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Ivarsson, L., Larsson, P. & MacKenzie, R. (2016). Management’s moral relativity regarding personal activities on company time. In: : . Paper presented at The 34th International Labour Process Conference "Working Revolutions: Revolutionising Work", 4th -6th April 2016, Berlin,Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management’s moral relativity regarding personal activities on company time
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When people are at work they are expected to work and not spend time on other things. But people do not engage exclusively in work; they also engage in a variety of non-work related activities, which Eddy et al. (2010) choose to term ‘personal activities on company time’ or PACT. What personal activities people engage in is determined by what they consider urgent in one way or another, and what is possible to do at the specific workplace (Ivarsson & Larsson, forthcoming). So far, most studies on this subject have focused on subordinated personnel (Lim 2002) but mid- and top-level managers also engage in PACT (Schou Andreassen et al. 2014; Ivarsson & Larsson 2015). However, management attitudes to PACT vary significantly between their own activities and the behaviour of their subordinates. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 high-level managers from different sectors and industries in Sweden, the paper explores the differences in attitude and presentation of PACT.

We explore the incidence and rationale presented for respective actions of workers and managers,    which betrays an underlying moralising theme around work ethics that echoes back through the historic concerns of the Labour Process debate. Since the days of Taylor (1911), management have moralized about the personality and the attitude among workers – their inherited laziness and their never-ending tendency to ‘soldier’ – which has led to a perceived need to keep on monitoring and controlling employees by various means. Employees who, in one way or another, withholds working capacity – for example by engagement in some non-work related activity – are believed to cause financial loss for the organization (Self & Self 2014) and are also believed to influence overall work ethic in a negative way (Kamp & Brooks 1991).

 

From the data, managers engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time. Even though employees and managers may have similar reasons for engagement in personal activities, the managers believe that there is a big difference between the two.  The managers’ general perception is that work time should be devoted only to work. They do not approve when an employee engage in any other activity than work; to engage is PACT is presented as “stealing” time, and indicative of a flawed work ethic. Nevertheless, when managers themselves engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time, this is presented as a benefit of an inherently good work ethic, or “borrowing” time based on a capacity for compensatory calculation. Even in cases where a narrow band of legitimate PACT activities for workers were tolerated, this compared to managements’ lack of need to justify their engagement in a near limitless range of non-work activities. There has been a lot of focus on blurring of work and non-work roles for managers and the need for boundary management (Rothbard et al, 2005). The managers in this study presented the inversion of this logic with the assumption of a lack of competing needs for non-managerial workers and any blurring of the boundary being regarded as “soldiering”.

Keywords
Personal activities on company time, organizational misbehaviour, management, moral
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41704 (URN)
Conference
The 34th International Labour Process Conference "Working Revolutions: Revolutionising Work", 4th -6th April 2016, Berlin,Germany
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010-0730
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-07-11Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2015). Två uppsättningar regler: Chefers syn på egna och andras privata angelägenheter på arbetstid. In: Ann Bergman, Gunnar Gillberg, Lars Ivarsson (Ed.), Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring (pp. 298-319). Stockholm: Premiss förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Två uppsättningar regler: Chefers syn på egna och andras privata angelägenheter på arbetstid
2015 (Swedish)In: Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring / [ed] Ann Bergman, Gunnar Gillberg, Lars Ivarsson, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2015, p. 298-319Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2015
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-36779 (URN)978-91-86743-46-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
Gonäs, L. & Larsson, P. (2014). Employment regimes and personnel work in Sweden (1ed.). In: Bruce E. Kaufman (Ed.), The Development of HRM across Nations: Unity and Diversity (pp. 410-436). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment regimes and personnel work in Sweden
2014 (English)In: The Development of HRM across Nations: Unity and Diversity / [ed] Bruce E. Kaufman, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 410-436Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Offering a comprehensive cross-disciplinary perspective, the chapters discuss the economic, political and social factors that shaped HRM in each country, including the role of national labor movements and labor law regimes. The authors also provide an examination of HR practices and systems within firms, starting with rudimentary hiring and compensation a century ago, progressing to personnel and industrial relations programs in the last century, and culminating in modern human resource management practices today, including strategic high-performance systems. This book is the first to identify the commonalities and differences in HRM both across nations and over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014 Edition: 1
Keywords
HRM, Sweden, Employment Regimes, Industrial Relations
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33500 (URN)10.4337/9780857932990.00020 (DOI)000353241000016 ()9780857932983 (ISBN)9780857932990 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-09-01 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2013). Kundrelationer i hantverksbranschen: Hantverkares respektive konsumenters upplevelser och erfarenheter. Karlstad
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kundrelationer i hantverksbranschen: Hantverkares respektive konsumenters upplevelser och erfarenheter
2013 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Kundrelationer har intresserat forskare och praktiker under tämligen lång tid. Ofta har man intagit ett kundperspektiv och försökt klargöra vad kunder värdesätter för att sedan kunna utveckla eller bibehålla så kallat kundfokus i syfte att nå företagsmässig framgång. Vad som anses vara ett framgångsrecept inom i synnerhet företagsekonomisk tjänsteforskning är att bemöta kunderna på ett unikt sätt, gärna kompletterat med förträfflig service. Vid sidan av studierna som intresserar sig för kunders önskemål och krav finns det undersökningar som fokuserar arbetssituationen hos anställdas, dvs de som förväntas uppfylla kundernas önskemål. Oavsett om det är kunder eller anställda som fokuseras placeras de mellanmänskliga relationerna – dvs själva mötet – oftast i fokus.

