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Frodeson, Stefan, UniversitetsadjunktORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0446-4251
Alternative names
Biography [eng]

Currently, I conduct doctoral studies in my field of research, wood pelleting and the ability to use additives that lead to a broader raw material base and increased utilization of waste products. Current research is about understanding the chemical composition of wood and the role of pure wood substances during the densification process.

I’m a member of the research group NewDeP, which is a part of the research environment Pro2BE. My research is mainly based on laboratory studies in single pellet levels and in pilot scale, but studies in full-scale applications are also conducted.

Biography [swe]

Jag är forskarstuderande inom området pelletering av biomaterial, ett arbete som sker inom forskargruppen NewDeP, som är en del i forskningsmiljön Pro2BE. Min pågående forskning fokuserar på ökad förståelse kring hur olika träsubstanser påverkar och påverkas av komprimeringssteget i en pelletspress. 

Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Frodeson, S., Henriksson, G. & Berghel, J. (2018). Pelletizing pure biomass substances to investigate the mechanical properties and bonding mechanisms. BioResources, 13(1), 1202-1222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pelletizing pure biomass substances to investigate the mechanical properties and bonding mechanisms
2018 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1202-1222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid fuel for heating is an important product, and for sustainability reasons, it is important to replace nonrenewable fuels with renewable resources. This entails that the raw material base for pellet production has to increase. A broader spectrum of materials for pelleting involves variation in biomass substances. This variation, due to lack of knowledge, limits the possibilities to increase the pellet production using new raw materials. In this study, pellets were produced with a single pellet press from 16 different pure biomass substances representing cellulose, hemicellulose, other polysaccharides, protein, lignin, and extractives, and five different wood species, representing softwoods and hardwoods. All pellets were analyzed for the work required for compression and friction, maximum force needed to overcome the backpressure, pellet hardness, solid density, and moisture uptake. The results showed that the hardest pellets were produced from the group of celluloses, followed by rice xylan and larch arbinogalactan. The weakest pellets were from the group of mannans. Conclusions are that the flexible polysaccharides have a greater impact on the pelletizing process than previously known, and that the differences between xylan and glucomannan may explain the difference in the behavior of pelletizing softwoods and hardwoods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina State University, 2018
Keywords
Biomass pellets, Renewable energy, Single pellet press, Wood pellets, Biomass, Cellulose, Fuels, Hardwoods, Polysaccharides, Presses (machine tools), Softwoods, Wood, Bonding mechanism, Non-renewable fuels, Pellet hardness, Pellet production, Renewable energies, Renewable resource, Wood pellet, Pelletizing
National Category
Energy Systems Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66400 (URN)10.15376/biores.13.1.1202-1222 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041345528 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 16 February 2018; Article; Correspondence Address: Frodeson, S.; Environmental and Energy Systems, Department of Engineering and Chemical Science, Karlstad University, KarlstadSweden; email: Stefan.Frodeson@kau.se; References: Ahn, B.J., Chang, H.-S., Lee, S.M., Choi, D.H., Cho, S.T., Han, G.-S., Yang, I., 'Effect of binders on the durability of wood pellets fabricated from Larix kaemferi C. