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Enochsson, A.-B., Kilbrink, N., Andersén, A. & Ådefors, A. (2020). Connecting school and workplace with digital technology: Teachers’ experiences of gaps that can be bridged. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 10(1), 43-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting school and workplace with digital technology: Teachers’ experiences of gaps that can be bridged
2020 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 43-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge about the gaps vocational teachers identify between school and workplaces in upper secondary vocational education, and their experiences of using digital technology as boundary objects to bridge these gaps. This study builds on theories of boundary crossing and is carried out through in-depth interviews with six vocational teachers. For the analysis, a model is used, where the concept learning mechanisms is borrowed from Akkerman and Bakker. In our model, the learning mechanisms coordination, reflection and transformation represent three levels to which all the gaps identified by the teachers relate. The teachers’ pedagogical aims are qualitatively different on the different levels. At the basic level, coordination; gaps with the aim to control and to keep in touch with students in their workplaces, are identified, whereas at the next level, reflection; the gaps that need to be bridged, concern creating better conditions for the students to reflect on and connect with what they have learned in the different learning arenas. Those teachers identifying gaps on the most elaborated level, transformation, want to create a complete educational experience for their students, as they try to find a seamless way of crossing the boundaries between school and the workplace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020
Keywords
vocational education, vocational teachers, boundary objects, educational technology, boundary crossing
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76745 (URN)10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.2010143 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-02-14
Asplund, S.-B. & Kilbrink, N. (2020). Lessons from the welding booth: theories in practice in vocational education. Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, 12(1), 1-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons from the welding booth: theories in practice in vocational education
2020 (English)In: Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1877-6337, E-ISSN 1877-6345, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports results from a Learning study in which two university based researchers collaborate with a vocational teacher at an upper secondary vocational school. During three iterative cycles, two different theories (Conversational Analysis and Variation Theory) have gradually been incorporated when teaching how to TIG-weld. Through concrete empirical examples from video recorded lessons the article explores how these theoretical perspectives (termed CAVTA) can be used together and integrated in practice when analysing the teaching and learning processes that take shape when teacher and students interact in relation to the object of learning to TIG-weld, and how these theories can be used as didactical tools. The analyses highlights concrete changes in the teacher’s teaching, and it is argued that the approach used in the study can lead to a development where we can find forms for teaching specific subject content within vocational education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
welding, conversation analysis, variation theory, CAVTA, learning, teaching
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76502 (URN)10.1186/s40461-020-0087-x (DOI)
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2020-01-26 Created: 2020-01-26 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved
Walan, S., Jeannie, F. & Kilbrink, N. (2019). Building with focus on stability and construction: Using a story as inspiration when teaching technology and design in preschool. Education 3-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building with focus on stability and construction: Using a story as inspiration when teaching technology and design in preschool
2019 (English)In: Education 3-13, ISSN 0300-4279, E-ISSN 1475-7575Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this study children's learning of the concept, stability, during some building activities were investigated. It was also examined how a story can create meaning, having the children build for some animals in the story. Two preschool teachers and 10 children participated. Data consisted of video-recordings from activities with the children and was analysed through thematic coding. The findings showed that the children enjoyed to build and showed an understanding of how to build stable constructions, however without using the word stable. There were connections to the story and new stories were also made by the children during building activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Building, constructing, preschool, storytelling
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72135 (URN)10.1080/03004279.2019.1601751 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064015265 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-07
Axelsson, J., Kilbrink, N. & Asplund, S.-B. (2019). Learning study i svetsundervisning: en yrkeslärares professionsutveckling. In: : . Paper presented at Nordyrk, Helsingfors, 12-14 juni.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning study i svetsundervisning: en yrkeslärares professionsutveckling
2019 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75189 (URN)
Conference
Nordyrk, Helsingfors, 12-14 juni
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa: En studie om undervisning och lärande på industritekniska programmet
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Enochsson, A.-B., Kilbrink, N., Andersén, A. & Ådefors, A. (2019). Teachers’ work with digital technology as boundary objects in vocational education. In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book: . Paper presented at NERA 6-8 March Uppsala Sweden son2019 (pp. 440).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ work with digital technology as boundary objects in vocational education
2019 (English)In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book, 2019, p. 440-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71541 (URN)
Conference
NERA 6-8 March Uppsala Sweden son2019
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-03-22Bibliographically approved
Brink, H., Kilbrink, N. & Gericke, N. (2019). Teaching modelling using digital tools in secondary technology education: Teachers’ experiences. In: S. Pulé and M. de Vries (Ed.), Proceedings PATT37: Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education. Paper presented at PATT37. 3-6 june,2019. University of Malta, Msida Campus, Malta. (pp. 95-102).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching modelling using digital tools in secondary technology education: Teachers’ experiences
2019 (English)In: Proceedings PATT37: Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education / [ed] S. Pulé and M. de Vries, 2019, p. 95-102Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Models can be used for communicating and for sharing information. In technology education in Swedish compulsory school, pupils have long created models using simple materials to test their designs, such as cardboard and wooden sticks. Models have also been used by teachers to assess pupils’ technology knowledge in particular areas (Elmer & Davies, 2000). We live in a world where technology is highly developed, where digital technology plays an important role and where models are created in digital environments (Kress, 2010). Technology as a school subject undergoes the same development, which can be seen in the technology syllabus (Skolverket, 2011). However, there is a lack of research on technology teachers’ experiences of teaching modelling using digital tools. According to previous research, teachers’ experiences of a phenomenon (Marton & Tsui, 2004) along with their pedagogical and technological knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) affect how they plan their lessons. The aim of this pilot study is therefore to examine secondary school teachers’ experiences of teaching modelling using digital tools, thereby contributing to understanding this area of technology education. The study takes a phenomenographic approach (Marton & Booth, 1997) and is based on semi-structured interviews with teachers. The interviews are analyzed, focusing on how technology teachers experience teaching modelling using digital tools. Their different experiences are divided into categories. So far, four categories have been identified: a) Modelling using digital tools as inspiration, b) Handling the modelling software as the object of learning, c) Handling 3D printing as the object of learning and d) Modelling for teaching technological content. A tentative result is that teachers have different aims and purposes when teaching modelling using digital tools.

