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Kim, Y. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72(2), 101-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008
2018 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background A long-term trend of increasing mental health problems among adolescents in many Western countries indicates a great need to investigate if and how societal changes have contributed to the reported increase. Using seven waves of repeated cross-sectional data collected between 1988 and 2008 in Sweden, the current study examined if economic factors at the societal level (municipality unemployment rate) and at the individual level (worry about family finances), and their interaction could explain a secular trend in mental health problems.

Methods Participants were 17 533 students of age 15–16 years (49.3% girls), from 14 municipalities in a county of Sweden. Data on adolescents’ mental health (psychosomatic problems) and worry about family finances were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. A series of multilevel regression analyses were conducted in order to explain the trends in adolescents’ mental health.

Results The results indicated that the individual-level predictor (worry about family finances) significantly explained the increasing rates of adolescents’ psychosomatic problems. This was particularly the case during the mid-1990s, which was characterised by a severe recession in Sweden with high unemployment rates. For example, after accounting for adolescents’ worry, a significant increase in psychosomatic symptoms between 1988 and 1998 among girls (b=0.112, P<0.05) disappeared (b=0.018, P>0.05) and a non-significant decrease between 1988 and 1995 among boys (b=−0.017, P>0.05) became significant (b=−0.142, P<0.05). Neither municipality unemployment rate nor its interaction with adolescents’ worry explained psychosomatic problems.

Conclusions The findings demonstrate the effects of adolescents’ worry about family finances on a secular trend in mental health problems during an economically bleak period of time. The study highlights the need for repeated measurements including a large number of time points over a long time period in order to analyse time-specific putative explanatory factors for trends in adolescent mental health problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65358 (URN)10.1136/jech-2017-209784 (DOI)29203524 (PubMedID)
Projects
Mental health, unemployment, psychosocial factors, multilevel modeling, public health
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012–1736
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents. In: : . Paper presented at The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
Adolescents, mental health, impairment, self-reports
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65426 (URN)
Conference
The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C., Välimaa, R., Simonsen, N. & Suominen, S. (2017). Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland. Child Indicators Research, 10(3), 673-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 673-691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is an increasing focus on trend analyses of adolescent mental health, yet too little attention is paid to the methodological challenges and pitfalls inherent in this type of analyses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a Finnish instrument on psychosomatic problems, with a major focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across time. Questionnaire data collected in 1994, 1998, 2006 and 2014 among Finnish schoolchildren in grade 9 (15-year-olds) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were utilised.The polytomous Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems. The results clearly indicate that the composite measure on psychosomatic problems consisting of nine items does not work invariantly over time. In particular, the item depressed shows DIF across years ofinvestigations. This item works quite differently at the first year of investigationcompared to the last year showing higher expected values 2014 (=less frequent problems) than 1994. This DIF affects the person measure of change in psychosomatic problems between 1994 and 2014. Resolving the item depressed for year of investigation DIF, or removing it, increases the difference in person mean values between the two years, implying increasing psychosomatic problems over time. Since the DIF affects the trend results, different options to address the problems need to be considered. Removing the item depressed would bring the Finnish measure of psychosomatic problems in better accordance with the content of the questions on psychosomatic problems in the international HBSC protocol in which the item depressed is not included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, HBSC, Mental health, Psychosomatic problems, Rasch, Trend analyses
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41997 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9397-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-12 Created: 2016-05-12 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Beckman, L. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?. Child Indicators Research, 10(2), 447-459
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, bullying, peer aggression, peer victimization, psychosomatic problems
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Samhällskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35275 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9390-2 (DOI)000401518600008 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfarePublic Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2018-01-05Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning. In: : . Paper presented at International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Adolescents, Mental health symptoms, Functional impairment, Rasch, Differential Item Functioning (DIF)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65199 (URN)
Conference
International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Kleppang, A. L., Thurston, M., Hartz, I. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15–16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results: Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusions: The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, adolescents, psychological distress, leisure time
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63890 (URN)10.1177/1403494817716374 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-06-12
Hagquist, C. & Andrich, D. (2017). Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15, 1-8, Article ID 181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model
2017 (English)In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 15, p. 1-8, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rasch analysis with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is increasingly used for examination of psychometric properties of health outcome measures. To take account of DIF in order to retain precision of measurement, split of DIF-items into separate sample specific items has become a frequently used technique. The purpose of the paper is to present and summarise recent advances of analysis of DIF in a unified methodology. In particular, the paper focuses on the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method to simultaneously detect uniform and non-uniform DIF, the need to distinguish between real and artificial DIF and the trade-off between reliability and validity. An illustrative example from health research is used to demonstrate how DIF, in this case between genders, can be identified, quantified and under specific circumstances accounted for using the Rasch model.