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. sawdust, ' (2014) Renew. Energ, 62, pp. 18-23; Barsett, H., Ebringerová, A., Harding, S., Heinze, T., Hromádková, Z., Muzzarelli, C., Muzzraelli, R., El Seoud, O., (2005) Polysaccharides I: Structure, , Characterisation and Use, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Germany; Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Granström, K., Renström, R., Ståhl, M., Nordgren, D., Tomani, P., 'The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life, ' (2013) Fuel Process. Technol, 112, pp. 64-69; Berglund, J., Angles d'Ortoli, T., Vilaplana, F., Widmalm, G., Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, M., Lawoko, M., Henriksson, G., Wohlert, J., 'A molecular dynamics study of the effect of glycosidic linkage type in the hemicellulose backbone on the molecular chain flexibility, ' (2016) The Plant Journal, 88 (1), pp. 56-70; Braccini, I., Pérez, S., 'Molecular basis of Ca2+-induced gelation in alginates and pectins: The egg-box model revisited, ' (2001) Biomacromolecules, 2 (4), pp. 1089-1096; Christiansen, A.W., 'How overdrying wood reduces its bonding to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives: A critical review of the literature. Part II, Chemical reactions, ' (1991) Wood Fiber Sci, 23 (1), pp. 69-84; Deshpande, R., (2016) The Initial Phase of Sodium Sulfite Pulping of Softwood: A Comparison of Different Pulping Options, , Doctoral Thesis, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; (2012) Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe, , European Union, Brussels, Belgium; Fengel, D., Wegener, G., (1989) Wood: Chemistry, , Ultrastructure, Reactions, 2nd Ed., Walter de Gruyter, Berlin; Grover, P., Mishra, S., (1996) Biomass Briquetting: Technology and Practices, , (Field Document No. 46) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy; Holm, J.K., Henriksen, U.B., Hustad, J.E., Sørensen, L.H., 'Toward an understanding of controlling parameters in softwood and hardwood pellets production, ' (2006) Energ. Fuel, 20 (6), pp. 2686-2694; Hse, C.-Y., Kuo, M.-L., 'Influence of extractives on wood gluing and finishing-A review, ' (1988) Forest Prod. J, 38 (1), pp. 52-56; Irvine, G., 'The glass transitions of lignin and hemicellulose and their measurement by differential thermal analysis, ' (1984) Tappi J, 67 (5), pp. 118-121; Kaliyan, N., Morey, R.V., 'Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass, ' (2010) Bioresource Technol, 101 (3), pp. 1082-1090; Kaliyan, N., Morey, R.V., 'Factors affecting strength and durability of densified biomass products, ' (2009) Biomass Bioenerg, 33 (3), pp. 337-359; Kuokkanen, M.J., Vilppo, T., Kuokkanen, T., Stoor, T., Niinimäki, J., 'Additives in wood pellet production-A pilot-scale study of binding agent usage, ' (2011) BioResources, 6 (4), pp. 4331-4355; Lawoko, M., Berggren, R., Berthold, F., Henriksson, G., Gellerstedt, G., 'Changes in the lignin-carbohydrate complex in softwood kraft pulp during kraft and oxygen delignification, ' (2004) Holzforschung, 58 (6), pp. 603-610; Mani, S., Tabil, L.G., Sokhansanj, S., 'Compaction of biomass grinds-An overview of compaction of biomass grinds, ' (2003) Powder Handling and Processing, 15 (3), pp. 160-168; Mani, S., Tabil, L.G., Sokhansanj, S., 'Effects of compressive force, particle size and moisture content on mechanical properties of biomass pellets from grasses, ' (2006) Biomass Bioenerg, 30 (7), pp. 648-654; Mišljenovic, N., Colovic, R., Vukmirovic, D., Brlek, T., Bringas, C.S., 'The effects of sugar beet molasses on wheat straw pelleting and pellet quality. A comparative study of pelleting by using a single pellet press and a pilot-scale pellet press, ' (2016) Fuel Process. Technol, 144, pp. 220-229; Nguyen, Q.N., Cloutier, A., Achim, A., Stevanovic, T., 'Effect of process parameters and raw material characteristics on physical and mechanical properties of wood pellets made from sugar maple particles, ' (2015) Biomass Bioenerg, 80, pp. 338-349; Nielsen, N.P.K., (2009) Importance of Raw Material Properties in Wood Pellet