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Mohideen, A. C., Rajiullah, M., Secchi, R., Fairhurst, G., Brunström, A. & Weinrank, F. (2019). Evaluating the impact of transport mechanisms on web performance for effective web access. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 137, 25-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the impact of transport mechanisms on web performance for effective web access
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 137, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the design trade-offs required for an Internet transport protocol to effectively support web access. It identifies a set of distinct transport mechanisms and explores their use with a focus on multistreaming. The mechanisms are studied using a practical methodology that utilise the range of transport features provided by TCP and SCTP. The results demonstrate the relative benefit of key transport mechanisms and analyse how these impact web access performance. Our conclusions help identify the root causes of performance impairments and suggest appropriate choices guiding the design of a web transport protocol. Performing this analysis at the level of component transport mechanisms enables the results to be utilised in the design of new transport protocols, such as IETF QUIC.

Keywords
Web performance; SCTP; Transport mechanisms
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71847 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2019.04.006 (DOI)000470940500003 ()
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Yedugundla, K., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2019). Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019 2-4 May, Heraklion, Greece (pp. 111-119). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER, SciTePress, 2019, p. 111-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet traffic is comprised of data flows from various applications with unique traffic characteristics. For many cloud applications, end-to-end latency is a primary factor affecting the perceived user experience. As packet losses cause delays in the communication they impact user experience, making efficient handling of packet losses an important function of transport layer protocols. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a modification to TCP that enables simultaneous use of several paths for a TCP flow. MPTCP is known to improve throughput. However, the performance of MPTCP is not optimal when handling certain loss scenarios. Efficient packet loss recovery is thus important to achieve desirable flow completion times for interactive cloud-based applications. In this paper we evaluate the performance of MPTCP in handling tail losses using traffic traces from various cloud-based applications. Tail losses, losses that occur at the end of a flow or traffic burst, are particularly challenging from a latency perspective as they are difficult to detect and recover in a timely manner. Tail losses in TCP are handled by using a tail loss probe (TLP) mechanism which was adapted to MPTCP from TCP. We investigate the performance of TLP in MPTCP, comparing the standard implementation to a recently proposed, less conservative approach. Our experimental results show that a less conservative implementation of TLP performs significantly better than the standard implementation in handling tail losses, reducing the average burst completion time of cloud based applications when tail loss occurs by up to 50% in certain cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2019
Keywords
Multipath TCP, Cloud Applications, Latency, Loss Recovery, Performance Evaluation, Measurements.
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70749 (URN)10.5220/0007723801110119 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067484825 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-365-0 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019 2-4 May, Heraklion, Greece
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Abbas, M. T., Eklund, J., Grinnemo, K.-J. & Brunström, A. (2019). Impact of Tunable Parameters in NB-IoT Stack onthe Energy Consumption. In: Proceedings of Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW): . Paper presented at 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2019). Luleå, June 4-5, 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Tunable Parameters in NB-IoT Stack onthe Energy Consumption
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper studies the impact of tunable parametersin the NB-IoT stack on the energy consumption of a user equipment(UE), e.g., a wireless sensor. NB-IoT is designed to enablemassive machine-type communications for UE while providing abattery lifetime of up to 10 years. To save battery power, most oftime the UE is in dormant state and unreachable. Still, duringthe CONNECTED and IDLE state, correct tuning of criticalparameters, like Discontinuous reception (DRX), and extendedDiscontinuous reception (eDRX), respectively, are essential to savebattery power. Moreover, the DRX and eDRX actions relate tovarious parameters which are needed to be tuned in order toachieve a required UE battery lifetime. The objective of thispaper is to observe the influence of an appropriate tuning ofthese parameters to reduce the risk of an early battery drainage