Keywords
Model, modelling, digital tools, technology education, secondary school, phenomenography, computer-aided design.
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75185 (URN)
Conference
PATT37. 3-6 june,2019. University of Malta, Msida Campus, Malta.
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Kilbrink, N., Asplund, S.-B. & Axelsson, J. (2019). Teaching to weld: theories in practice in collaborative research. In: : . Paper presented at NERA2019, Uppsala, 6–8 mar.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching to weld: theories in practice in collaborative research
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75194 (URN)
Conference
NERA2019, Uppsala, 6–8 mar
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa: En studie om undervisning och lärande på industritekniska programmet
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Kilbrink, N. & Asplund, S.-B. (2019). Three cycles of teaching to weld: Developing vocational teaching on a scientific basis. In: : . Paper presented at EARLI, Aachen, 12–16 August, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three cycles of teaching to weld: Developing vocational teaching on a scientific basis
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper concerns an action oriented study conducted between a welding teacher and two researchers in three iterative cycles. The teaching as well as the research is planned, conducted and analysed based on two theoretical frameworks; the variation theory (VT) and conversation analysis (CA), aiming to examine the relation between teaching and learning in vocational education, with a specific focus on learning to weld in a collaborative study between a vocational teacher and two researchers. The results can contribute to teachers’ professional learning and an improvement of planning and conducting teaching in relation to specific objects of learning in vocational education. This research contributes to both theoretical and educational findings. Furthermore, combining VT and CA approaches in an action oriented study contributes developing concepts for an integrated analysis of both the content and the process of learning.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75186 (URN)
Conference
EARLI, Aachen, 12–16 August, 2019
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa: En studie om undervisning och lärande på industritekniska programmet
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Asplund, S.-B., Kilbrink, N. & Axelsson, J. (2019). Uncovering the Melt: Results from an Action-Oriented Learning Study on Welding in Vocational Education. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference on Educational Research - ECER 2019, "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", September 3-6, Hamburg, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncovering the Melt: Results from an Action-Oriented Learning Study on Welding in Vocational Education
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation reports some preliminary resultsfrom the ongoing study Learning to weld in vocational education, funded by the Swedish Institute for Educational Research, with the overall aim to examine the relation between teaching and learning in vocational education with a specific focus on learning to weld. The study is conducted as an action-oriented learning study in which two university based researchers collaborate with a vocational teacher at an upper secondary vocational school, and it responds to the request for more practice-based school research aiming for developing teacher’s teaching on a scientific basic (cf Brante et al, 2015; Carlgren, 2017; Lo, 2014; Postholm, 2018;SFS 2010:800). Action-oriented learning studies in iterative circles, where teachers themselves have been involved in formulating the research questions, and where there is a strong focus on the object of learning (what the students are supposed to learn) have been proven to be effective approaches in which teachers can change and develop their teaching practices and their professional learning, based on a theoretical framework (Brante et al., 2015; Pang & Ling, 2012). Hence, learning studies have been emphasised as a solid base for teachers’ professional development as well as improving students’ learning (Pang & Ling, 2012). Learning studies have also been proven to be a fruitful tool for implementing and increasing our understanding of the use of theory in practice, but according to Lo (2012) there is a need to conduct learning studies in more subject areas than what has previously been done. One of these research fields where there is a lack of learning studies and where research that has a specific focus on learning content is sparse is within the field of vocational education. This is something that we will focus on in this presentation, in which we will highlight results from the process of three iterative cycles in which theories gradually have been incorporated in the teacher’s didactical approach when teaching how to TIG-weld.