Föreliggande rapport består av två separata kvalitativa studier inom området för hantverkstjänster: en med inriktning på leverantörsidan (dvs hantverkare), en med inriktning på mottagarsidan (dvs konsumenter). Genom att intervjua både hantverkare och konsumenter ges en nyanserad bild av kundrelationen.

Båda dessa studier har utförts på uppdrag av Konsumentverket.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: , 2013. p. 165
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2013:30
Keywords
Hantverkare, konsument, kundrelationer, kundnöjdhet, kundfokus, psykologiskt kontrakt, förväntningar, konflikt, avtal, offert, renovering
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27483 (URN)978-91-7063-508-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2015-08-03Bibliographically approved
Larsson, P. & Huzell, H. (2012). Aesthetic and Athletic Employees: The Negative Outcome of Employers Assuming Responsibility for Sickness Benefits. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 33(1), 103-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic and Athletic Employees: The Negative Outcome of Employers Assuming Responsibility for Sickness Benefits
2012 (English)In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 103-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research into employers’ aesthetic demands regarding labour has found that hiring good-looking workers has become a conscious recruitment strategy among service companies intending to increase sales. In this article, aesthetic demands are divided into different categories, one of which is related to health issues. This category is labelled athletic demands, which entail employers’ search for healthy-looking workers. It is argued that the use of athletic labour is used as a proxy to avoid future costs for workers’ sickness absence and rehabilitation. This suggests that aesthetic labour is far more important and extensive than hitherto acknowledged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2012
Keywords
Aesthetic labour, athletic demands, service sector, skills demand
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29504 (URN)10.1177/0143831X11427590 (DOI)000299699800007 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2004-0250
Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2012). Personal activities on company time to make everyday life work. In: Ann Bergman, Henrietta Huzell (Ed.), Segregationens seghet och dess föränderliga former: en vänbok till Lena Gonäs (pp. 127-140). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal activities on company time to make everyday life work
2012 (English)In: Segregationens seghet och dess föränderliga former: en vänbok till Lena Gonäs / [ed] Ann Bergman, Henrietta Huzell, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012, p. 127-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:25
Keywords
work life balance
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13641 (URN)
Projects
Privata angelägenheter på jobbet (och arbetsrelaterade sysslor på fritiden)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010:0730
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2015-08-03Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2012). Personal business on company time. In: 30th International Labour Process Conference. Paper presented at 30th International Labour Process Conference, 27-29 March, 2012, Stockholm, Sweden..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal business on company time
2012 (English)In: 30th International Labour Process Conference, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15071 (URN)
Conference
30th International Labour Process Conference, 27-29 March, 2012, Stockholm, Sweden.
Funder
FAS, Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, 2010-0730
Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2015-08-03Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2012). Privata angelägenheter på jobbet. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 18(3), 9-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Privata angelägenheter på jobbet
2012 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Arbetsgivarna har alltid haft ett stort intresse av att anställda utför det arbete de har betalt för att göra. För närvarande kretsar debatten om anställdas engagemang i privata angelägenheter såsom internetanvändning. I artikeln granskas den existerande forskningens förklaringar samtidigt som vi efterlyser forskning som bättre beaktar de positiva effekterna av fenomenet. Det krävs systematiska studier av både upplevda och faktiska effekter för att nyansera den tidvis hätska debatten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-26851 (URN)
Projects
FAS 2010-0730
Available from: 2013-04-05 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, L. & Larsson, P. (2012). To manage work and life outside work: A typology of private activities on company time. In: Makt, myter och motstridigheter. Utmaningar i dagens arbetsliv. Karlstads universitet, 11-13 juni: . Paper presented at Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To manage work and life outside work: A typology of private activities on company time
2012 (English)In: Makt, myter och motstridigheter. Utmaningar i dagens arbetsliv. Karlstads universitet, 11-13 juni, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
arbete, work life balance, privata angelägenheter
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13639 (URN)
Conference
Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010:0730
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2015-08-03Bibliographically approved
Bergman, A., Larsson, P. & Ivarsson, L. (2011). A matter of costumer equity or a moment of personal satisfaction?: Interaction patterns in the retail sector. In: : . Paper presented at 18th international conference on Recent advances in retailing and consumer service sciences i San Diego.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A matter of costumer equity or a moment of personal satisfaction?: Interaction patterns in the retail sector
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-9580 (URN)
Conference
18th international conference on Recent advances in retailing and consumer service sciences i San Diego
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2015-08-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8372-5634

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