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Kim, Y. & Hagquist, C. (2018). Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72(2), 101-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-2008
2018 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background A long-term trend of increasing mental health problems among adolescents in many Western countries indicates a great need to investigate if and how societal changes have contributed to the reported increase. Using seven waves of repeated cross-sectional data collected between 1988 and 2008 in Sweden, the current study examined if economic factors at the societal level (municipality unemployment rate) and at the individual level (worry about family finances), and their interaction could explain a secular trend in mental health problems.

Methods Participants were 17 533 students of age 15–16 years (49.3% girls), from 14 municipalities in a county of Sweden. Data on adolescents’ mental health (psychosomatic problems) and worry about family finances were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. A series of multilevel regression analyses were conducted in order to explain the trends in adolescents’ mental health.

Results The results indicated that the individual-level predictor (worry about family finances) significantly explained the increasing rates of adolescents’ psychosomatic problems. This was particularly the case during the mid-1990s, which was characterised by a severe recession in Sweden with high unemployment rates. For example, after accounting for adolescents’ worry, a significant increase in psychosomatic symptoms between 1988 and 1998 among girls (b=0.112, P<0.05) disappeared (b=0.018, P>0.05) and a non-significant decrease between 1988 and 1995 among boys (b=−0.017, P>0.05) became significant (b=−0.142, P<0.05). Neither municipality unemployment rate nor its interaction with adolescents’ worry explained psychosomatic problems.

Conclusions The findings demonstrate the effects of adolescents’ worry about family finances on a secular trend in mental health problems during an economically bleak period of time. The study highlights the need for repeated measurements including a large number of time points over a long time period in order to analyse time-specific putative explanatory factors for trends in adolescent mental health problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65358 (URN)10.1136/jech-2017-209784 (DOI)29203524 (PubMedID)
Projects
Mental health, unemployment, psychosocial factors, multilevel modeling, public health
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012–1736
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents. In: : . Paper presented at The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keyword
Adolescents, mental health, impairment, self-reports
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65426 (URN)
Conference
The 9th Excellence in Pediatrics Conference, 7-9 December 2017, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C., Välimaa, R., Simonsen, N. & Suominen, S. (2017). Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland. Child Indicators Research, 10(3), 673-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 673-691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is an increasing focus on trend analyses of adolescent mental health, yet too little attention is paid to the methodological challenges and pitfalls inherent in this type of analyses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a Finnish instrument on psychosomatic problems, with a major focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across time. Questionnaire data collected in 1994, 1998, 2006 and 2014 among Finnish schoolchildren in grade 9 (15-year-olds) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were utilised.The polytomous Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems. The results clearly indicate that the composite measure on psychosomatic problems consisting of nine items does not work invariantly over time. In particular, the item depressed shows DIF across years ofinvestigations. This item works quite differently at the first year of investigationcompared to the last year showing higher expected values 2014 (=less frequent problems) than 1994. This DIF affects the person measure of change in psychosomatic problems between 1994 and 2014. Resolving the item depressed for year of investigation DIF, or removing it, increases the difference in person mean values between the two years, implying increasing psychosomatic problems over time. Since the DIF affects the trend results, different options to address the problems need to be considered. Removing the item depressed would bring the Finnish measure of psychosomatic problems in better accordance with the content of the questions on psychosomatic problems in the international HBSC protocol in which the item depressed is not included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keyword
Adolescents, HBSC, Mental health, Psychosomatic problems, Rasch, Trend analyses
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41997 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9397-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-12 Created: 2016-05-12 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hellström, L., Beckman, L. & Hagquist, C. (2017). Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?. Child Indicators Research, 10(2), 447-459
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?
2017 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keyword
Adolescents, bullying, peer aggression, peer victimization, psychosomatic problems
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Samhällskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35275 (URN)10.1007/s12187-016-9390-2 (DOI)000401518600008 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfarePublic Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2018-01-05Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2017). Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning. In: : . Paper presented at International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keyword
Adolescents, Mental health symptoms, Functional impairment, Rasch, Differential Item Functioning (DIF)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65199 (URN)
Conference
International Outcome Measurement Conference (IOMC), September 15–16, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. & Andrich, D. (2017). Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15, 1-8, Article ID 181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model
2017 (English)In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 15, p. 1-8, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rasch analysis with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is increasingly used for examination of psychometric properties of health outcome measures. To take account of DIF in order to retain precision of measurement, split of DIF-items into separate sample specific items has become a frequently used technique. The purpose of the paper is to present and summarise recent advances of analysis of DIF in a unified methodology. In particular, the paper focuses on the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method to simultaneously detect uniform and non-uniform DIF, the need to distinguish between real and artificial DIF and the trade-off between reliability and validity. An illustrative example from health research is used to demonstrate how DIF, in this case between genders, can be identified, quantified and under specific circumstances accounted for using the Rasch model.

