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Sandberg, M., Govindarajan, V. & Granström, K. (2018). Experimental study and analysis of the functional and life-cycle global warming effect of low-dose chemical pre-treatment of effluent from pulp and paper mills. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 701-709
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study and analysis of the functional and life-cycle global warming effect of low-dose chemical pre-treatment of effluent from pulp and paper mills
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 174, p. 701-709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aeration, as a process in pulp and paper wastewater treatment, uses the greatest share of the energy. Therefore, if the energy efficiency of the treatment has to be improved, the focus must be on aeration. A Ivey finding from the trials conducted for this paper, with effluent from a paper and pulp mill, was that the oxygen transfer coefficient could be doubled and the chemical oxygen demand could be decreased by 25%, if the effluent was pre-treated with 30 mg/I of aluminium coagulant (equivalent to 9.4 tonnes per day of AVR to 20000 cubic metres of effluent). Decrease in oxygen requirement implies decreases in aeration energy use. Pulp and paper mill effluents are not as biodegradable as municipal sewage, and the improvement in oxygen transfer properties of the effluent will have a positive influence over a longer period of time in the biological treatment. If the sludge is digested anaerobically, pre-treatment will also result in doubling the potential for methane generation. A holistic analysis of modifications to processes entails a study of the economic and environmental consequences as well. While the economic aspect is beyond the scope of this paper, only the net global warming as an environmental impact category has been studied, by taking recourse to specific emission coefficients. Of the four dosages of ferric aluminium sulphate considered in this analysis, the net greenhouse gas emissions are the least - 426 kg carbon dioxide equivalent per day when the daily consumption is 9.4 tonnes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66538 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.214 (DOI)000424727100063 ()
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
From-Aldaron, M., Sandberg, M. & Granström, K. (2018). Low Dosage Chemical Treatment for Improved Oxygenation of Pulp Mill Effluents. Journal of environmental engineering, 144(3), Article ID 06017012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Dosage Chemical Treatment for Improved Oxygenation of Pulp Mill Effluents
2018 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, no 3, article id 06017012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most pulp and paper mills use aerobic biological treatment for their effluents. Aeration is the single most energy intensive process of a treatment plant. Surfactants, commonly occurring in pulping wastewaters, have been shown to decrease the oxygen transfer rate. The aim of this study was to decrease the surface activity of surfactants and thereby increase the oxygen transfer rate in pulp mill effluents by the use of chemical pretreatment in very low doses. Trials using 5 g/m(3) ferric iron showed statistically significant improvement on both k(L)a(@20) and surface tension. No sludge was precipitated owing to the very low ferric iron dosage. The novel use of chemical pretreatment, in very low doses, aiming specifically at improving oxygen transfer rate, is a promising concept for reducing the need for aeration in wastewater treatment and thus lower the electricity requirement of the wastewater treatment plant. (c) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2018
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66051 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001320 (DOI)000422803400005 ()
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. & Sandberg, M. (2017). Characterization of Wood-Dryer Condensate with Assessment of Toxicity to Microorganisms. Journal of environmental engineering, 143(7), Article ID 04017019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Wood-Dryer Condensate with Assessment of Toxicity to Microorganisms
2017 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, no 7, article id 04017019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drying of wood causes airborne emissions that can be reduced by recirculating all or part of the drying medium. This favors both emission control and energy efficiency, but results in a condensate that contains significant amounts of organic compounds. Drying operations have been requested by municipal regulatory bodies to clean the condensate before release. The industry has tested biological treatment of condensate from biomass dryers, but maintaining the viability of microorganisms has been a challenge. In this study, the effect of drying gas temperature and the final wood moisture content on the chemical composition and acute toxicity of the condensate was tested. Results showed that whereas the condensate from wood drying was extremely toxic to Vibrio fischeri employed in Microtox assays, the undefined mixed culture present in biosludge from a pulp and paper mill treatment plant were considerably less affected. (C) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65476 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001200 (DOI)000399912100002 ()
Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, M., Govindarajan, V. & Granström, K. (2017). Experimental study and analysis of the functional and life-cycle globalwarming effect of low-dose chemical pre-treatment of effluent frompulp and paper mills. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 701-709
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study and analysis of the functional and life-cycle globalwarming effect of low-dose chemical pre-treatment of effluent frompulp and paper mills
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 174, p. 701-709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65208 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.214 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Hagelqvist, A. & Granström, K. (2016). Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions. Environmental technology, 37(16), 2113-2123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions
2016 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 37, no 16, p. 2113-2123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this research is to evaluate how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge at mesophilic conditions, and to assess whether methane production is affected by other factors than the now known ones, i.e., nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important, previously unreported, factor affecting short-term (20 days) methane production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
agricultural waste, anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential, co-digestion
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-26120 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2016.1142000 (DOI)000379772100011 ()
Note