Production: Effects of Differences in Wood Properties for the Energy Requirements of Pelletizing and the Pellet Quality, , Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Nielsen, N.P.K., Gardner, D.J., Felby, C., 'Effect of extractives and storage on the pelletizing process of sawdust, ' (2010) Fuel, 89 (1), pp. 94-98; Nielsen, N.P.K., Gardner, D.J., Poulsen, T., Felby, C., 'Importance of temperature, moisture content, and species for the conversion process of wood residues into fuel pellets, ' (2009) Wood Fiber Sci, 41 (4), p. 414; Nielsen, N.P.K., Holm, J.K., Felby, C., 'Effect of fiber orientation on compression and frictional properties of sawdust particles in fuel pellet production, ' (2009) Energ. Fuel, 23 (6), pp. 3211-3216; Pauly, M., Keegstra, K., 'Cell-wall carbohydrates and their modification as a resource for biofuels, ' (2008) The Plant Journal, 54 (4), pp. 559-568; Pettersen, R.C., 'The chemical composition of wood, ' (1984) The Chemistry of Solid Wood, Advances in Chemistry Series, 207, pp. 57-126. , in: R. M. Rowell (ed.) Washington DC, American Chemical Society; Puig-Arnavat, M., Shang, L., Sárossy, Z., Ahrenfeldt, J., Henriksen, U.B., 'From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill-Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks, ' (2016) Fuel Process. Technol, 142, pp. 27-33; Ramírez-Gómez, A., 'Research needs on biomass characterization to prevent handling problems and hazards in industry, ' (2016) Particul. Sci. Technol, 34 (4), pp. 432-441; Roffael, E., 'Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding, ' (2016) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100 (4), pp. 1589-1596; Rumpf, H., 'The strength of granules and agglomerate, ' (1962) Agglomeration, pp. 379-418. , W. A. Knepper (ed.), Interscience Publishers, New York, NY; Rydholm, S.A., (1985) Pulping Processes, , Robert Krieger Publishing Co., Inc., Malabar, FL 32950; Samuelsson, R., Larsson, S.H., Thyrel, M., Lestander, T.A., 'Moisture content and storage time influence the binding mechanisms in biofuel wood pellets, ' (2012) Appl. Energ, 99, pp. 109-115; Samuelsson, R., Thyrel, M., Sjöström, M., Lestander, T.A., 'Effect of biomaterial characteristics on pelletizing properties and biofuel pellet quality, ' (2009) Fuel Process. Technol, 90 (9), pp. 1129-1134; (2009) 'Solid biofuels-Determination of moisture content-Oven dry method-Part 1: Total moisture-Reference method, ', , Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Stelte, W., Holm, J.K., Sanadi, A.R., Barsberg, S., Ahrenfeldt, J., Henriksen, U.B., 'Fuel pellets from biomass: The importance of the pelletizing pressure and its dependency on the processing conditions, ' (2011) Fuel, 90 (11), pp. 3285-3290; Stelte, W., Holm, J.K., Sanadi, A.R., Barsberg, S., Ahrenfeldt, J., Henriksen, U.B., 'A study of bonding and failure mechanisms in fuel pellets from different biomass resources, ' (2011) Biomass Bioenerg, 35 (2), pp. 910-918; Stelte, W., Sanadi, A.R., Shang, L., Holm, J.K., Ahrenfeldt, J., Henriksen, U.B., 'Recent developments in biomass pelletization-A review, ' (2012) BioResources, 7 (3), pp. 4451-4490; Ståhl, M., Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Granström, K., Renström, R., 'Effects on pellet properties and energy use when starch is added in the wood-fuel pelletizing process, ' (2012) Energ. Fuel, 26 (3), pp. 1937-1945; Ståhl, M., Berghel, J., Granström, K., 'Improvement of wood fuel pellet quality using sustainable sugar additives, ' (2016) BioResources, 11 (2), pp. 3373-3383; Tarasov, D., Shahi, C., Leitch, M., 'Effect of additives on wood pellet physical and thermal characteristics: A review, ' (2013) ISRN Forestry, 2013, pp. 1-6; Vassilev, S.V., Baxter, D., Andersen, L.K., Vassileva, C.G., 'An overview of the chemical composition of biomass, ' (2010) Fuel, 89 (5), pp. 913-933; Whittaker, C., Shield, I., 'Factors affecting wood, energy grass and straw pellet durability-A review, ' (2017) Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev, 71, pp. 1-11

Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-04-16
Berghel, J., Ståhl, M. & Frodeson, S. (2017). The amount of dust and rejects as well as the electricity consumption during production decreases with the use of adequate additives. In: : . Paper presented at International Biomass and Conference & Expo, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 10-12 April 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The amount of dust and rejects as well as the electricity consumption during production decreases with the use of adequate additives
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63905 (URN)
Conference
International Biomass and Conference & Expo, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 10-12 April 2017
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Frodeson, S. (2016). Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Symposium "Energy challenges & mechanics - towards a big picture", Inverness, Scotland. 14-18 august 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The production and use of wood-fuel pellets, preferably made from sawdust or shavings, have increased significantly worldwide in recent years. If wood-fuel pellets should continue to be a successful biofuel at the energy market there are several factors to take into consideration. The pellet production industry already tries to reduce the production cost, since it is a low margin business. Further, it tries to produce pellets from a broader raw material base and at the same time satisfy the customer requirements while producing a sustainable product. The wood fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet all these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements.

This work focuses on energy efficiency, technical aspects and environmental factors, i.e., the electricity consumption, the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets, and the CO

2 equivalent emitted during production, respectively. 20 various additives, with an admixture of up to 2 % (wt.), have been tested during wood fuel pellet production at Karlstad University. This work presents the benefits of using different additives in pellet production and the cost associated with different additives. The results shows that additive from the sea and from farmlands (algae, rape seed cake and grass) decrease the energy use in the pellet press but unfortunately also decrease the durability. Additives from wood (resins, lignin) and molasses increases the durability of the pellet but shows almost no or little change in electricity consumption. However, using starch grades, white sugar or spent sulphite liquor as an additive increases the mechanical properties while it decreases both the electricity consumption and the climate impact, hence a win-win-win situation. To justify the use of additives from a climate impact perspective in regions with an OECD European electricity mix or the Swedish electricity mix, the usage of additives from the rest products where the CO2 equivalent emissions are allocated to the main product are crucial.

In conclusion, it is necessary to do research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives for wood fuel pellets to continuously be a successful biofuel at the energy market

National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63906 (URN)
Conference
6th International Symposium "Energy challenges & mechanics - towards a big picture", Inverness, Scotland. 14-18 august 2016
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J., Frodeson, S. & Renström, R. (2013). Energy reduction in wood-fuel pellet production. Forest bioenergy review, 4(19), 6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy reduction in wood-fuel pellet production
2013 (English)In: Forest bioenergy review, ISSN 2045-8614, Vol. 4, no 19, p. 6-Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: K V J Enterprises, 2013
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34916 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Frodeson, S., Berghel, J. & Renström, R. (2013). Pneumatic dryer as a second step in a two step drying technique. In: Sixth Nordic Drying Conference NDC 2013: . Paper presented at Sixth Nordic Drying Conference (NDC) 5-7 juni 2013 Copenhagen, Danmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pneumatic dryer as a second step in a two step drying technique
2013 (English)In: Sixth Nordic Drying Conference NDC 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29711 (URN)
Conference
Sixth Nordic Drying Conference (NDC) 5-7 juni 2013 Copenhagen, Danmark
Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-10-18 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Renström, R., Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Granström, K., Nilsson, L., Lestelius, M., . . . Stawreberg, L. (2013). The drying process from a product perspective. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Drying Conference - NDC, Copenhagen, Danmark 5-7 juni 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The drying process from a product perspective
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29707 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Drying Conference - NDC, Copenhagen, Danmark 5-7 juni 2013
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-18 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Granström, K., Renström, R., Ståhl, M., Nordgren, D. & Tomani, P. (2013). The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life. Fuel processing technology, 112(0), 64-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life
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2013 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 112, no 0, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2011, the total consumption of pellets in Sweden amounted to 1.9 million tons, which represents an energy value of 9 TWh. The pellets are used in large-scale as well as in small-scale applications, and increased demands on pellet quality are likely to force pellet producers to improve on the pellet properties. One way of increasing pellet quality is by using additives. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to examine kraft lignin as an additive. Pelletswere produced in a small industrial pellet press located at KarlstadUniversity, Karlstad, Sweden, and 1–4% of kraft lignin was added to the pellets. The results indicate that the addition of an increased amount of kraft lignin to the pellets increases their mechanical durability and their lengths. The results also indicate that dry kraft lignin yields pellets with higher durability as compared to wet kraft lignin. The energy demand was unaffected by the increased use of kraft lignin. The general results presented in this paper are useful for producers of lignin, pellet producers and end-users of pellets, who are interested in developing their products and/or improving the production processes.