In the study, the teaching, as well as the research, is planned, conducted and analysed in three iterative cycles inspired by the Learning study method (cf. Pang & Ling, 2012), and is based on two theoretical frameworks; Conversation Analysis (CA) (cf. Sidnell & Stivers, 2013), and Variation Theory (VT) (cf. Marton & Tsui, 2004). Our approach is in line with the content-centered CA-studies that aim to capture interactional practices linked to learning a specific content or practice (cf. Rusk et al., 2015). This means that our focus in our study is on how the teacher and the students orient to the specific object of learning (OoL) of how to TIG-weld, and how the teacher and students adapt and change their participation in the unfolding interaction regarding how to TIG-weld, and where the VT can help us examine the enacted OoL in great detail. 

The specific aim with this presentation is to examine how the teacher is orienting towards the learning content by exemplifying one of the critical aspects of the OoL – the melt - when teaching how to TIG-weld during the process of three iterative cycles. Through concrete empirical examples from video recorded lessons we will explore not only how the theoretical perspectives (Conversation Analysis and Variation Theory Analysis; which we have chosen to term CAVTA) can be used together and integrated in practice when analysing the teaching and interaction, but also how these theories can be used as didactical tools for teachers when planning, executing, and evaluating their own teaching.

Method

Our study is based on a close collaboration between two university based researchers, and one vocational teacher at an upper secondary school. The teaching that the vocational teacher conducts is planned, executed, and analysed in three iterative cycles, inspired by the Learning study method (cf. Kilbrink et al., 2014; Pang & Ling, 2012). Usually, a learning study has its theoretical base in the variation theory and a key feature in the method is the strong emphasis on the learning content (referred to as the object of learning). In a Learning study, the teaching of this OoL should be planned, executed and analysed in specific steps in iterative cycles; pre-testing, planning, teaching, post-testing, analysing and revising (Ko, 2018). In our study, however, the pre- and post-testing has been removed, and instead a CA approach has been added to the variation theory in order to analyse how welding competences are displayed, developed and learned in the actual teaching situations. Approaching the data from a CA’s understanding of participation and social organisation can help us explore the learning processes that take shape in the interaction from an emic perspective (Duranti, 1997). Furthermore, CA can also add another dimension of how the OoL can be varied in the interaction between the teacher and students when using different semiotic resources (cf. Asplund & Kilbrink, 2018; Kilbrink & Asplund, 2018). The teaching that has been conducted in the study has been planned by the teacher, in dialogue with researchers, and each cycle lesson (with three focus students participating in each cycle) has been video recorded. These recordings have been analysed by the researchers at a primary stage, then analysed by the researchers and the teaching vocational teacher together. Based on these analyses, primarily based on a CAVTA perspective, the teacher, together with the researchers, worked on new teaching strategies that were to be incorporated into the teacher’s didactic approach towards cycle 2. In the second and third cycle this process was repeated. In this presentation, based on the outcomes of these three cycles of teaching how to TIG-weld, we will focus on the teaching and learning processes that take shape when the teacher and students orient towards the melt as a critical aspect when teaching and learning how to TIG-weld.

Expected Outcomes

Through the detailed analysis of the interaction that take shape in the teaching, we can identify concrete changes in the teacher’s teaching when CAVTA is gradually incorporated into the teacher’s didactic approach. For example, we can see how the teacher, together with the students, through the simultaneous use of different semiotic resources actively works to try to establish a common understanding of what content is to be learned and how it should be learned (cf. Kilbrink & Asplund, 2018). The study’s approach also enables a teaching method where parts of a subject-specific content increasingly is made explicit during the course of the study and validated in the interaction, there and then. More precisely, in our presentation we will show how these processes are something that take shape in relation to the teacher’s and students’ orientation towards the melt, which in the interaction there and then, is made into a temporarily subordinate object of learning. The critical aspects of the melt are then oriented to and verbalised. We believe that our approach can lead to a development where we can find forms for teaching where specific subject content within vocational education - content which is sometimes a bit carelessly discussed in terms of “tacit knowledge”- not only can be communicated and made visible to both teachers and students in interaction here and now, but also made precise. Thus, our findings suggest that our approach is fruitful in order to develop the teaching, and it offers opportunities for methodological innovation.