Keywords
NB-IoT, energy consumption, DRX, eDRX.
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72440 (URN)
Conference
15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2019). Luleå, June 4-5, 2019.
Projects
HITS; 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Garcia, J., Sundberg, S., Brunström, A. & Beckman, C. (2019). Interactions Between Train Velocity andCellular Link Throughput - An Extensive Study. In: 2019 IEEE 30th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC): . Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications 8-11 September 2019 // Istanbul, Turkey.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions Between Train Velocity andCellular Link Throughput - An Extensive Study
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 30th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Providing reliable internet connectivity to train passengers can be handled with onboard aggregation routers that use multiple external antennas to simultaneously convey user traffic over multiple links. This work studies the operational characteristics of a large-scale deployment of such a system. The examination focuses on how train velocity is associated with achieved link throughput, and how various interaction effects influence the relationship. A large data set collected over three years is analyzed, indicating that there is a systematic association between train velocity and link throughput that varies over the radio conditions and which is also linked to differences between operators.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75833 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2019.8904240 (DOI)978-1-5386-8110-7 (ISBN)978-1-5386-8111-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications 8-11 September 2019 // Istanbul, Turkey
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Ahlgren, B., Grinnemo, K.-J., Arahamsson, H., Brunström, A. & Hurtig, P. (2019). Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019.: . Paper presented at The Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019., 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the latency-aware multipath schedulerZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities ininformation-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is touse the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows,and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimatorcalled zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiplepaths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths sothat the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is,so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow withoutcreating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation usingsimulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72439 (URN)
Conference
The Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019.
Projects
HITS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Hurtig, P., Grinnemo, K.-J., Brunström, A., Ferlin, S., Alay, Ö. & Kuhn, N. (2019). Low-Latency Scheduling in MPTCP. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1, 302-315, Article ID 8584135.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Latency Scheduling in MPTCP
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2019 (English)In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 1, p. 302-315, article id 8584135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The demand for mobile communication is continuously increasing, and mobile devices are now the communication device of choice for many people. To guarantee connectivity and performance, mobile devices are typically equipped with multiple interfaces. To this end, exploiting multiple available interfaces is also a crucial aspect of the upcoming 5G standard for reducing costs, easing network management, and providing a good user experience. Multi-path protocols, such as multi-path TCP (MPTCP), can be used to provide performance optimization through load-balancing and resilience to coverage drops and link failures, however, they do not automatically guarantee better performance. For instance, low-latency communication has been proven hard to achieve when a device has network interfaces with asymmetric capacity and delay (e.g., LTE and WLAN). For multi-path communication, the data scheduler is vital to provide low latency, since it decides over which network interface to send individual data segments. In this paper, we focus on the MPTCP scheduler with the goal of providing a good user experience for latency-sensitive applications when interface quality is asymmetric. After an initial assessment of existing scheduling algorithms, we present two novel scheduling techniques: the block estimation (BLEST) scheduler and the shortest transmission time first (STTF) scheduler. BLEST and STTF are compared with existing schedulers in both emulated and real-world environments and are shown to reduce web object transmission times with up to 51% and provide 45% faster communication for interactive applications, compared with MPTCP's default scheduler.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
asymmetric paths., low-latency, MPTCP, scheduling, Transport protocols, Mobile telecommunication systems, Scheduling algorithms, Wireless telecommunication systems, asymmetric paths, Interactive applications, Low latency, Low-latency communication, Performance optimizations, Real world environments, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71263 (URN)10.1109/TNET.2018.2884791 (DOI)000458851600022 ()2-s2.0-85058877698 (Scopus ID)
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Parichehreh, A., Moosavi, R., Ramachandra, P., Alfredsson, S. & Brunström, A. (2019). LTE as a Road Toward 5G: QoS Analysis in Mobility Scenario Using The Monroe Platform. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC: . Paper presented at IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference 15-19 April 2019 // Marrakech, Morocco (pp. 1-7). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LTE as a Road Toward 5G: QoS Analysis in Mobility Scenario Using The Monroe Platform
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, IEEE, 2019, p. 1-7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Seamless wireless connectivity and low latency com- munication in mobility scenarios are two fundamental require- ments in the fifth generation networks to effectively cover a broader range of use cases such as massive machine type communications and ultra-reliable low-latency communications for new industrial/potential users, as well as enhanced mobile broadband for conventional users.

