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Gärling, Tommy
Publications (10 of 51) Show all publications
Gärling, T., Bamberg, S. & Friman, M. (2019). The role of attitude in choice of travel, satisfaction with travel, and change to sustainable travel (2ed.). In: Albarracin, D Johnson, BT (Ed.), Handbook of attitudes: vol 2: applications (pp. 562-586). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of attitude in choice of travel, satisfaction with travel, and change to sustainable travel
2019 (English)In: Handbook of attitudes: vol 2: applications / [ed] Albarracin, D Johnson, BT, Routledge, 2019, 2, p. 562-586Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019 Edition: 2
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71730 (URN)000461334100018 ()9781138037052 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2018). Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars (2ed.). In: Alan Lewis (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour: (pp. 567-594). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars
2018 (English)In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018 Edition: 2
Keywords
Applied Psychology, Economics
National Category
Applied Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Economic History
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68077 (URN)10.1017/9781316676349.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048161445 (Scopus ID)9781316676349 (ISBN)9781107161399 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T. & Ettema, D. (2018). Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers. Travel Behaviour & Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Public transport, Satisfaction with travel, Service quality, Well-being
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects Economic Geography Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Sociology; Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66943 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.03.004 (DOI)000471170100025 ()2-s2.0-85044112879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2017). Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance. Transportation, 44(6), 1365-1382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance
2017 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Children, School travel, Satisfaction, Current mood, Cognitive performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38305 (URN)10.1007/s11116-016-9705-7 (DOI)000415356300008 ()
Projects
SAMOT
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M. & Ståhl, M. (2017). Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(66)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes
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2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no 66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lausanne, Switzerland: Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
sequence of events, instant utility, remembered utility, emotional response, current mood
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47774 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00066 (DOI)000392640800002 ()28184206 (PubMedID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-05335
Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2017-01-27 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 170-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Daily travel, Satisfaction with travel, Life satisfaction, Emotional well-being
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65943 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.09.024 (DOI)000417659500013 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Ettema, D., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E. & Gärling, T. (2017). Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 140.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses. The results reveal main effects of weather (temperature and precipitation) on mood and travel satisfaction (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed). The effects of weather on mood and travel satisfaction differ depending on travel mode. Temperature leads to a more positive mood, wind leads to higher activation for public transport users, and sunshine leads to a more negative mood for cyclists and pedestrians. Sunshine and higher temperatures make travel more relaxed although not for cycling and walking, and rain and snow lead to a higher cognitive assessed quality of travel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
everyday travel, season, travel mode, travel satisfaction, travel-related mood, weather
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48077 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00140 (DOI)000393473100001 ()28220100 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., Ståhl, M., Ettema, D. & Gärling, T. (2017). Travel and residual emotional well-being. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 49, 159-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel and residual emotional well-being
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Work commute, Emotional well-being, Critical incident, Satisfaction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63678 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.06.015 (DOI)000407980200011 ()
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Ettema, D., Friman, M., Gärling, T. & Olsson, L. E. (2016). Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications. In: Donggen Wang, Shenjing He (Ed.), Mobility, Sociability and Wellbeing of Urban Living: (pp. 129-150). New York, NY: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications
2016 (English)In: Mobility, Sociability and Wellbeing of Urban Living / [ed] Donggen Wang, Shenjing He, New York, NY: Springer, 2016, p. 129-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Springer, 2016
Series
wellbeing and quality-of-life
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41897 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-48184-4 (DOI)978-3-662-48183-7 (ISBN)978-3-662-48184-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Friman, M. (2015). Are Citizens not Accurately Informed About Long-Term Societal Costs of Unsustainable Travel or Do They not Care?. Travel behaviour and society, 2(1), 26-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Citizens not Accurately Informed About Long-Term Societal Costs of Unsustainable Travel or Do They not Care?
2015 (English)In: Travel behaviour and society, ISSN 2214-367X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We argue that people think more about the short-term individual benefits of personal motorized travel than the long-term societal costs. One explanation is that people are more concerned about their own wellbeing and the wellbeing of their close relatives than the well-being of unknown others. Another explanation is that people have less knowledge of the long-term societal costs than of the short-term individual benefits. Research findings documenting long-term societal costs may increase this knowledge if accurately conveyed by governments, mass media, producers and providers of travel services, and opinion leaders. We identify several obstacles to such an accurate dissemination of research findings that need to be removed.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33890 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-01 Created: 2014-10-01 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
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