References

Asplund, S-B., & Kilbrink, N. (2018). Learning how (and how not) to Weld: Vocational Learning in Technical Vocational Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 62(1) 1-16. Brante, G., Holmqvist Olander, M., Holmquist, P-O., & Palla, M. (2015). Theorising teaching and learning: pre-service teachers’ theoretical awareness of learning. European Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1) 102-118. Carlgren, I. (Ed.) (2017). Undervisningsutvecklande forskning: exemplet Learning study. Malmö: Gleerups. Duranti, A. (1997). Linguistic anthropology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Kilbrink, N., & Asplund, S. B. (2018). “This angle that we talked about”: learning how to weld in interaction. International journal of technology and design education, 1-18 (doi: 10.1007/s10798-018-9490-z Kilbrink, N., Bjurulf, V., Blomberg, I., Heidkamp, A., & Hollsten, A. C. (2014). Learning specific content in technology education: learning study as a collaborative method in Swedish preschool class using hands-on material. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 24(3), 241-259. Ko, P. Y. (2018). Beyond labels: what are the salient features of lesson study and learning study? Educational Action Research (doi: 10.1080/09650792.2018.1530126). Lo, M. L. (2012). Variation theory and the improvement of teaching and learning. Göteborg: Acta universitatis Gothoburgensis. Marton, F. & Tsui, A.B. (Eds.) (2004). Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J. Pang, M. F., & Ling, L. M. (2012). Learning study: Helping teachers to use theory, develop professionality and produce new knowledge to be shared. Instructional Science, 40(3), 589–606. Postholm, M. B. (2018). Teachers’ professional development in school: A review study. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-22. Rusk, F., Pörn, M., Sahlström, F., & Slotte-Lüttge, A. (2015). Perspectives on using video recordings in conversation analytical studies on learning in interaction. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 38(1), 39-55. Sidnell, J. & T. Stivers (Eds.) (2013). The Handbook of Conversation Analysis. Oxford, U.K.: Wiley‐Blackwell.

Keywords
CAVTA, Conversation Analysis, Variation Theory, Learning, Vocational Education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74776 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Educational Research - ECER 2019, "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", September 3-6, Hamburg, Germany
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Kilbrink, N. & Asplund, S.-B. (2019). Using CAVTA (Conversation Analysis and Variation Theory Approach) in a Learning Study on Welding. In: S. Pulé & M. de Vries (Ed.), Proceedings PATT37: Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education. Paper presented at PATT37, 3-6 june 2019, University of Malta, Msida, Malta (pp. 269-276). Msida: University of Malta
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using CAVTA (Conversation Analysis and Variation Theory Approach) in a Learning Study on Welding
2019 (English)In: Proceedings PATT37: Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education / [ed] S. Pulé & M. de Vries, Msida: University of Malta , 2019, p. 269-276Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study is conducted as a collaborative study between two researchers and one vocationalteacher in the Industrial Programme at the upper secondary vocational education in Sweden.The study is conducted in iterative cycles and focuses on actual teaching of a technicalvocational object of learning (to make a TIG-weld) in school. The research project is fundedby the Swedish Institute for Educational Research. The study is based on two theoreticalframeworks; the variation theory (Marton & Tsui, 2004) and conversation analysis (Sidnell, &Stivers, 2013). These theories have been used for planning the teaching as well as foranalysing data from the iterative cycles. Combining these two frameworks is a fairly newapproach, but it has previously been done in a few studies (cf. Asplund & Kilbrink, 2018).However, there are no previous action research studies that we know about where thesetheories are combined in the planning of and teaching a specific object of learning. We usethe abbreviation CAVTA (Conversation Analysis and Variation Theory Approach) for thecombination of these theories as a tool in practice-based school research. Inspired by thelearning study method, this study is conducted in three iterative cycles. However, this study isbased on CAVTA as the theoretical framework, in contrast to previous learning studies. Dataconsists of video recorded lessons and audio recorded conversations between theresearchers and the teacher to follow the process of working with this collaborative method inrelation to a technical vocational object of learning. The results from this study show how theteaching content in relation to the object of learning is made visible in the interaction.Furthermore, the critical aspects are displayed more explicitly in teaching over time, based onanalysing, planning and evaluating teaching with a starting point in CAVTA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Msida: University of Malta, 2019
Keywords
CAVTA, Conversation Analysis, Variation Theory, Learning Study, Technical Vocational Education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Educational Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74410 (URN)
Conference
PATT37, 3-6 june 2019, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
Projects
Konsten att lära sig svetsa
Funder
Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2017-00056
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3440-8074

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