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Gärling, Tommy
Publications (10 of 48) Show all publications
Gärling, T., Bamberg, S. & Friman, M. (2019). The role of attitude in choice of travel, satisfaction with travel, and change to sustainable travel (2ed.). In: Albarracin, D Johnson, BT (Ed.), Handbook of attitudes: vol 2: applications (pp. 562-586). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of attitude in choice of travel, satisfaction with travel, and change to sustainable travel
2019 (English)In: Handbook of attitudes: vol 2: applications / [ed] Albarracin, D Johnson, BT, Routledge, 2019, 2, p. 562-586Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019 Edition: 2
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71730 (URN)000461334100018 ()9781138037052 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2018). Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars (2ed.). In: Alan Lewis (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour: (pp. 567-594). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars
2018 (English)In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018 Edition: 2
Keywords
Applied Psychology, Economics
National Category
Applied Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Economic History
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68077 (URN)10.1017/9781316676349.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048161445 (Scopus ID)9781316676349 (ISBN)9781107161399 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T. & Ettema, D. (2018). Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers. Travel Behaviour & Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Public transport, Satisfaction with travel, Service quality, Well-being
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects Economic Geography Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Sociology; Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66943 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.03.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044112879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2017). Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance. Transportation, 44(6), 1365-1382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance
2017 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Children, School travel, Satisfaction, Current mood, Cognitive performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38305 (URN)10.1007/s11116-016-9705-7 (DOI)000415356300008 ()
Projects
SAMOT
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 170-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Daily travel, Satisfaction with travel, Life satisfaction, Emotional well-being
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65943 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.09.024 (DOI)000417659500013 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., Ståhl, M., Ettema, D. & Gärling, T. (2017). Travel and residual emotional well-being. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 49, 159-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel and residual emotional well-being
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Work commute, Emotional well-being, Critical incident, Satisfaction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63678 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.06.015 (DOI)000407980200011 ()
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Friman, M. (2015). Are Citizens not Accurately Informed About Long-Term Societal Costs of Unsustainable Travel or Do They not Care?. Travel behaviour and society, 2(1), 26-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Citizens not Accurately Informed About Long-Term Societal Costs of Unsustainable Travel or Do They not Care?
2015 (English)In: Travel behaviour and society, ISSN 2214-367X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We argue that people think more about the short-term individual benefits of personal motorized travel than the long-term societal costs. One explanation is that people are more concerned about their own wellbeing and the wellbeing of their close relatives than the well-being of unknown others. Another explanation is that people have less knowledge of the long-term societal costs than of the short-term individual benefits. Research findings documenting long-term societal costs may increase this knowledge if accurately conveyed by governments, mass media, producers and providers of travel services, and opinion leaders. We identify several obstacles to such an accurate dissemination of research findings that need to be removed.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33890 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-01 Created: 2014-10-01 Last updated: 2015-07-02Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Olsson, E. L., Friman, M. & Gärling, T. (2015). Children’s Satisfaction with Travel to School. In: : . Paper presented at ICPS (International Convention of Psychological Science)2015, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 12-14 March.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Satisfaction with Travel to School
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35345 (URN)
Conference
ICPS (International Convention of Psychological Science)2015, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 12-14 March
Available from: 2015-03-08 Created: 2015-03-08 Last updated: 2015-07-02Bibliographically approved
Ettema, D., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2015). Travel and Well-Being. In: : . Paper presented at IATBR, Windsor UK, 19-23 July 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel and Well-Being
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41894 (URN)
Conference
IATBR, Windsor UK, 19-23 July 2015
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2016-07-08Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2015). Unsustainable Travel Becoming (More) Sustainable. In: Lucia A. Reisch and John Thøgersen (Ed.), Handbook of research on sustainable consumption: (pp. 163-177). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unsustainable Travel Becoming (More) Sustainable
2015 (English)In: Handbook of research on sustainable consumption / [ed] Lucia A. Reisch and John Thøgersen, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 163-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fast motorized transportation of people and cargo is essential in contemporary societies with their specialization of functions at different locations. Cargo needs to be transported between different units in the manufacturing process as well as from manufacturers to retailers. People need to travel to and from work, shops and other locations. It is not likely that telecommunication in the future will substantially reduce the need for physical travel (Moktharian et al. 2006). Neither is it likely that electronic commerce will (Rotem-Mindali and Weltenwreden 2013). For the benefits of the individual as well as society, time for travel could be spent in better ways. In urban areas of developed countries, travel still contributes to well-being by increasing opportunities for residents to purchase the most attractive goods at the lowest prices, patronize the best restaurants, visit recreational places, attend entertaining and cultural events, and meet with relatives and friends (Leyden et al. 2011; Reardon and Abdallah 2013). In sparsely populated rural areas travel is essential for sustenance. Some travel is also enjoyed for its own sake (Moktharian and Salomon 2001). Examples include driving a new car or enjoying a recreational sailing trip in the sunshine. Today for busy people in the workforce, travel furthermore provides the privacy and time for recovery from stress (Hartig 2007). If not for recreation, travel allows work at a distance, including reading memos, preparing for meetings and using available telecommunication devices (Ettema and Verschuren 2007).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
Keywords
economics and finance, behavioural and experimental economics, economic psychology, environment, ecological economics, environmental sociology
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33891 (URN)10.4337/9781783471270.00020 (DOI)9781783471263 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-10-01 Created: 2014-10-01 Last updated: 2015-07-02Bibliographically approved
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