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Berglund, T., Gericke, N., Boeve-de Pauw, J., Olsson, D. & Chang, T. (2019). A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is promoted as one important component in the endeavor toward sustainable development. Goal 4 in the Sustainable Development Goals (UN in Sustainable development goals—17 goals to transform our world, 2017) in particular targets the role of ESD in this respect. The importance of cultural specificity in ESD is emphasized in numerous international policy documents, but there are few cross-cultural studies that focus on the broad context of sustainable development and ESD. The current study investigates the sustainability consciousness of grade 12 students (age 18–19) in Taiwan (N = 617) and Sweden (N = 583) and discusses the implications for ESD policy and practice. The findings indicate that significant differences exist between the two samples, both with respect to their sustainability consciousness and within the three sub-constructs of knowingness, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. The differences are considered in light of the cultural value orientations of the East Asian and Western European regions. Implications for ESD are discussed from the perspective of cultural specificity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Sustainable development, education, culture, sustainability consciousness, knowledge, attitudes, behavior
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75228 (URN)10.1007/s10668-019-00478-2 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, B0589701
Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Per, S., Gericke, N. & Bladh, G. (2019). Comparisons of contributions from three different secondary school subject areas to environmental and sustainability teaching. In: : . Paper presented at Nofa7 (Nordic Conference on School Subjects) conference, 13th – 15th May, 2019. Stockholm, Sweden..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparisons of contributions from three different secondary school subject areas to environmental and sustainability teaching
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Samhällskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75284 (URN)
Conference
Nofa7 (Nordic Conference on School Subjects) conference, 13th – 15th May, 2019. Stockholm, Sweden.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Borg, F. & Gericke, N. (2019). Concrete Examples of Education for Sustainability Practices in Preschool in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research). 2-6 September, 2019. Hamburg, Germany..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concrete Examples of Education for Sustainability Practices in Preschool in Sweden
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To integrate education for sustainability (EfS) in pedagogical practices is often described as complex and challenging by teachers at preschool to higher education levels. Teachers’ lack of competence in teaching EfS or inspiring examples from educational practices have been identified as some major reasons for this (Borg, Gericke, Höglund, & Bergman, 2012; Corney, 2006; Hedefalk, Almqvist & Östman, 2015). The intention with EfS is to empower learners ‘to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society, for present and future generations, while respecting cultural diversity’ (UNESCO, 2019). In early childhood education, a main starting point in EfS is building on children’s participation, and viewing them as active agents and stakeholders for the future (Gothenburg Environmental Centre, 2010). Despite an increase in integrating EfS in preschools in Sweden, there are teachers that do not fully acknowledge children as active citizens who are capable of being involved in activities that bring changes in society (Ärlemalm-Hagsér, 2013).

Preschool teachers play a significant role in developing young children’s verbal and practical knowledge about environmental and sustainability-related issues through engaging them in conversations, discussions, and in practical activities (Borg, 2017). According to Pramling Samuelsson (2011, p. 110) an important factor for developing children’s competence in EfS is ‘the teacher’s competence and understanding of the questions as such related to young children’s everyday life’. However, only a few studies have been conducted to explore how teachers integrated EfS in preschool education (e.g. Svedäng, Halvars, Elfström, & Unga, 2018). Knowledge operationalization of EfS is needed for teachers to identify practical and proven examples of how to integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical practices.  

Aim and objectives

The purpose of this study was to highlight preschool teachers’ operationalization of education for sustainability (EfS) in their daily pedagogical practices in Sweden. The objectives were:

  • to explore teachers’ sustainability awareness in preschool education; and
  • to investigate how teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities

In this paper, ‘sustainability awareness’ refers to what teachers describe about what they know and how they view of sustainability in relation to preschool education from their personal perspectives. In Sweden, preschool education refers to early childhood education for children, who are below six years old.

In Sweden, a new curriculum for preschool education will be effective from July 2019 (Skolverket, 2018), in which a number of changes compared with the previous curriculum have been made, e.g., the concept sustainably is explicitly mentioned for the first time in relation to preschool education and children’s learning. The new curriculum states that each person that works in preschool shall promote respect for individual’s intrinsic value and for sustainability.

