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Frodeson, S., Berghel, J., Ståhl, M., Granström, K., Romlin, C. & Thelander, A. (2019). The Potential for a Pellet Plant to Become a Biorefinery. Processes, 7(4), 1-11, Article ID 233.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Potential for a Pellet Plant to Become a Biorefinery
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2019 (English)In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of bioenergy has increased globally in recent years, as has the utilization of biomaterials for various new product solutions through various biorefinery concepts. In this study, we introduce the concept of using a mechanical dewatering press in combination with thermal drying in a pellet plant. The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of the effects a mechanical dewatering press has in a pellet production chain and investigate whether a pellet plant could thus become a biorefinery. The evaluations in this study are based on industrial data and initial tests at the university. The results show that the concept of using the mechanical dewatering press together with a packed moving bed dryer reduces energy use by 50%, compared to using only a packed moving bed dryer. The press water could be used as a raw material for biogas, bioplastics, and biohydrogen. Hence, this study points out the possibilities of a pellet plant increasing the efficiency of the drying step, while moving towards becoming a biorefinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Energy efficiency, wood pellet production, drying, biorefinery, bioplastics, mechanical dewatering
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72418 (URN)10.3390/pr7040233 (DOI)000467771400056 ()2-s2.0-85067518721 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth through the project FOSBE

Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Frodeson, S., Berghel, J. & Olsson, S. (2019). Using Secondary Pea Starch in Full-Scale Wood Fuel Pellet Production Decreases the Use of Steam Conditioning. In: World Sustainable Energy Days 2019: European Pellet Conference. Paper presented at World Sustainable Energy Days 2019/European Pellet Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Secondary Pea Starch in Full-Scale Wood Fuel Pellet Production Decreases the Use of Steam Conditioning
2019 (English)In: World Sustainable Energy Days 2019: European Pellet Conference, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71435 (URN)
Conference
World Sustainable Energy Days 2019/European Pellet Conference
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Kjeang, A., Govindarajan, V., Ståhl, M. & Palm, J. (2017). Energy consulting services in the information age: literature review. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 7(30), 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy consulting services in the information age: literature review
2017 (English)In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 7, no 30, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Energy advice, Energy efficiency
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62989 (URN)10.1186/s13705-017-0132-1 (DOI)000414332500001 ()
Available from: 2017-09-10 Created: 2017-09-10 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Frodeson, S. (2017). Research Experience From The Use Of Different Additives In Wood-Fuel Pellet Production. International Journal of Energy Production and Management, 2(3), 288-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research Experience From The Use Of Different Additives In Wood-Fuel Pellet Production
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 288-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of wood-fuel pellets has increased signi cantly worldwide in recent years, especially in the United Kingdom. If wood-fuel pellets should continue to be a successful biofuel at the energy market, the pellet production industry has to reduce the production cost, since it is a low-margin business. Further, improved pellets regarding storability and strength of the pellets are crucial to manage the overseas transportation that causes material losses. In addition, the industry tries to produce pellets from a broader raw material base and at the same time satisfy the customer requirements while produc- ing a sustainable product. The wood-fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet all these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements. Using additives in pellet production is one way to meet the criteria. In conclusion, it is necessary to do the research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives for wood-fuel pellets, and this work presents a compilation of results and experiences from more than 20 different additive studies and the test bed for pellet produc- tion research at Karlstad University– a pellet production unit adapted for additives studies. Additives, with an admixture of up to 2% (wt.), have been tested in the NewDeP (New Development for Pellet Technology) pilot plant for pellet production at Karlstad University. The research has focused on the electricity consumption, the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets, and the CO2 equivalents emitted during production. The results showed that the additives Wetland grass, Algae, Turpentine and Lignin decreased the electricity consumption in the pellet press but unfortunately also decreased the durability. The additives Resins, Molasses, White sugar, Native potato starch and Oxidized potato starch increased the durability of the pellet but showed almost no change in the electricity consumption. However, Oxidized corn starch, Spent sulphite liquor and Native wheat starch as additives increased the mechanical properties while it decreases both the electricity consumption and the climate impact, hence a Win-Win-Win situation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press, 2017
Keywords
additives, CO2 equivalents, durability, electricity consumption, wood-fuel pellets
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70043 (URN)10.2495/EQ-V2-N3-288-293 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
Berghel, J., Ståhl, M. & Frodeson, S. (2017). The amount of dust and rejects as well as the electricity consumption during production decreases with the use of adequate additives. In: : . Paper presented at International Biomass and Conference & Expo, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 10-12 April 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The amount of dust and rejects as well as the electricity consumption during production decreases with the use of adequate additives
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63905 (URN)
Conference
International Biomass and Conference & Expo, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 10-12 April 2017
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Frodeson, S. (2016). Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Symposium "Energy challenges & mechanics - towards a big picture", Inverness, Scotland. 14-18 august 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The production and use of wood-fuel pellets, preferably made from sawdust or shavings, have increased significantly worldwide in recent years. If wood-fuel pellets should continue to be a successful biofuel at the energy market there are several factors to take into consideration. The pellet production industry already tries to reduce the production cost, since it is a low margin business. Further, it tries to produce pellets from a broader raw material base and at the same time satisfy the customer requirements while producing a sustainable product. The wood fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet all these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements.

