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Publications (10 of 156) Show all publications
Friman, M., Gärling, T. & Ettema, D. (2018). Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers. Travel Behaviour & Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keyword
Public transport, Satisfaction with travel, Service quality, Well-being
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66943 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.03.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044112879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-05-21
Olsson, L. E., Huck, J. & Friman, M. (2018). Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(2), Article ID 216.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2018
Keyword
Attitudes, Intentions, Norms, Perceived behavioral control, Stage-based models, Sustainable travel, Work commute, article, employee, human, human experiment, major clinical study, questionnaire, social norm, Theory of Planned Behavior, thinking, travel, workplace
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66206 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15020216 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041112336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-21
Westman, J., Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T. & Friman, M. (2017). Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance. Transportation, 44(6), 1365-1382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance
2017 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keyword
Children, School travel, Satisfaction, Current mood, Cognitive performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-38305 (URN)10.1007/s11116-016-9705-7 (DOI)
Projects
SAMOT
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 170-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Daily travel, Satisfaction with travel, Life satisfaction, Emotional well-being
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65943 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.09.024 (DOI)000417659500013 ()
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Huck, J. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), 581-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM. Findings showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual’s stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2017
Keyword
health, integrative review, transtheoretical model of change, TTM, travel behavior, travel interventions
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63677 (URN)10.3390/ijerph14060581 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Westman, J., Friman, M. & Olsson, L. E. (2017). What Drives Them to Drive?: Parents' Reasons for Choosing the Car to Take Their Children to School. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-8, Article ID 1970.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Drives Them to Drive?: Parents' Reasons for Choosing the Car to Take Their Children to School
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-8, article id 1970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children's school journeys have changed vastly during recent decades: More children are being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier research into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys-in particular how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode. This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school. We additionally investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors, distance, and both the stated reasons and the actual mode decision. A sample of 245 parents (194 women) of school children aged 10-15 in the County of Varmland in Sweden were included in the study. The results of PLS-SEM show that the factor Social convenience has a direct relationship with the frequency of car use indicating that the wish to accompany the child and the convenience of car impacts on car choice. If the child is not allowed to travel independently, the parents choose the car to take him/her to school. Sociodemographic factors had a direct relationship with the stated reasons, whereby parents with a higher level of education valued safety/security less. Quite surprisingly, distance (i.e., environmental factor) did not affect car use, indicating that parents drive their children to school regardless of distance. By isolating the particular reasons for choosing the car, this paper focuses on a potentially important missing piece as regards finding out what motivates the increasing car usage in children's school journeys. An increased knowledge of what motivates the decision to take children by car is important for effective policies aimed at changing parents' inclination toward choosing the car.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keyword
school travel; stated reasons; car choice; parental decision; children and adolescents
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65906 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01970 (DOI)000414624100001 ()29167653 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Lättman, K., Olsson, L. E. & Friman, M. (2016). Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 54, 257-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport
2016 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 257-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42993 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.06.015 (DOI)000382344800026 ()
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2017-08-08Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S., Markus, L., Karlsson, M., Strömberg, H. & Friman, M. (2016). Integration as a conduit for sustainable forms of Mobility as a Service.. In: : . Paper presented at ITS World Congress 2016 10 - 14 October in Melbourne, Australia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration as a conduit for sustainable forms of Mobility as a Service.
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41896 (URN)
Conference
ITS World Congress 2016 10 - 14 October in Melbourne, Australia
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
Friman, M., Olsson, E. L., Ettema, D. & Gärling, T. (2016). Measuring Satisfaction with Travel and Emotional Well-being.. In: : . Paper presented at ICP2016, the 31st International Congress of Psychology, Yokohama, 24-29 July, 2016..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring Satisfaction with Travel and Emotional Well-being.
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41895 (URN)
Conference
ICP2016, the 31st International Congress of Psychology, Yokohama, 24-29 July, 2016.
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved
Lättman, K., Friman, M. & Olsson, L. E. (2016). Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion. Social Inclusion, 4(3), 36-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion
2016 (English)In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sus-tainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Un-like conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of en-gaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objec-tive standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety) increase the per-ceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750) focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Fri-man, 2015). More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that sub-jective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon: Cogitatio, 2016
Keyword
perceived accessibility, public transport, social exclusion, social inclusion, subjective well-being, transport planning
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42572 (URN)10.17645/si.v4i3.481 (DOI)000383363400004 ()
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-05335
Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-27 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7475-680X

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