Conceptual framework

Children are active participants in learning, and the involvement of adults and knowledgeable peers can make a great difference in the learning process (Bruner, 1966). Bruner (1960, 1977) argues that a child of any age is capable of understanding complex information; even very young children are capable of learning any material if the instruction is organized appropriately. Considering the complexity of the concept of sustainability, the study uses an interlocking circles model that depicts how the environmental, the social and the environmental dimensions are closely connected (Elliott, 2013). Any practices and policies developed without taking all dimensions into account are likely to provide only limited understanding of the sustainability concept and is less likely to lead to action (Siraj-Blatchford, Smith, & Samuelsson, 2010). With regard to EfS, the challenges are not only to operationalize these sustainability dimensions for preschool’s pedagogical practices, but there is a great need to concretize EfS with examples that are connected with children’s daily life.

Method

This study was part of a larger EfS-school development project, which was developed with practitioners to provide support for teacher professional development (TPD) in a municipality in Sweden. A qualitative approach was utilized to acquire an in-depth understanding of preschool teachers’ sustainability awareness, and their ways of operationalizing the EfS for day-today activities. The study was conducted between April and May 2018. A description of Participants and data collection, and Data analysis is given below. Participants and data collection Individual interview data were collected from 12 certified preschool teachers, who were employed in 8 preschools that participated in the EfS-school development project for a year. The preschool teachers were all women with working experiences with young children ranging from 6 to 33 years. Although 10 preschools participated in the EfS-school development project, two of them could not participate in the study due to other commitments. An interview guide was developed that included questions concerning demographic information, teacher’s definition and views of the concept of sustainability and EfS, their experiences of working with EfS with practical examples, as well as any challenges they might have experienced to integrate EfS in preschool education. Conducted in Swedish, the interviews were audio recorded and fully transcribed by a professional transcriber. Data analysis Content analysis was undertaken to analyse the interview transcriptions to identify main contents of data and the messages (Cohen, Manion, & Morisson, 2011). The transcriptions were read and re-read in order to become thoroughly familiarized with the data and initial codes were noted concurrently. Any similarities, inconsistencies or contradictions in relation to what individual teachers informed, were noted for further exploration. In later stages of the analysis, some of the codes were modified while re-reading the transcriptions to ensure consistencies and coverage of the codes. Similar types of codes were categorized and from these categories major themes emerged. To ensure reliability, the coding started with a small sample of texts, which helps to make amendments of the coding and categorisation. This study followed the codes and guidelines of research ethics in relation to informed consents of the participants, maintenance of confidentiality, and the use of information for the study (Vetenskapsrådet, 2017).

Expected Outcomes

Regarding sustainability awareness, most of the teachers reported an Integrated views of sustainability. All participants were capable of describing sustainability using the three interconnected dimensions: the environmental, the social and the economic. In general, all teachers viewed sustainability as an abstract and complex concept, which can be difficult to make apprehensible in preschool’s educational activities. The preliminary findings of how the teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities are presented under emerging themes below: Environmental dimensions on focus: Common activities in all preschools were recycling of plastic materials, reusing of milk packets and plastic corks, as well as composting of leftover food. Going out in the nature appeared to be a routine for all preschools. Concrete examples for young children: A few teachers argued that working with young children with EfS, requires efforts to concretize various activities at children’s developmental levels. In general the teachers were lacking concrete ways of working with EfS; especially to integrate the social and economic dimension. Internationalization and global perspectives: A couple of preschools started integrating global perspectives, e.g. one teacher mentioned that they had a collaboration with a preschool in Canada, and, according to her, it is important that children get a wider perspective about other countries, languages and cultures, which she viewed as a part of social sustainability. Some of the teachers connected their educational practices with the preschool curriculum highlighting the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) that address the ‘areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet’ (United Nations, 2015, p.1). To summarize the main findings, it seemed that the current TPD had, to greater extent, impact on transforming teachers’ views of sustainability into a holistic concept, and they were also struggling to transform their knowledge into concrete pedagogical activities. Positive and unexpected activities though evolved in relation to globalization.