Titel i avhandling:Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using the BMP methodology

Available from: 2013-02-01 Created: 2013-02-01 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Granstrom, K. & Javeed, A. (2016). Emissions from sawdust in packed moving bed dryers and subsequent pellet production. Drying Technology, 34(3), 258-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions from sawdust in packed moving bed dryers and subsequent pellet production
2016 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 258-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study quantifies emissions of hydrocarbon terpenes from the drying of sawdust in packed moving bed dryers, through the production chain to the finished pellets, and determines the parameters suitable for emission control. The terpene content in softwood sawdust and pellets was analyzed using gas chromatography. The distribution of VOC emissions over the bed was measured with a flame ionization detector. After drying, 30-40% of the initial terpenes remain in the wood, 20-30% remain after grinding, and 10-15% remain after pelleting. Dryer emissions correlate with residence time and final sawdust moisture content. Pellet press emissions correlate with pellet moisture content.

Keywords
Dryer, pellets, sawdust, terpene, VOC
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-40997 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2015.1043555 (DOI)000367606500002 ()
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Stahl, M., Berghel, J. & Granstrom, K. (2016). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. BioResources, 11(2), 3373-3383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 3373-3383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global production and use of wood fuel pellets has increased significantly in recent years. The raw material and the energy required to dry it are the main production costs. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize energy consumption, production costs, and the environmental impact associated with wood pellets. However, these changes should not negatively affect the quality of the pellets. One way to achieve these goals is to use additives. This work investigates how different types of sugar additives affect both the energy needed by the pellet press and the durability and oxidation of the produced pellets. When sugar was used as an additive, the energy use was practically unaffected. When molasses and SSL were added, a small decrease in energy use was observed (6 to 8%) for admixtures up to 1 wt.%; however, when more molasses was added, the energy use increased. Using these additives increased the bulk density (7 to 15 %) and durability (10 to 20 %) of the pellets. The storage of the pellets also caused a small increase in durability (1 to 3 %). Volatile organic compounds were produced as oxidation peaks within the first two months of storage; thereafter, the peaks tapered off.

Keywords
Wood fuel pellet, Additives, Molasses, White sugar, Spent sulphite liquor, Energy efficiency, Durability, Storage
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44549 (URN)000375786700031 ()
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Granström, K. (2015). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France (pp. 1-8). Pau, France
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Pau, France, 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pau, France: , 2015
Series
Proceedings of: The International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ISSN 2175-5418
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39071 (URN)978-2-9555539-0-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, M. & Granström, K. (2015). Nutrients for microalgae bio-oil production at a pulp and paper mill site, experiences from a pilot plant. In: : . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Biorefinery - towards Bioenergy University of British Columbia, Aug 10-12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutrients for microalgae bio-oil production at a pulp and paper mill site, experiences from a pilot plant
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Microalgae are a possible source of bio-oil, for example renewable biodiesel. Micro algae gives higher production capacity per area than any other oil producing crop (Chisti 2007). To become competitive with fossil fuel, the bio-oil production must be efficient and cheap. An algae production pilot plant has been running for two years at the site of Nordic Paper Bäckhammar mill in mid Sweden. The purpose is to develop a competitive production process for bio-oil. The challenge is to achieve an economically competitive process that includes, gaining high production rate even though Sweden is a comparably dark and cold country.

