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Publications (10 of 56) Show all publications
Hagelqvist, A. & Granström, K. (2016). Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions. Environmental technology, 37(16), 2113-2123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions
2016 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 37, no 16, p. 2113-2123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this research is to evaluate how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge at mesophilic conditions, and to assess whether methane production is affected by other factors than the now known ones, i.e., nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important, previously unreported, factor affecting short-term (20 days) methane production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keyword
agricultural waste, anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential, co-digestion
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-26120 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2016.1142000 (DOI)000379772100011 ()
Note

Titel i avhandling:Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using the BMP methodology

Available from: 2013-02-01 Created: 2013-02-01 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Granstrom, K. & Javeed, A. (2016). Emissions from sawdust in packed moving bed dryers and subsequent pellet production. Drying Technology, 34(3), 258-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions from sawdust in packed moving bed dryers and subsequent pellet production
2016 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 258-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study quantifies emissions of hydrocarbon terpenes from the drying of sawdust in packed moving bed dryers, through the production chain to the finished pellets, and determines the parameters suitable for emission control. The terpene content in softwood sawdust and pellets was analyzed using gas chromatography. The distribution of VOC emissions over the bed was measured with a flame ionization detector. After drying, 30-40% of the initial terpenes remain in the wood, 20-30% remain after grinding, and 10-15% remain after pelleting. Dryer emissions correlate with residence time and final sawdust moisture content. Pellet press emissions correlate with pellet moisture content.

Keyword
Dryer, pellets, sawdust, terpene, VOC
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-40997 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2015.1043555 (DOI)000367606500002 ()
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Stahl, M., Berghel, J. & Granstrom, K. (2016). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. BioResources, 11(2), 3373-3383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 3373-3383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global production and use of wood fuel pellets has increased significantly in recent years. The raw material and the energy required to dry it are the main production costs. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize energy consumption, production costs, and the environmental impact associated with wood pellets. However, these changes should not negatively affect the quality of the pellets. One way to achieve these goals is to use additives. This work investigates how different types of sugar additives affect both the energy needed by the pellet press and the durability and oxidation of the produced pellets. When sugar was used as an additive, the energy use was practically unaffected. When molasses and SSL were added, a small decrease in energy use was observed (6 to 8%) for admixtures up to 1 wt.%; however, when more molasses was added, the energy use increased. Using these additives increased the bulk density (7 to 15 %) and durability (10 to 20 %) of the pellets. The storage of the pellets also caused a small increase in durability (1 to 3 %). Volatile organic compounds were produced as oxidation peaks within the first two months of storage; thereafter, the peaks tapered off.

Keyword
Wood fuel pellet, Additives, Molasses, White sugar, Spent sulphite liquor, Energy efficiency, Durability, Storage
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44549 (URN)000375786700031 ()
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Granström, K. (2015). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France (pp. 1-8). Pau, France
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Pau, France, 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pau, France: , 2015
Series
Proceedings of: The International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ISSN 2175-5418
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39071 (URN)978-2-9555539-0-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, M. & Granström, K. (2015). Nutrients for microalgae bio-oil production at a pulp and paper mill site, experiences from a pilot plant. In: : . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Biorefinery - towards Bioenergy University of British Columbia, Aug 10-12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutrients for microalgae bio-oil production at a pulp and paper mill site, experiences from a pilot plant
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Microalgae are a possible source of bio-oil, for example renewable biodiesel. Micro algae gives higher production capacity per area than any other oil producing crop (Chisti 2007). To become competitive with fossil fuel, the bio-oil production must be efficient and cheap. An algae production pilot plant has been running for two years at the site of Nordic Paper Bäckhammar mill in mid Sweden. The purpose is to develop a competitive production process for bio-oil. The challenge is to achieve an economically competitive process that includes, gaining high production rate even though Sweden is a comparably dark and cold country.

