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Williams, H., Wikstrom, F., Wetter-Edman, K. & Kristensson, P. (2018). Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households. Sustainability, 10(12), Article ID 4794.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
packaging waste; packaging functions; environmental impact; content properties; behaviour; attitudes
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71076 (URN)10.3390/su10124794 (DOI)000455338100460 ()
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Kristensson, P., Wästlund, E. & Soderlund, M. (2017). Influencing consumers to choose environment friendly offerings: Evidence from field experiments. Journal of Business Research, 76, 89-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influencing consumers to choose environment friendly offerings: Evidence from field experiments
2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 76, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this article is to examine a set of ways to influence consumer behavior toward making more environmentally friendly choices. We conducted three different studies to investigate (1) what consumers think would influence their behavior, (2) how several question-based verbal influence strategies nudge consumer behavior in one direction or another, and (3) how question-based written influence strategies influence consumer behavior. The findings reveal a discrepancy between what consumers think would influence behavior and what actually does influence it. In addition, under all verbal and written experimental conditions, influence strategies led to consumer change toward environmentally friendly offerings compared with alternative non-environment friendly offerings. The discussion highlights possible explanations for the results, managerial implications, the study's limitations, and suggestions for future research, with a special emphasis on research into factors that can change consumer behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Field experiments, Influence, Retailing, Environmentally friendly products, Nudging, Question-behavior effects
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65530 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.003 (DOI)000401882200010 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 20132141Knowledge Foundation, 20100273
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
Trischler, J., Kristensson, P. & Scott, D. (2017). Team diversity and its management in a co-design team. Journal of Service Management, 29(1), 120-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Team diversity and its management in a co-design team
2017 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Co-design, Customer co-creation, Service design, Service innovation, Team research
National Category
Business Administration Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66406 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-10-2016-0283 (DOI)000427788800005 ()2-s2.0-85041426450 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Snyder, H., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2863-2872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2863-2872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42335 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.055 (DOI)000377726600026 ()2-s2.0-84955238016 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2401-2408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2401-2408Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Service innovation acts as society's engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector's economic growth. Despite service innovation's importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance. 

Keywords
Service innovation, Radical, Incremental, Value co-creation, Literature review
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42618 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.009 (DOI)000375812300010 ()
Available from: 2016-06-03 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andreassen, T. W., Kristensson, P., Lervik-Olsen, L., Parasuraman, A., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Edvardsson, B. & Colurcio, M. (2016). Linking service design to value creation and service research. Journal of Service Management, 27(1), 21-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking service design to value creation and service research
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding service design and how service design relates to central concepts within service marketing. Design/methodology/approach - For companies, service design is growing in importance and has become a crucial capability to survive in the service-dominant economy. Service design increases the capacity to improve not only service experiences but also organizational design. On this premise, the authors propose a conceptual framework. Findings - By relating service design to research efforts within service marketing, dual value creation can be enhanced. As such, the conceptual framework portrays service design as an enhancer of customer experience and organizational performance. Originality/value - To the authors knowledge, service design has not been discussed in the service marketing literature. Thus, this is the first attempt to see service design in light of well-established service marketing models such as SERVQUAL and an updated version of the Service-profit-chain.

Keywords
Service innovation, Service research, Customer experience, Service design, Design thinking
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42059 (URN)10.1108/JOSM-04-2015-0123 (DOI)000374164200003 ()
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P. & Wästlund, E. (2016). The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30(May), 40-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience
2016 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

Keywords
Self-disclosure, Frontline employee, Encounter experience, Social impresssion, Satisfaction, Reciprocal behavior
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Psychology; Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41905 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.12.004 (DOI)000375851500005 ()
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson K, P., Wästlund, E. & Kristensson, P. (2016). The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 44(4), 372-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Satisfaction, Frontline employee, Encounter experience, Eye gaze, Social impression
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41915 (URN)10.1108/IJRDM-03-2015-0034 (DOI)000381914700002 ()
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Kristensson, P., Brunström, A. & Pedersen, T. (2015). Affective forecasting of value creation: Professional nurses’ ability to predict and remember the experienced value of a telemedicine diagnostics ICT service. Behavior and Information Technology, 34(10), 964-975
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective forecasting of value creation: Professional nurses’ ability to predict and remember the experienced value of a telemedicine diagnostics ICT service
2015 (English)In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 964-975Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New innovations that can transform societies and improve life for people are increasingly being asked for. Unfortunately, some avenues of research indicate that users of these new innovations may be inaccurate when they predict or remember the value of such new offerings. For example, the rapid development of new ICT services in areas such as health care may imply opportunities for better life conditions and well-being, but may also involve complicated predictions for users about the value they will create. New innovations may face adoption difficulties if users make inaccurate predictions or remember falsely the value that such innovations might have. In this study, 48 nurses predicted, experienced, and remembered the value of a new ICT service they used to diagnose an external skin lesion on a patient. Results showed significant differences between predicted and experienced value as well as between a service with high technical quality and the same service with lower technical quality; the value was underestimated at the time of prediction, as compared to actual experience, and the value of a high-quality ICT service was substantially more underestimated than the value of a low-quality ICT service. The results provide a novel and comprehensive understanding of how employees predict and experience the value of ICT service innovations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Health care; Innovation; Nursing, experience; High quality; ICT; ICT services; Low qualities; Technical quality; value; Value creation, Forecasting
National Category
Applied Psychology Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Psychology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42299 (URN)10.1080/0144929X.2014.978379 (DOI)000359603100003 ()2-s2.0-84939000465 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Anderson, L., Brodie, R. J., Colurcio, M., Edvardsson, B., Kristensson, P., . . . Andreassen, T. W. (2015). Exploring dualities of service innovation: Implications for service research. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(6-7), 436-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring dualities of service innovation: Implications for service research
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 436-441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore three paradoxes of service innovation and provide a way forward for fresh thinking on the topic. Design/methodology/approach - Through a conceptual model of service innovation research, the authors challenge the "pro-change" bias and explore what can be learnt from the duality of service innovation. Findings - This paper suggests that research moves beyond a firm perspective to study service innovation on multiple levels of abstraction. A conceptual model based on two dimensions, level (individual, organization and society) and outcome (success, failure), is used to pinpoint and explore three dualities of service innovation: adopt-reject, change-static and good-bad. Originality/value - By challenging the traditional perspective on service innovation, the authors present new avenues for fresh thinking in research on service innovation. In this paper, the authors encourage researchers and managers to learn from failures and to acknowledge the negative effects of service innovation.

Keywords
New service development, Service innovation, Failure
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41127 (URN)10.1108/JSM-01-2015-0051 (DOI)000369386100004 ()
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7006-9906

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