National Category
Educational Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75278 (URN)
Conference
ECER (European Conference on Educational Research). 2-6 September, 2019. Hamburg, Germany.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Olsson, D. & Gericke, N. (2019). Cross validation of a new scale covering student self-perceived action competence. In: : . Paper presented at Oral presentation within the symposium “Bringing Perspectives of Action Competence Together in Education for Sustainable Development”, held at the ECER (European Conference on Educational Research) held by EERA (European Educational Research Association) in Hamburg, Germany 2-6th of September..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross validation of a new scale covering student self-perceived action competence
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This contribution aims to describe the development, cross validation and operationalization of a new scale developed to measure student self-perceived action competence. The underlying idea of education for sustainable development (ESD) is to empower young people to be sustainability action competent and thus, in the long run, contribute to transform the world into a more sustainable place (Lotz-Sitiska, Wals, Kronlid, & McGarry, 2015; Mogensen & Schnack, 2010, UNESCO, 2014). To be able to tune in and develop ESD processes and implementation strategies it is important to evaluate outcomes of ESD at the student level (Scott, 2013). Therefore, we set out to construct a reliable and valid instrument that covers action competence based on its definition in relation to sustainable development. The self-perceived action competence (SPAC) item battery was developed based on the definition of action competence by Danish researchers (Jensen & Schnack, 1997; Breiting & Mogensen, 1999). We built a higher order SEM model to validate the SPAC through confirmatory factor analysis. In our model, the student SPAC consists of three main parts (latent constructs): (KAP) knowledge of action possibilities, (COI) confidence in one’s own influence, and (WTA) a wish to act. The latent constructs KAP, COI and WTA are covered by four items respectively. 608 students aged 13-19 years old responded on a five-point Likert-scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) to each of the twelve items. To cross validate the SPAC, the students also gave their answers to the short version (27 items) of the sustainability consciousness questionnaire (SCQs) (Gericke et al., 2018). The two scales were respectively validated with good model-fit. Moreover, the SPAC was translated into Dutch and cross validated with a group of Flemish students (n=403). The Flemish SPAC model was validated with good model fit. At the ECER conference in Hamburg, we will present the full 12-item scale and the full validation of the SPAC, including reliability measures of the scales and correlations between the Swedish and Flemish cohorts as well as the cross validation between the SPAC and SCQs for the Swedish data. We will invite the audience to share their thoughts on the relation between student self-perceived action competence and the action competence concept as an educational ideal. Feedback on strengths and shortcomings of our SPAC questionnaire will also be welcomed.

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75277 (URN)
Conference
Oral presentation within the symposium “Bringing Perspectives of Action Competence Together in Education for Sustainable Development”, held at the ECER (European Conference on Educational Research) held by EERA (European Educational Research Association) in Hamburg, Germany 2-6th of September.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Per, S., Gericke, N. & Bladh, G. (2019). Different secondary school subject areas contributions to collaboration in environmental and sustainability teaching. In: : . Paper presented at Oral presentation at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research) held by EERA (European Educational Research Association) in Hamburg, Germany 2-6th of September..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different secondary school subject areas contributions to collaboration in environmental and sustainability teaching
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

According to the curricula in many countries, teachers in the subject areas of science, social science and language are expected to collaborate on cross-curricular issues such as sustainable development (SD). In Sweden this is the case in the nine-year compulsory school (Education, 2011). This study is based in Sweden and investigates the similarities and differences in the responses of ten teacher groups (forty-three teachers in total) to questions about their contributions in their own subject areas to environmental and sustainability education (ESE).

There are previously some barriers identified to the implementation of ESE in a cross-curricular way. In a large quantitative study including about 3300 Swedish upper secondary teachers, comparisons were made regarding teachers inclusion of ESE within different subject areas (Borg, Gericke, Höglund, & Bergman, 2012). In that study it was found that language teachers do not always feel at ease with ESE teaching, and more than 41% of language teachers stated that they did not include SD issues in their teaching, while 34% stated (the highest percentage of the three subject areas) that they lacked the necessary knowledge expertise. In contrast, especially the social science teachers and to somewhat less degree the science teachers included this perspective.

Regardless of the problems shown in previous studies the overall aim of this study is to understand what cross-curricular teaching in teacher teams can achieve in relation ESE. All teachers in compulsory school in Sweden are organized in cross-curricular teams of various subject teachers teaching the same student group, named lärarlag in Swedish and here denoted as teacher teams. Moreover, given that cross-curricular ESE teaching is stated as important in the Swedish curriculum, it is important to find out the potential possibilities for cross-curricular collaborations in ESE teaching. Are teachers already involved in collaborations, are they successful, and if so how? If not, how might they achieve this curricular aim to provide students with a holistic, yet diversified, perspective on ESE including many disciplinary dimensions? Teaching gaps for students may occur that no subject area can cover, while other issues or topics may be taught multiple times leading to poor progression.

The research question is: What are the specific curricular and pedagogical contributions of different subject areas, such as science, social science and language, in cross-curricular settings when teaching environmental and sustainability issues?

