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Lättman, K., Olsson, L. E. & Friman, M. (2018). A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel. Research in Transportation Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Accessibility has conventionally been measured and evaluated ignoring user perceptions in favor of focusing on travel time and distance to a number of pre-determined destinations. Acknowledging this gap, we recently developed a scale for perceived accessibility PAC (Lättman, Friman, & Olsson 2016b) aimed at capturing the individual perspective of accessibility with a certain travel mode. In this paper, we 1) further develop the PAC measure of perceived accessibility in order to capture how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, 2) compare levels of perceived accessibility between residential areas and main travel modes, and 3) compare residents’ perceived accessibility to the objective accessibility level for the same residential area. Data from 2711 residents of Malmö, Sweden show that perceived accessibility is consistently different from objective accessibility across 13 residential areas, with minor differences in levels of perceived accessibility between areas. Surprisingly, bicycle users rate their accessibility significantly higher than those who mainly use the car or public transport for daily travel, contrary to objective accessibility assumptions. These differences point at the importance of including perceived accessibility as a complementary tool when planning for and evaluating transport systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Perceived accessibility;Accessibility; Accessibility measure; Transport planning; Sustainable transport
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68045 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2018.06.002 (DOI)
Projects
MistraSAMS
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Waygood, E. O., Friman, M., Taniguchi, A. & Olsson, L. E. (2018). Children's life satisfaction and travel satisfaction: Evidence from Canada, Japan, and Sweden. Travel Behaviour & Society, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's life satisfaction and travel satisfaction: Evidence from Canada, Japan, and Sweden
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Travel satisfaction has been linked to life satisfaction for adults, but no evidence exists currently for children's travel. Children's travel differs from adult's in numerous ways including limitations related to independent travel and available transport options. Children's travel is often more local and their desire to explore and learn about their environment may be higher than for adults. The importance of social interaction during travel or at locations may also be a greater consideration for children. Further, many of their destinations are pre-determined such as going to school (not all adults work, but nearly all children of school age attend school). This paper analyzes the relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction for children aged 9–12 in Canada, Japan, and Sweden (n = 425) using partial least squares structural equation modeling. In line with previous findings among adults, the analyses show a significant path from travel satisfaction to life satisfaction among children, suggesting a moderate relationship. Unexpectedly, negative relationships for increased frequency of nearly all mode uses (walking, bus, and car) on travel satisfaction (directly) and life satisfaction (indirectly) were found, which may suggest that children do not enjoy frequent travel. These results suggest a relationship that is likely important, but not necessarily in the ways anticipated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Children, Everyday travel, Life satisfaction, Satisfaction with travel
National Category
Sociology Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67404 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.04.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046661396 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2018). Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars (2ed.). In: Alan Lewis (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour: (pp. 567-594). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars
2018 (English)In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018 Edition: 2
Keywords
Applied Psychology, Economics
National Category
Applied Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Economic History
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68077 (URN)10.1017/9781316676349.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048161445 (Scopus ID)9781316676349 (ISBN)9781107161399 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T. & Ettema, D. (2018). Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers. Travel Behaviour & Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Public transport, Satisfaction with travel, Service quality, Well-being
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects Economic Geography Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Sociology; Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66943 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.03.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044112879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. E., Huck, J. & Friman, M. (2018). Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(2), Article ID 216.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
Attitudes, Intentions, Norms, Perceived behavioral control, Stage-based models, Sustainable travel, Work commute, article, employee, human, human experiment, major clinical study, questionnaire, social norm, Theory of Planned Behavior, thinking, travel, workplace
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66206 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15020216 (DOI)29373565 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041112336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Waygood, E. O., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E. & Taniguchi, A. (2017). Children's incidental social interaction during travel international case studies from Canada, Japan, and Sweden. Journal of Transport Geography, 63, 22-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's incidental social interaction during travel international case studies from Canada, Japan, and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 63, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Incidental social interactions such as seeing a known person while travelling are theorized to contribute to community connections and social capital. It is argued in such work that walking may be a critical factor, but the frequency of such interactions is generally unknown. For children, these community connections may increase independent travel and contribute to their well-being. Previous research out of Japan found that walking was indeed more likely to result in children seeing people in general and seeing a known person. However, it is not clear whether that is a culturally anecdotal finding, or whether similar findings would occur in different cultural and transportation contexts. Reasons why it may be anecdotal include: in most cases, all elementary school children walk to school in Japan; many trips occur at a local level and are conducted by non-motorized modes in Japan; greeting others (aisatsu) is a cultural value in Japan. This study examines whether one's transport mode relates to having incidental social interaction during their trips for children aged 10–11 in Canada (177), Japan (178), and Sweden (144). Further to previous work, the research carried out here asked the children what type of interaction occurred (spoke, waved, no interaction, or other) which would relate to building or maintaining community connections. The findings demonstrate that the results are internationally applicable and that most incidental social interactions result in a verbal communication in all three countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Children's travel, Incidental social interactions, Independent mobility, Active travel
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63679 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2017.07.002 (DOI)000411305500003 ()
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2017). Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance. Transportation, 44(6), 1365-1382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance
2017 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Children, School travel, Satisfaction, Current mood, Cognitive performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38305 (URN)10.1007/s11116-016-9705-7 (DOI)
Projects
SAMOT
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 170-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Daily travel, Satisfaction with travel, Life satisfaction, Emotional well-being
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65943 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.09.024 (DOI)000417659500013 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Huck, J. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), 581-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM. Findings showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual’s stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
health, integrative review, transtheoretical model of change, TTM, travel behavior, travel interventions
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63677 (URN)10.3390/ijerph14060581 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., Ståhl, M., Ettema, D. & Gärling, T. (2017). Travel and residual emotional well-being. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 49, 159-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel and residual emotional well-being
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Work commute, Emotional well-being, Critical incident, Satisfaction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63678 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.06.015 (DOI)000407980200011 ()
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7475-680X

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