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Norell-Clarke, A. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Child and adolescent sleep duration recommendations in relation to psychological and somatic complaints based on data between 1985 and 2013 from 11 to 15 year-olds. Journal of Adolescence, 68, 12-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child and adolescent sleep duration recommendations in relation to psychological and somatic complaints based on data between 1985 and 2013 from 11 to 15 year-olds
2018 (English)In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 68, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the association between sleep duration, sleep initiation difficulties and psychological and somatic complaints. Methods: We used three cohorts of cross-sectional Swedish questionnaire data, from the Health Behaviours of School aged Children (1985/1986, 2005/2006, 2013/2014, n=>18 000, aged 11–15). Specific complaints (e.g. pain) and total complaint load were used as outcomes of sleep duration, sleep initiation difficulties and the combination of them both. Results: Sleeping less than recommended and sleep initiation difficulties were associated with increased odds of specific complaints and belonging to the group with the greatest complaint load. The combination of short sleep duration and sleep initiation difficulties were associated with higher odds than either sleep issue alone. No interaction effects between time and sleep variables were found regarding complaints. Conclusions: The findings support recent sleep duration recommendations. Further, sleep issues warrant a broad health assessment as they indicate a high likelihood of other complaints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2018
Keywords
Adolescents, Bedtime, Mood, Pain, Sleep duration, Sleep onset difficulties, adolescent, Article, backache, child, cohort analysis, controlled study, cross-sectional study, dizziness, female, headache, human, male, mental irritation, nervousness, pediatrics, psychosomatic disorder, sadness, sleep disorder, sleep time, stomach pain, Swedish citizen
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69047 (URN)10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.07.006 (DOI)000447105200002 ()2-s2.0-85049740893 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Kleppang, A. L., Hartz, I., Thurston, M. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Leisure-time physical activity among adolescents and subsequent use of antidepressant and hypnotic drugs: a prospective register linkage study.. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leisure-time physical activity among adolescents and subsequent use of antidepressant and hypnotic drugs: a prospective register linkage study.
2018 (English)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this prospective study, the association between physical activity and subsequent use of antidepressant and hypnotic drug use in adolescents aged 15-16 years was examined. This study is based on information retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys (2000-2003) and linked to prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (2004-2013). In total, the study included 10711 participants with a participation rate of 87%. Adolescents were asked how many hours per week they spent on physical activity that made them sweat and/or be out of breath outside of school. Incident psychotropic drug use (outcome measure) was defined as ≥ 1 prescription of one of the following psychotropic drugs: hypnotics and antidepressants registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database. In the crude model for the time period 2004-2007, the odds of incident hypnotic use were lower for those who were physically active 1-2 h per week (OR 0.48-0.64), compared to those who were physically inactive (< 1 h per week). However, the association become non-significant 4-year post-baseline (2008-2010 and 2011-2013). In the crude model for the time periods 2004-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013, the odds of incident antidepressant use were lower for physically active adolescents (2004-2007: OR 0.46-0.71, 2008-2010: OR 0.40-0.67 and 2011-2013: OR 0.37-0.58, compared to those who were physically inactive < 1 h. However, after adjustment for confounders, the association became non-significant in all time periods except in physical activity 5-7 and 8-10 h in the period 2008-2010. Physical activity does not indicate any association with later use of antidepressants, and the significant association with incident hypnotic drug use was for short-term follow-up only and disappeared on longer term follow-up periods. Given the scarcity of longitudinal studies examining the association between physical activity and mental health as well as psychotropic drug use among young people, the current study adds to previous research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Adolescents, Leisure time, Longitudinal study, Physical activity, Prescription database, Psychotropic drug use
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68616 (URN)10.1007/s00787-018-1160-x (DOI)29721753 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Kim, Y. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Mental health problems among economically disadvantaged adolescents in an increasingly unequal society: A Swedish study using repeated cross-sectional data from 1995 to 2011. SSM - Population Health, 6, 44-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health problems among economically disadvantaged adolescents in an increasingly unequal society: A Swedish study using repeated cross-sectional data from 1995 to 2011
2018 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing inequality in many societies highlights the importance of paying attention to differences in mental health between the economically disadvantaged adolescents and the non-disadvantaged adolescents. Also important is to understand how changing inequality in society over time influences adolescents’ mental health at the population- and individual-level. The current study examined to what extent increased societal-level income inequality over time, individual-level experiences of economic disadvantage and the cross-level interaction between the two explained Swedish adolescents’ mental health problems from 1995 to 2011. We used repeated cross-sectional data collected 6 times between 1995 and 2011 in Sweden. Each time, approximately 2,500 students in grade 9 completed a questionnaire during the spring semester. The adolescents provided self-report data on the frequency of their experiences of unaffordability of daily leisure activities (concert, movie, sports, and dance). They also reported their psychosomatic symptoms, which was used as a measure of mental health problems. We used the household equalised disposable income Gini coefficient as an indicator of societal income inequality. A real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was controlled for in order to rule out potential effects of economic growth in the society over time. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted in which students were nested in years of investigations. Adolescents who experienced unaffordability of daily leisure activities reported more mental health problems. Societal income inequality was not directly associated with the adolescents’ mental health. However, among girls the effects of experiences of unaffordability on mental health were stronger for all but one (sports) activities, and among boys for one activity (sports) when societal-level inequality was greater. Individual-level economic disadvantage are detrimental for adolescents’ mental health, both directly and interactively with societal-level economic inequality. Some suggestions for practice and future studies are made for mental health among adolescents in societies where increasing inequality is observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Mental health problems, Inequality, Unaffordability, Economic disadvantage
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69152 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2018.08.006 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012–1736
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Kim, Y. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72(2), 101-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008
2018 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background A long-term trend of increasing mental health problems among adolescents in many Western countries indicates a great need to investigate if and how societal changes have contributed to the reported increase. Using seven waves of repeated cross-sectional data collected between 1988 and 2008 in Sweden, the current study examined if economic factors at the societal level (municipality unemployment rate) and at the individual level (worry about family finances), and their interaction could explain a secular trend in mental health problems.