The theoretical framework of this study takes its departure from didactic analysis as an integrative model in which the structure of the subject matter is related to teachers and students through the processes of teaching and learning (Klafki, 1995). This study looks for differences and similarities in teachers’ argumentations about the didactical questions of what, how and why their subject area is important and how it contributes to cross-curricular ESE teaching. The main contribution of this study is to fill the gap in ESE research relating to teachers’ views of complex environmental and sustainability issues from different subject area perspectives.

Semi-structured group interviews were used to collect data about teachers’ apprehensions of and reflections on their teaching practices (Kvale & Brinkmann 2009). 10 groups (consisting of 3-10 teachers) of teachers of science (biology, chemistry and physics), social science (civics, history, geography and religion) and language (Swedish, English, German, French and Spanish) were interviewed. In this study the data is treated as a group voice from teachers teaching in a specific subject area. In order to identify a common teaching and curriculum approach in each subject area the teachers’ discussions and responses are analysed in relation to the main didactical questions of what, how and why. Phase 1 – What The aim was to gather data from the individual teachers in each group before the group discussion. This ensured that each teacher’s voice was heard individually. In group situations there is always a risk that some participants will dominate the discussion. Phase 2 – What The aim was to gather data from the teachers’ discussions without interference from the research leader. Phase 3 – How The aim was to gather data about curricular and pedagogical changes that had occurred in the teaching. Summary of the three phases – Why The teachers’ arguments about the long-term purposes of their teaching stem from the session on phases 1, 2 and 3 constitute the data for the why dimension. The common aspects and specific curricular contributions of the different subject areas are studied by analysis teachers’ responses to questions about the curricular and pedagogical qualities of what, how and why. What The analytical question posed to the data in interview phases 1 and 2 is: Which content and abilities relating to ESE are described by the teacher group? How – teaching aspects In interview phase 3, the teachers discuss how they conduct and change their teaching. This data is analysed using analytical questions relating to essential educational aspects of environmental and sustainability education (Sund, 2008; Sund & Wickman, 2011). Why – the object of responsibility In order to identify the teacher groups’ long-term purposes, all the data from interview phases 1, 2 and 3 are analysed using the analytical question (Sund & Wickman, 2008): What does this teacher group, in this specific subject area, really care about together when discussing their ESE teaching?

In order to answer the research question, the teachers’ responses are analysed using the didactical questions what, how and why. The results show that teacher collaborations in different subject areas can be fruitful in that they stress different yet complimentary aspects of ESE teaching. The potential important role of language teachers in ESE teaching is one of the main contributions of this study indicates a need for further research on how to improve language teachers’ confidence to voluntarily join and experience ESE collaborations. Science and social science teachers call for more time to plan and work together, whereas language teachers are often asked to collaborate by the school management (Sund, Gericke, & Bladh, Submitted). Each subject area has a specific ESE focus, and thereby is a possibility to contribute and complement each other through content, methods, dimensions and purposes, as in a true collaborative teaching. Such cross-curricular settings are able to offer students facts, opportunities to develop abilities through knowledge in action and support personal empowerment. In the process of cross-curricular ESE teaching, students’ individual identity-making is important. According to Celce-Murcia (1991), the process of self-realisation and relating to and communicating with other people are two common teaching approaches amongst language teachers. This can be an important part of making ESE knowledge powerful for learners in their everyday use and in contributing towards a more sustainable future. This could be language teachers’ main contribution to a cross-curricular collaborative work on ESE. The overall aim of ESE is to create action competent citizens (Jensen & Schnack, 1997). In subject area collaborations where many cross-curricular and societal transformations of knowledge are involved (Gericke, Hudson, Olin-Scheller, & Stolare, 2018).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75281 (URN)
Conference
Oral presentation at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research) held by EERA (European Educational Research Association) in Hamburg, Germany 2-6th of September.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Olsson, D., Gericke, N. & Chang, T. (2019). Effects of green schools in Taiwan on students’ sustainability consciousness. In: : . Paper presented at Oral presentation at the 13th ESERA (European Science Education Research Association) conference in Bologna, Italy, 26-30th August..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of green schools in Taiwan on students’ sustainability consciousness
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75283 (URN)
Conference
Oral presentation at the 13th ESERA (European Science Education Research Association) conference in Bologna, Italy, 26-30th August.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Bladh, G., Salmenkivi, E., Tani, S., Gericke, N., Juuti, K. & Per, S. (2019). Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE): a comparative study between disciplinary and thematic perspectives in the Finnish and Swedish curricula. In: : . Paper presented at NOFA 7 –Conference, Stockholm University. 13-15 May 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE): a comparative study between disciplinary and thematic perspectives in the Finnish and Swedish curricula
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogical Work Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75251 (URN)
Conference
NOFA 7 –Conference, Stockholm University. 13-15 May 2019
Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Per, S., Gericke, N. & Bladh, G. (2019). Environmental sustainability education - pedagogical and curriculum challenges in elementary & secondary schools. In: : . Paper presented at Roundtable presentation at CIES (Comparative and International Education Society) conference, 14th – 18th April, 2019, San Francisco, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental sustainability education - pedagogical and curriculum challenges in elementary & secondary schools
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75285 (URN)
Conference
Roundtable presentation at CIES (Comparative and International Education Society) conference, 14th – 18th April, 2019, San Francisco, USA.
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Walan, S. & Gericke, N. (2019). Factors from informal learning contributing to the children’s interest in STEM – experiences from the out-of-schoolactivity called Children’s University. Research in Science & Technological Education, 1-21, Article ID doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2019.1667321.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors from informal learning contributing to the children’s interest in STEM – experiences from the out-of-schoolactivity called Children’s University
2019 (English)In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, p. 1-21, article id doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2019.1667321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous studies have investigated effects of out-ofschoolSTEM activities aimed at stimulating children’s interest inscience with positive results. However, research has not discussedthe reasons why such activities are successful.