In this paper, we aim at measuring certain key performance indicators in mobility scenarios, highlighting some practical inefficiencies that require more careful consideration when de- signing and enhancing mobility features of 5G networks. We investigate the round trip time, uplink throughput and the impact of handover interruption time on these metrics. Our results are based on three months experiment campaign in a mix of rural, suburban, and urban environment using the geographically distributed MONROE platform. Based on the observed discrep- ancies between measured and standardized LTE performance, we conclude the paper with a discussion of techniques that may need more attention for mobility scenarios in fifth generation mobile networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
5G Networks, Long Term Evolution, Measure- ment Analysis, Handover interruption, Latency
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72047 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2019.8885501 (DOI)
Conference
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference 15-19 April 2019 // Marrakech, Morocco
Projects
DigitalWell Research Fas 1, 5465
Funder
Region Värmland
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Garcia, J., Sundberg, S. & Brunstrom, A. (2019). LTE for Trains - Performance Interactions Examined with DL, ML and Resampling. In: 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC): . Paper presented at IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC) 29 june-3 july 2019, Barcelona, Spain. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LTE for Trains - Performance Interactions Examined with DL, ML and Resampling
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current LTE networks provide a large fraction of the mobile communication needs. One recent application area that have attained additional interest is the provision of mobile communication services to train passengers. To allow more efficient use of network resources and better onboard communication experience, onboard traffic aggregation can be performed. In this work we examine a large-scale operational data set from a routerbased LTE traffic aggregation system mounted onboard more than 100 trains belonging to a major Swedish train operator. We use both deep learning (DL) with Deep Neural Networks and traditional machine learning (ML) with Random Forests to examine an observed association between train velocity and achieved throughput, which curiously varies over different radio conditions. More than 37000 train journeys are analyzed to explore for structure and learn potential explanatory features. The results indicate that the association has a limited presence on a per cell basis, and that there is only a limited amount of learnable structure per cell. A resampling evaluation shows that the association becomes apparent when cell measurements are aggregated at an order of tens to a hundred cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-76644 (URN)10.1109/ISCC47284.2019.8969727 (DOI)978-1-7281-2999-0 (ISBN)978-1-7281-3000-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC) 29 june-3 july 2019, Barcelona, Spain
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-02-03
Nguyen, V.-G., Carlsson, A., Grinnemo, K.-J., Cheng, J., Taheri, J. & Brunström, A. (2019). On the Use of 5G for Inter-substation GOOSE Transmission in Smart Grid. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. June 2019: . Paper presented at 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop SNCNW 2019. 4-5 juni, 2019. Luleå, Sweden..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Use of 5G for Inter-substation GOOSE Transmission in Smart Grid
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. June 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Protection and automation in a smart grid environmentoften have stringent real-time communication requirementsbetween devices within a substation as well as between distantlylocated substations. The Generic Object Oriented SubstationEvent (GOOSE) messaging service has been proposed to achievethis goal as it allows to transfer time-critical information within afew milliseconds. However, the transmission of GOOSE messagesare often limited to a small Local Area Network (LAN).In this paper, we propose the use of the fifth generation ofmobile networks (5G) as a means to transport GOOSE messagesin a large scale smart grid environment. The end-to-end delay ismeasured between GOOSE devices over an 5G network with thefocus on the core network using the Open5GCore platform in alab environment. Although there is a lack of a real radio accessnetwork, the experimental results confirm that the delay withinthe rest of the 5G network is small enough for it to be feasiblefor inter-substation GOOSE transmissions.

National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72435 (URN)
Conference
15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop SNCNW 2019. 4-5 juni, 2019. Luleå, Sweden.
Projects
HITS, 4707
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
Høiland-Jørgensen, T., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2019). PoliFi: Airtime Policy Enforcement for WiFi. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC: . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2019; Marrakesh; Morocco; 15 April 2019 through 19 April 2019 (pp. 1-6). IEEE, Article ID 8885440.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PoliFi: Airtime Policy Enforcement for WiFi
2019 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6, article id 8885440Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As WiFi grows ever more popular, airtime contention becomes an increasing problem. One way to alleviate this is through network policy enforcement. Unfortunately, WiFi lacks protocol support for configuring policies for its usage, and since network-wide coordination cannot generally be ensured, enforcing policy is challenging. However, as we have shown in previous work, an access point can influence the behaviour of connected devices by changing its scheduling of transmission opportunities, which can be used to achieve airtime fairness. In this work, we show that this mechanism can be extended to successfully enforce airtime usage policies in WiFi networks. We implement this as an extension our previous airtime fairness work, and present PoliFi, the resulting policy enforcement system. Our evaluation shows that PoliFi makes it possible to express a range of useful policies. These include prioritisation of specific devices; balancing groups of devices for sharing between different logical networks or network slices; and limiting groups of devices to implement guest networks or other low-priority services. We also show how these can be used to improve the performance of a real-world DASH video streaming application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69641 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2019.8885440 (DOI)9781538676462 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2019; Marrakesh; Morocco; 15 April 2019 through 19 April 2019
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7311-9334

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