This work focuses on energy efficiency, technical aspects and environmental factors, i.e., the electricity consumption, the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets, and the CO

2 equivalent emitted during production, respectively. 20 various additives, with an admixture of up to 2 % (wt.), have been tested during wood fuel pellet production at Karlstad University. This work presents the benefits of using different additives in pellet production and the cost associated with different additives. The results shows that additive from the sea and from farmlands (algae, rape seed cake and grass) decrease the energy use in the pellet press but unfortunately also decrease the durability. Additives from wood (resins, lignin) and molasses increases the durability of the pellet but shows almost no or little change in electricity consumption. However, using starch grades, white sugar or spent sulphite liquor as an additive increases the mechanical properties while it decreases both the electricity consumption and the climate impact, hence a win-win-win situation. To justify the use of additives from a climate impact perspective in regions with an OECD European electricity mix or the Swedish electricity mix, the usage of additives from the rest products where the CO2 equivalent emissions are allocated to the main product are crucial.

In conclusion, it is necessary to do research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives for wood fuel pellets to continuously be a successful biofuel at the energy market

National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63906 (URN)
Conference
6th International Symposium "Energy challenges & mechanics - towards a big picture", Inverness, Scotland. 14-18 august 2016
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Williams, H. (2016). Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and durability when using additives in the wood fuel pellet chain. Fuel processing technology, 152, 350-355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and durability when using additives in the wood fuel pellet chain
2016 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 152, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of renewable resources for bioenergy should be performed to support sustainable development. Since the use of bioenergy has increased significantly worldwide in recent years and biomass is made of limited resources it must be used efficiently and with a low environmental impact The wood fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements. This work investigates how the additives, cornstarch and molasses, affect: the electricity consumption of the pellet press, the emission of Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2 eq.) from the production of wood fuel pellets in three different countries with different emissions from electricity, the durability of the pellets and its effects on energy efficiency. The results show that pellet production is more energy efficient when additives are used, and that the amount of CO2 eq. increases with an increased use of additives. In countries with a low usage of fossil fuels for electricity production, the global warming impact gets higher due to the additives; while in countries that use a lot of fossil fuels to produce electricity, the global warming impact will be reduced because of the additives by up to 1%. The increased global warming impact from the additives can be balanced by the decrease in the reduced amount of rejected material within the production. That is because the durability of the pellets increases with an increasing amount of additive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Pellet production, Additive, Energy use, Carbon dioxide equivalents, Durability
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46421 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.06.031 (DOI)000381950200039 ()
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Berghel, J. & Ståhl, M. (2016). How residence time in the mixing conditioner affects the quality in wood fuel pellets. In: : . Paper presented at 24th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (EUBCE), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How residence time in the mixing conditioner affects the quality in wood fuel pellets
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63904 (URN)
Conference
24th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (EUBCE), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Stahl, M., Berghel, J. & Granstrom, K. (2016). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. BioResources, 11(2), 3373-3383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellet Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 3373-3383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global production and use of wood fuel pellets has increased significantly in recent years. The raw material and the energy required to dry it are the main production costs. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize energy consumption, production costs, and the environmental impact associated with wood pellets. However, these changes should not negatively affect the quality of the pellets. One way to achieve these goals is to use additives. This work investigates how different types of sugar additives affect both the energy needed by the pellet press and the durability and oxidation of the produced pellets. When sugar was used as an additive, the energy use was practically unaffected. When molasses and SSL were added, a small decrease in energy use was observed (6 to 8%) for admixtures up to 1 wt.%; however, when more molasses was added, the energy use increased. Using these additives increased the bulk density (7 to 15 %) and durability (10 to 20 %) of the pellets. The storage of the pellets also caused a small increase in durability (1 to 3 %). Volatile organic compounds were produced as oxidation peaks within the first two months of storage; thereafter, the peaks tapered off.

Keywords
Wood fuel pellet, Additives, Molasses, White sugar, Spent sulphite liquor, Energy efficiency, Durability, Storage
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44549 (URN)000375786700031 ()
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Ståhl, M., Berghel, J. & Granström, K. (2015). Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives. In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France (pp. 1-8). Pau, France
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Wood Fuel Pellets Quality Using Sustainable Sugar Additives
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 – The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Pau, France, 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pau, France: , 2015
Series
Proceedings of: The International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ISSN 2175-5418
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39071 (URN)978-2-9555539-0-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 30 – July 3 2015, Pau, France
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2528-4399

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