Methods: Rasch analyses of DIF were conducted of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems using Swedish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study for grade 9 students collected during the 1985–2014 time periods.

Results: The procedures demonstrate how DIF can be identified efficiently by ANOVA of residuals, and how the magnitude of DIF can be quantified and potentially accounted for by resolving items according to identifiable groups and using principles of test equating on the resolved items. The results of the analysis also show that the real DIF in some items does affect person measurement estimates.

Conclusions: Firstly, in order to distinguish between real and artificial DIF, the items showing DIF initially should not be resolved simultaneously but sequentially. Secondly, while resolving instead of deleting a DIF item may retain reliability, both options may affect the content validity negatively. Resolving items with DIF is not justified if the source of the DIF is relevant for the content of the variable; then resolving DIF may deteriorate the validity of the instrument. Generally, decisions on resolving items to deal with DIF should also rely on external information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Analysis of variance, Differential Item Functioning (DIF), Health, Rasch, Real and artificial DIF, Validity and reliability
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Statistics; Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63823 (URN)10.1186/s12955-017-0755-0 (DOI)000411386500003 ()28927468 (PubMedID)28927468 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1736
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-01-25
Nygren, K. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Self-reported school demands and psychosomatic problems among adolescents: Changes in the association between 1988 and 2011?. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-reported school demands and psychosomatic problems among adolescents: Changes in the association between 1988 and 2011?
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: the aim of the present study was to examine changes over time in the relationship between self-reported school demands and psychosomatic problems, also considering the impact of student influence and teacher support. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study (young in Värmland) including eight data collections (1988–2011) among Swedish students aged 15–16 were used (n = 20,115). Analyses with multinomial logistic regression and descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Between 1988 and 2011, the proportions of students with a higher degree of psychosomatic problems increased, as did the proportion of students experiencing school demands that were too high. Finer-level analyses based on stratification of student groups did not show any associations at the aggregated level between increases of school demands and psychosomatic problems. Similarly, individual level analyses showed that the strength of the association between school demands and psychosomatic problems was not affected by year of investigation. Conclusions:Changes in school demands over time could not explain the increasing trend in psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Since the relationship between school demands and psychosomatic problems is strong across time, there is, however, a continued need for school-based interventions. More studies are required to gain further understanding of adolescent mental health from a trend perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Adolescent, psychosomatic problems, school demands, student influence, teacher support
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63889 (URN)10.1177/1403494817725687 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1736
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Lönnfjord, V. & Hagquist, C. (2017). The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Adolescent Data. Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Adolescent Data
2017 (English)In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Self-efficacy describes people’s belief in their own ability to perform the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) with an adolescent sample, using Rasch analysis. The scale was examined with a focus on invariant functioning along the latent trait as well as across sample groups. The data were collected 2009 and 2010 among 3764 students aged between 13 and 15 years, in the 7th to 9th grade, in compulsory schools in the municipality of Karlstad, Sweden. The item fit was acceptable, the categorization of the items worked well and the scale worked invariantly between years of investigations. Although the GSES worked well as a whole, there was some evidence of misfit indicating room for improvements. The targeting may be improved by adding more questions of medium difficulty. Also, further attention needs to be paid to the dimensionality of the GSES as well as to whether the psychometric properties of GSES are affected by using more recent data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer, 2017
Keywords
Self-efficacy, Adolescents, Rasch analysis, Psychometric, Sweden, General Self-Efficacy Scale
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47803 (URN)10.1007/s12144-016-9551-y (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1736
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2016). Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at The 15th International Conference on Social Stress Research, 4-6 June 2016, San Diego, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42671 (URN)
Conference
The 15th International Conference on Social Stress Research, 4-6 June 2016, San Diego, USA
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-10 Last updated: 2016-07-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2986-2128

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