 

The solar radiation is strong enough for algae growth in at least eight months of the year. Radiation inhibition that will be found in other countries closer to the equator can be avoided at this location. However, the low temperature will slow the production rate down during four of these eight months. The possibility to use the excess heat to prolong the growth season is therefore the mayor benefit of growing algae close to a pulp and paper mill. Another benefit is the closeness to the carbon dioxide rich exhaust gas from the recovery boiler. This pilot plant consists of one 25m2 raceway pond and eight smaller pools. The microalgae Scenedesmus Dimorphus is grown in wastewater from the mill. The pools are all covered with a plastic tent to maintain a carbon dioxide rich atmosphere above the surface. However the pulp and paper mill effluent is low in nutrients. The aim with this study is to find efficient and cheap nutrients for algae production, close to the pulp and paper mill site.

 

Tested nutrients were: the pulp and paper mill effluent, bio-sludge from the pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant, digester reject from a close by municipal treatment plant and digester reject from algae residue anaerobic digestion. The residues are collected after the bio-oil has been extracted. In order to see if the nutrients are available for the microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, have the different nutrients been tested in small-scale 100 ml growth trials. Scenedesmus Dimorphus was also used in the pilot plant. Cost and energy were used to evaluate the different nutrient sources tested. Algae residues from the pilot plant were anaerobically digested in batch tests to produce the algae digester reject. The biogas potential was determined as input for the evaluation. Costs for transportation and decreased cost for energy and chemicals in the municipal wastewater treatment plant were included to evaluate the municipal digester reject.

 

Nutrients from all tested sources, except the one from the bio-sludge, were available for microalgae growth. The concentrations of nutrients were to low in the pulp and paper wastewater to enable growth in one batch. The both rejects contain high concentrations of nutrients. The transportation costs made the municipal reject less suitable. The algae residues will give 250 nml3 methane/gVS. The contribution of energy in form of biogas is almost as large as the energy of the bio-oil. Therefore gave the reject from anaerobically digested algae residues the best results. An efficient system can be algae grown in pulp and paper wastewater complemented with recirculate nutrients from the energy recovery of the residues from the bio-oil production. 

Keyword
bio-oil; microalgae; nutrients; pulp and paper mill.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39213 (URN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Biorefinery - towards Bioenergy University of British Columbia, Aug 10-12
Projects
Algodling hos massa- och pappersbruk för hållbar produktion av bioolja
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2016-02-18Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. & Montelius, J. (2014). Pre-Treatment To Enhance Biogas Yield from Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (8), 825-833
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-Treatment To Enhance Biogas Yield from Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1934-7375, E-ISSN 1934-7383, no 8, p. 825-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this work was to study the potential to enhance biogas production from pulp and paper mill sludge by the use of thermal pre-treatment in combination with chemical pre-treatment. Biogas from waste is a renewable fuel with very low emissions during combustion. To further reduce the use of fossil fuels, more biogas substrates are necessary. Pulp and paper mill sludge is a large untapped reservoir of potential biogas. Pulp and paper mill sludge was collected from a mill that produces both pulp and paper and has a modified waste activated sludge system as part of its wastewater treatment. Pre-treatments were chosen heat (70 oC or 140 oC) combined with either acid (pH 2 or pH 4) or base (pH 9 or pH 11, obtained with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH). Biogas potential was tested by anaerobic digestion batch assays under mesophilic conditions. All pre-treatments were tested in six replicates. Biogas volume was measured with a gas-tight syringe and methane concentration was measured with a gas chromatograph. The methane yield from sludge subjected to thermal pre-treatment at 70 oC did not differ from the untreated sludge, but thermal pre-treatment at 140 oC had a positive effect. Within the 70 oC thermal pre-treatment group, the pH 2 acid was the most successful chemical pre-treatment, and Ca(OH)2 pH 9 had the least effect with no measurable improvement in methane yield. For the 140 oC thermal pre-treatment group, acid and NaOH impacted methane production negatively, while the Ca(OH)2-treated sludge did not differ from sludge with no chemical pre-treatment. In conclusion, thermal pre-treatment at 70 oC showed no effect, whereas, pre-treatment at 140 oC improved methane yield with 170%, and for this sludge additional, chemical pre-treatments are unnecessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Libertyvill IL: David Publishing Company, 2014
Keyword
Anaerobic, biogas, digestion, pre-treatment, sludge.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Water Treatment
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34408 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2017-08-08Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. & Montelius, J. (2014). Pre-treatment to enhance biogas yield from pulp and paper mill sludge. In: 2nd International conference on environmental science and technology ICOEST’2014, Side, Turkey, 14–17 May, 2014.: . Paper presented at 2nd International conference on environmental science and technology ICOEST’2014, Side, Turkey,14–17 May, 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-treatment to enhance biogas yield from pulp and paper mill sludge
2014 (English)In: 2nd International conference on environmental science and technology ICOEST’2014, Side, Turkey, 14–17 May, 2014., 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Chemistry; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34403 (URN)
Conference
2nd International conference on environmental science and technology ICOEST’2014, Side, Turkey,14–17 May, 2014.
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2015-09-09Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. (2014). Regler för hantering av rötrest. Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regler för hantering av rötrest
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Innehållsförteckning