 

The solar radiation is strong enough for algae growth in at least eight months of the year. Radiation inhibition that will be found in other countries closer to the equator can be avoided at this location. However, the low temperature will slow the production rate down during four of these eight months. The possibility to use the excess heat to prolong the growth season is therefore the mayor benefit of growing algae close to a pulp and paper mill. Another benefit is the closeness to the carbon dioxide rich exhaust gas from the recovery boiler. This pilot plant consists of one 25m2 raceway pond and eight smaller pools. The microalgae Scenedesmus Dimorphus is grown in wastewater from the mill. The pools are all covered with a plastic tent to maintain a carbon dioxide rich atmosphere above the surface. However the pulp and paper mill effluent is low in nutrients. The aim with this study is to find efficient and cheap nutrients for algae production, close to the pulp and paper mill site.

 

Tested nutrients were: the pulp and paper mill effluent, bio-sludge from the pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant, digester reject from a close by municipal treatment plant and digester reject from algae residue anaerobic digestion. The residues are collected after the bio-oil has been extracted. In order to see if the nutrients are available for the microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, have the different nutrients been tested in small-scale 100 ml growth trials. Scenedesmus Dimorphus was also used in the pilot plant. Cost and energy were used to evaluate the different nutrient sources tested. Algae residues from the pilot plant were anaerobically digested in batch tests to produce the algae digester reject. The biogas potential was determined as input for the evaluation. Costs for transportation and decreased cost for energy and chemicals in the municipal wastewater treatment plant were included to evaluate the municipal digester reject.

 

Nutrients from all tested sources, except the one from the bio-sludge, were available for microalgae growth. The concentrations of nutrients were to low in the pulp and paper wastewater to enable growth in one batch. The both rejects contain high concentrations of nutrients. The transportation costs made the municipal reject less suitable. The algae residues will give 250 nml3 methane/gVS. The contribution of energy in form of biogas is almost as large as the energy of the bio-oil. Therefore gave the reject from anaerobically digested algae residues the best results. An efficient system can be algae grown in pulp and paper wastewater complemented with recirculate nutrients from the energy recovery of the residues from the bio-oil production. 

Keywords
bio-oil; microalgae; nutrients; pulp and paper mill.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39213 (URN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Biorefinery - towards Bioenergy University of British Columbia, Aug 10-12
Projects
Algodling hos massa- och pappersbruk för hållbar produktion av bioolja
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2016-02-18Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. & Montelius, J. (2014). Pre-Treatment To Enhance Biogas Yield from Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (8), 825-833
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-Treatment To Enhance Biogas Yield from Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1934-7375, E-ISSN 1934-7383, no 8, p. 825-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this work was to study the potential to enhance biogas production from pulp and paper mill sludge by the use of thermal pre-treatment in combination with chemical pre-treatment. Biogas from waste is a renewable fuel with very low emissions during combustion. To further reduce the use of fossil fuels, more biogas substrates are necessary. Pulp and paper mill sludge is a large untapped reservoir of potential biogas. Pulp and paper mill sludge was collected from a mill that produces both pulp and paper and has a modified waste activated sludge system as part of its wastewater treatment. Pre-treatments were chosen heat (70 oC or 140 oC) combined with either acid (pH 2 or pH 4) or base (pH 9 or pH 11, obtained with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH). Biogas potential was tested by anaerobic digestion batch assays under mesophilic conditions. All pre-treatments were tested in six replicates. Biogas volume was measured with a gas-tight syringe and methane concentration was measured with a gas chromatograph. The methane yield from sludge subjected to thermal pre-treatment at 70 oC did not differ from the untreated sludge, but thermal pre-treatment at 140 oC had a positive effect. Within the 70 oC thermal pre-treatment group, the pH 2 acid was the most successful chemical pre-treatment, and Ca(OH)2 pH 9 had the least effect with no measurable improvement in methane yield. For the 140 oC thermal pre-treatment group, acid and NaOH impacted methane production negatively, while the Ca(OH)2-treated sludge did not differ from sludge with no chemical pre-treatment. In conclusion, thermal pre-treatment at 70 oC showed no effect, whereas, pre-treatment at 140 oC improved methane yield with 170%, and for this sludge additional, chemical pre-treatments are unnecessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Libertyvill IL: David Publishing Company, 2014
Keywords
Anaerobic, biogas, digestion, pre-treatment, sludge.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Water Treatment
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34408 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2017-08-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0380-3533

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