92698 (URN)10.1109/NoF55974.2022.9942552 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142931071 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-7254-8 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on the Network of the Future,Ghent, Belgium, October 5-7, 2022.
Available from: 2022-12-09 Created: 2022-12-09 Last updated: 2023-06-20Bibliographically approved
Mahjoubi, A., Grinnemo, K.-J. & Taheri, J. (2022). EHGA: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Scheduling Tasks on Distributed Edge-Cloud Infrastructures. In: The 13th International Conference on Network of the Future, Ghent, Belgium, October 05-07, 2022: . Paper presented at The 13th International Conference on Network of the Future. IEEE Communications Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EHGA: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Scheduling Tasks on Distributed Edge-Cloud Infrastructures
2022 (English)In: The 13th International Conference on Network of the Future, Ghent, Belgium, October 05-07, 2022, IEEE Communications Society, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to cloud computing's limitations, edge computing has emerged to address computation-intensive and time-sensitive applications. In edge computing, users can offload their tasks to edge servers. However, the edge servers' resources are limited, making task scheduling everything but easy. In this paper, we formulate the scheduling of tasks between the user equipment, the edge, and the cloud as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem that aims to minimize the total system delay. To solve this MILP problem, we propose an Enhanced Healed Genetic Algorithm solution (EHGA). The execution time of EHGA is shortened in two ways: First, after the crossover and mutation, EHGA heals rather than discards the failed offspring. Second, EHGA divides the chromosome into several sub-chromosomes and attempts to discover the optimum solution for each sub-chromosome in parallel. It uses the best solution for each sub-chromosome to generate a new chromosome. The results with EHGA are compared with those of CPLEX and a few heuristics previously proposed by us. The results indicate that EHGA is more accurate and reliable than the heuristics and quicker than CPLEX at solving the MILP problem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2022
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-91361 (URN)
Conference
The 13th International Conference on Network of the Future
Available from: 2022-07-16 Created: 2022-07-16 Last updated: 2023-06-20Bibliographically approved
Abbas, M. T., Grinnemo, K.-J., Eklund, J., Alfredsson, S., Rajiullah, M., Brunström, A., . . . Alay, Ö. (2022). Energy-Saving Solutions for Cellular Internet of Things - A Survey. IEEE Access, 10, 62096-62096
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Saving Solutions for Cellular Internet of Things - A Survey
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2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 62096-62096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Cellular Internet of Things (CIoT), a new paradigm, paves the way for a large-scale deployment of IoT devices. CIoT promises enhanced coverage and massive deployment of low-cost IoT devices with an expected battery life of up to 10 years. However, such a long battery life can only be achieved provided the CIoT device is configured with energy efficiency in mind. This paper conducts a comprehensive survey on energy-saving solutions in 3GPP-based CIoT networks. In comparison to current studies, the contribution of this paper is the classification and an extensive analysis of existing energy-saving solutions for CIoT, e.g., the configuration of particular parameter values and software modifications of transport- or radio-layer protocols, while also stressing key parameters impacting the energy consumption such as the frequency of data reporting, discontinuous reception cycles (DRX), and Radio Resource Control (RRC) timers. In addition, we discuss shortcomings, limitations, and possible opportunities which can be investigated in the future to reduce the energy consumption of CIoT devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
CIoT, 3GPP, energy-saving, mMTC, NB-IoT, LTE-M, EC-GSM-IoT
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-90168 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3182400 (DOI)000812551400001 ()2-s2.0-85132770822 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2023-06-30Bibliographically approved
Rabitsch, A., Anagnostopoulos, T., Grinnemo, K.-J., McNamara, J., Bosneag, A.-M., Alexandros Kourtis, M., . . . Brunström, A. (2022). Integrated Network and End-host Policy Management for Network Slicing. In: The 18th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM),: . Paper presented at The 18th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM).Thessaloniki, Greece, 31 October - 4 November 2022.. New York, USA: IEEE Communications Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Network and End-host Policy Management for Network Slicing
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2022 (English)In: The 18th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM),, New York, USA: IEEE Communications Society, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

5G mobile networks introduce the concept of network slicing, the functionality of creating virtual networks on top of shared physical infrastructure. Such slices can be tailored to various vertical services. A single User Equipment (UE) may be served by multiple network slice instances simultaneously, which opens up the possibility of dynamically steering traffic in response to the specific needs of individual applications -- and as a reaction to events inside the network, e.g., network failures. 

This paper presents the PoLicy-based Architecture for Network Slicing (PLANS). In this policy framework, the network slice management entity in the 5G core and the UE can cooperatively optimize the usage of the available network slices via policy systems installed both inside the network and on the UE. The PLANS architecture has been implemented and evaluated in a 5G testbed. For two different case studies, we show how such a system can be leveraged to provide optimized services and increased robustness against network failures. First, we consider a drone autopilot scenario, and demonstrate how PLANS can reduce network-slice recovery time by more than 90%. Second, we illustrate for a 360-degree video streaming scenario how PLANS can help prevent video quality degradation when a network slice becomes unavailable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: IEEE Communications Society, 2022
Keywords
5G, network slicing, transport services, user equipment, policy system
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-91932 (URN)
Conference
The 18th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM).Thessaloniki, Greece, 31 October - 4 November 2022.
Projects
5th Generation End-to-end Network, Experimentation, System Integration, and Showcasing (5GENESIS)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 815178
Available from: 2022-09-18 Created: 2022-09-18 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4147-9487

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