INLEDNING

PROBLEM MED ATT TA TILLVARA RÖTREST

Tungmetaller

Smitta

REGLERING AV ANVÄNDANDET AV RÖTREST SOM GÖDNING

Certifiering av biogödsel

Hygieniseringskrav för biogödsel

Certifiering av rötslam

Hygieniseringskrav för rötslam

ACCEPTANS?

MÖJLIGHETER OCH RISKER MED SAMRÖTNING

REFERENSER

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. p. 13
Keyword
Rötrest, rötning, rötkammare, biogasprocesser
National Category
Other Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34568 (URN)
Funder
ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. (2014). Resource recovery from pulp and paper mills by adaptation of their wastewater treatment to biogas production. In: 19th European Biosolids & Organic Resources Conference and Exhibition, Manchester, UK, 17-19 November 2014.: . Paper presented at 19th European Biosolids & Organic Resources Conference and Exhibition, Manchester, UK, 17-19 November 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource recovery from pulp and paper mills by adaptation of their wastewater treatment to biogas production
2014 (English)In: 19th European Biosolids & Organic Resources Conference and Exhibition, Manchester, UK, 17-19 November 2014., 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Biotechnology Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34406 (URN)
Conference
19th European Biosolids & Organic Resources Conference and Exhibition, Manchester, UK, 17-19 November 2014.
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2014-10-29Bibliographically approved
Granström, K. (2014). Sawdust age affect aldehyde emissions in wood pellets. Fuel, 126, 219-223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sawdust age affect aldehyde emissions in wood pellets
2014 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 126, p. 219-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The environmental and energy policies in most nations worldwide aim at replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The use of wood pellets made from sawdust is rapidly increasing. Wood pellets are a refined compacted fuel with high energy density and low emissions during combustion. Sawdust and wood pellets may be stored for several months due to seasonal demand variation and wood-fuel trade. Wood contains unsaturated fatty acids susceptible to oxidation, a process commonly referred to as fats going rancid. The level of oxidation in pellets is an important parameter of pellets quality as oxidation during storage causes problems such as self-ignition of pellets stored in silos and emissions of malodorous compounds. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the age of the raw material on the oxidation caused aldehyde emissions from wood pellets. Pellets were produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sawdust that was either freshly sawn or had been stored for 4 months. The pellets were then stored in either 18 °C or in 40 °C. The formation of the aldehyde hexanal was analyzed with static headspace and gas chromatography. Pellets made from fresh sawdust were low-emitting after 80 days, whereas pellets made from aged sawdust did not reach the same low level until 190 days after production. This held true whether the pellets were stored in 18 °C or in 40 °C. The aged sawdust pellets had maximum emissions at the same time as the emissions ceased from the fresh sawdust pellets. A key conclusion is that when a low level of aldehyde emissions is required during storage, the pellets should be produced of sawdust that is freshly sawn.

Keyword
Aldehydes, emission, hexanal
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34411 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2014.02.008 (DOI)000333978500027 ()
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0380-3533

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