Methods Participants were 17 533 students of age 15–16 years (49.3% girls), from 14 municipalities in a county of Sweden. Data on adolescents’ mental health (psychosomatic problems) and worry about family finances were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. A series of multilevel regression analyses were conducted in order to explain the trends in adolescents’ mental health.

Results The results indicated that the individual-level predictor (worry about family finances) significantly explained the increasing rates of adolescents’ psychosomatic problems. This was particularly the case during the mid-1990s, which was characterised by a severe recession in Sweden with high unemployment rates. For example, after accounting for adolescents’ worry, a significant increase in psychosomatic symptoms between 1988 and 1998 among girls (b=0.112, P<0.05) disappeared (b=0.018, P>0.05) and a non-significant decrease between 1988 and 1995 among boys (b=−0.017, P>0.05) became significant (b=−0.142, P<0.05). Neither municipality unemployment rate nor its interaction with adolescents’ worry explained psychosomatic problems.

Conclusions The findings demonstrate the effects of adolescents’ worry about family finances on a secular trend in mental health problems during an economically bleak period of time. The study highlights the need for repeated measurements including a large number of time points over a long time period in order to analyse time-specific putative explanatory factors for trends in adolescent mental health problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65358 (URN)10.1136/jech-2017-209784 (DOI)29203524 (PubMedID)
Projects
Mental health, unemployment, psychosocial factors, multilevel modeling, public health
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012–1736
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Norell-Clarke, A. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Changes in sleep habits between 1985 and 2013 among children and adolescents in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45(8), 869-877
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in sleep habits between 1985 and 2013 among children and adolescents in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 869-877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim was to investigate changes in child and adolescent sleep habits in Sweden over time. This had not been done previously. Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire data over three decades of investigations of the Health Behaviours of School Children study (1985/1986, 2005/2006 and 2013/2014) were used. The sample included 18,682 children and adolescents, aged 11, 13 and 15. Empirically based age-specific sleep duration recommendations were used to operationalise sleep duration. Results: The results showed that, over time, fewer go to bed early and more go to bed late. Regarding sleep duration, there have been decreases in the proportion of children and adolescents that sleep as much as is recommended for their age. Sleep onset difficulties have increased for all ages and increase the odds of sleeping less than recommended as well as having late bedtimes. Boys were more likely than girls to have later bedtimes and to sleep less than recommended. A vocational educational track, not planning to study further or being unsure of which track to choose increased the odds for 15 year olds to have late bedtimes and to sleep less than recommended compared with a college preparatory track. Conclusions: The results indicate that over time, fewer children and adolescents attain sufficient sleep duration. This may have implications for study results, mental health and cognitive abilities.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65949 (URN)10.1177/1403494817732269 (DOI)000418185200019 ()28992746 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents. In: : . Paper presented at The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
Adolescents, mental health, impairment, self-reports
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65426 (URN)
Conference
The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C., Välimaa, R., Simonsen, N. & Suominen, S. (2017). Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland. Child Indicators Research, 10(3), 673-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 673-691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is an increasing focus on trend analyses of adolescent mental health, yet too little attention is paid to the methodological challenges and pitfalls inherent in this type of analyses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a Finnish instrument on psychosomatic problems, with a major focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across time. Questionnaire data collected in 1994, 1998, 2006 and 2014 among Finnish schoolchildren in grade 9 (15-year-olds) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were utilised.The polytomous Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems. The results clearly indicate that the composite measure on psychosomatic problems consisting of nine items does not work invariantly over time. In particular, the item depressed shows DIF across years ofinvestigations. This item works quite differently at the first year of investigationcompared to the last year showing higher expected values 2014 (=less frequent problems) than 1994. This DIF affects the person measure of change in psychosomatic problems between 1994 and 2014. Resolving the item depressed for year of investigation DIF, or removing it, increases the difference in person mean values between the two years, implying increasing psychosomatic problems over time. Since the DIF affects the trend results, different options to address the problems need to be considered. Removing the item depressed would bring the Finnish measure of psychosomatic problems in better accordance with the content of the questions on psychosomatic problems in the international HBSC protocol in which the item depressed is not included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, HBSC, Mental health, Psychosomatic problems, Rasch, Trend analyses
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41997 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9397-8 (DOI)000406969000005 ()
Available from: 2016-05-12 Created: 2016-05-12 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Beckman, L. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?. Child Indicators Research, 10(2), 447-459
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, bullying, peer aggression, peer victimization, psychosomatic problems
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Samhällskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35275 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9390-2 (DOI)000401518600008 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfarePublic Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2018-01-05Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning. In: : . Paper presented at International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Adolescents, Mental health symptoms, Functional impairment, Rasch, Differential Item Functioning (DIF)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65199 (URN)
Conference
International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Kleppang, A. L., Thurston, M., Hartz, I. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15–16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results: Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusions: The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, adolescents, psychological distress, leisure time
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63890 (URN)10.1177/1403494817716374 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2986-2128

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