Keywords
Pellets Quality Energy efficiency Additive Lignin Storage
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27007 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.02.011 (DOI)000319244200009 ()
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Frodeson, S., Berghel, J. & Renström, R. (2013). The Potential of Using Two-Step Drying Techniques for Improving Energy Efficiency and Increasing Drying Capacity in Fuel Pellet Industries. Drying Technology, 31(15), 1863-1870
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Potential of Using Two-Step Drying Techniques for Improving Energy Efficiency and Increasing Drying Capacity in Fuel Pellet Industries
2013 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1863-1870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of wood fuel pellets has increased worldwide in recent years, and pellet producers conclude that the lack of drying capacity is a barrier to increased production. In this study, we develop a concept of two different dryers called the two-step drying technique. The aim is to show the potential for increasing the drying capacity and improving energy efficiency when introducing a second dryer into the pellet plant. The study is theoretical and based on an industrial packed moving bed dryer. It shows that the drying capacity increased by 22% when a pneumatic second dryer was used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
Drying capacity, Energy efficiency, Packed moving bed, Pneumatic dryer, Wood fuel pellet
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29958 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2013.833520 (DOI)000335776300015 ()
Available from: 2013-11-01 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Granström, K. & Renström, R. (2012). Effects on Pellet Properties and Energy Use When Starch Is Added in the Wood-Fuel Pelletizing Process. Energy & Fuels, 26(3), 1937-1945
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on Pellet Properties and Energy Use When Starch Is Added in the Wood-Fuel Pelletizing Process
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2012 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1937-1945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The production and use of wood-fuel pellets have increased significantly worldwide in recent years. The increased use of biomaterials has resulted in higher raw material prices, and there are no signs that indicate a decrease in raw material competition. Additives can be used for different purposes. Partly, they are used to facilitate the use of new raw materials to increase the raw material base, and partly, they are used to decrease the energy use in the pelletizing process. They are also used to increase durability or shelf life. Consequently, it is necessary to do research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives. In this work, it is investigated how various percentages of different kinds of starch influence pellet properties, including shelf life and energy use in the pelletizing process. Four different starch grades were used: native wheat starch, oxidized corn starch, native potato starch, and oxidized potato starch. The pellets were produced in a small industrial pellet press located at Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden. The result shows that starch increases the durability of the pellets. Oxidized starches increase the durability more than native starches, and the best results were obtained by adding oxidized corn starch. The durability did not decrease with storage time when the pellets were stored indoors during 7 months. The oxidation process was not consistently altered by the addition of starch. The energy consumption of the pellet press decreases when starch is added. Again, the oxidized corn starch showed the best result; when 2.8% of corn starch was added, the average energy consumption was reduced by 14%

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington DC, Oxford UK: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2012
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-12282 (URN)10.1021/ef201968r (DOI)000301509300046 ()
Available from: 2012-03-15 Created: 2012-03-15 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Granström, K., Williams, H., Berghel, J., Frodeson, S., Renström, R., Sandberg, M. & Ståhl, M. (2012). The importance of a holistic perspective when investigating agricultural products as additives in sustainable pellets development. In: : . Paper presented at World Bioenergy 2012/World Pellets 2012. 29-31 May Jönköping Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of a holistic perspective when investigating agricultural products as additives in sustainable pellets development
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29753 (URN)
Conference
World Bioenergy 2012/World Pellets 2012. 29-31 May Jönköping Sweden
Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-10-18 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0446-4251

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