Purpose: In this study, we address this gap by investigating whichfactors children themselves identified as interesting when they visitedevents at an out-of-school activity named The Children’s University.

Sample: Children aged 8–12 participated in the study. Altogether,there were 353 children involved in the data collection.

Design and methods: A mixed method design was used, includinga questionnaire and semi-structured interviews inwhich children’s selfreportedexperiences were collected. Likert scale questions in thequestionnairewere analysed based on descriptive statistics. The openendedquestions and data from the interviews were categorized bycontent analysis and analytically interpreted through ‘the Ecologicalframework for understanding learning across places and pursuits’.

Results: The children were positive about their visit, and these utterancescould mainly be related to the development of the individuals’interest and knowledge according to the Ecological framework. Weidentified two new factors influencing student’s interest in STEM inout-of-school activities: appreciating the spectacular and learning;verifying two factors of importance previously suggested in the literature:appreciating the content and the learning environment.

Conclusions: The study highlights the specific factors the childrenactually appreciated from their visits to out-of-school activities,which could be of interest for stakeholders arranging differentkinds of STEM events promoting informal learning. The contentin the activities is important as well as spectacular features. Tohave the opportunity to learn something new in an environmentthat is conducive to learning is also of importance for children.

Keywords
Interest in STEM; content; spectacular; learning; informal learning environment
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75275 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2020-02-20
Walan, S. & Gericke, N. (2019). Factors from informal learning contributing to the children's interest in STEM: experiences from the out-of-school activity called Children's University. Research in Science & Technological Education, 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors from informal learning contributing to the children's interest in STEM: experiences from the out-of-school activity called Children's University
2019 (English)In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous studies have investigated effects of out-of-school STEM activities aimed at stimulating children's interest in science with positive results. However, research has not discussed the reasons why such activities are successful. Purpose: In this study, we address this gap by investigating which factors children themselves identified as interesting when they visited events at an out-of-school activity named The Children's University. Sample: Children aged 8-12 participated in the study. Altogether, there were 353 children involved in the data collection. Design and methods: A mixed method design was used, including a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews in which children's self-reported experiences were collected. Likert scale questions in the questionnaire were analysed based on descriptive statistics. The open-ended questions and data from the interviews were categorized by content analysis and analytically interpreted through 'the Ecological framework for understanding learning across places and pursuits'. Results: The children were positive about their visit, and these utterances could mainly be related to the development of the individuals' interest and knowledge according to the Ecological framework. We identified two new factors influencing student's interest in STEM in out-of-school activities: appreciating the spectacular and learning; verifying two factors of importance previously suggested in the literature: appreciating the content and the learning environment. Conclusions: The study highlights the specific factors the children actually appreciated from their visits to out-of-school activities, which could be of interest for stakeholders arranging different kinds of STEM events promoting informal learning. The content in the activities is important as well as spectacular features. To have the opportunity to learn something new in an environment that is conducive to learning is also of importance for children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Interest in STEM, content, spectacular, learning, informal learning environment
National Category
Natural Sciences Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Educational Work; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75200 (URN)10.1080/02635143.2019.1667321 (DOI)000487549400001 ()
Available from: 2019-10-10 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8735-2102

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