Methods: Rasch analyses of DIF were conducted of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems using Swedish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study for grade 9 students collected during the 1985–2014 time periods.

Results: The procedures demonstrate how DIF can be identified efficiently by ANOVA of residuals, and how the magnitude of DIF can be quantified and potentially accounted for by resolving items according to identifiable groups and using principles of test equating on the resolved items. The results of the analysis also show that the real DIF in some items does affect person measurement estimates.

Conclusions: Firstly, in order to distinguish between real and artificial DIF, the items showing DIF initially should not be resolved simultaneously but sequentially. Secondly, while resolving instead of deleting a DIF item may retain reliability, both options may affect the content validity negatively. Resolving items with DIF is not justified if the source of the DIF is relevant for the content of the variable; then resolving DIF may deteriorate the validity of the instrument. Generally, decisions on resolving items to deal with DIF should also rely on external information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keyword
Analysis of variance, Differential Item Functioning (DIF), Health, Rasch, Real and artificial DIF, Validity and reliability
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Statistics; Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63823 (URN)10.1186/s12955-017-0755-0 (DOI)000411386500003 ()28927468 (PubMedID)28927468 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1736
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-01-25
Hagquist, C. (2016). Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at The 15th International Conference on Social Stress Research, 4-6 June 2016, San Diego, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42671 (URN)
Conference
The 15th International Conference on Social Stress Research, 4-6 June 2016, San Diego, USA
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-10 Last updated: 2016-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C., Välimaa, R., Simonsen, N. & Suominen, S. (2016). Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Psychosomatic Problems based on Finnish HBSC-data.. In: : . Paper presented at HBSC Spring Meeting 15-17 June 2016, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Psychosomatic Problems based on Finnish HBSC-data.
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-43803 (URN)
Conference
HBSC Spring Meeting 15-17 June 2016, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2016-06-30 Last updated: 2016-08-23Bibliographically approved
Beckman, L., Stenbeck, M. & Hagquist, C. (2016). Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems. Children & Schools, 38(3), Article ID 153-161.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems
2016 (English)In: Children & Schools, ISSN 1532-8759, E-ISSN 1545-682X, Vol. 38, no 3, article id 153-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,820 Swedish students (ages 13 through 15) using linear and multinomial regression. The results show that students with a disability were more likely to be bully-victims and, more particularly, involved in both traditional and cyber victimization. Authors did not find any differences between adolescents with a disability and others with respect to the association between peer victimization and psychosomatic health. When developing intervention programs, schools may take a comprehensive approach due to the relatively large overlap between traditional and cyber victimization. Targeting groups with known disadvantages may also help reach out to bully-victims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2016
Keyword
adolescents; bully-victims; cyber victimization; peer victimization; psychosomatic health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38995 (URN)10.1093/cs/cdw022 (DOI)000379764300005 ()
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Hagquist, C. (2016). Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 44(1), 36-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations.

Methods: We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in grade 6 and grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure.

Results: The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0–0.05, compared to intact families. In grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11–0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency.

Conclusions:The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: , 2016
Keyword
adolescents, alternate residency, child-parent relationship, family structure, joint custody, joint physical custody, mental health, policy, psychosomatic problems, Rasch analysis, Sweden, teenagers
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Science; Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38346 (URN)10.1177/1403494815610664 (DOI)000369969000007 ()26487762 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012–1736
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-11-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2986-2128

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