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Mehrabov, I. (2017). “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace”: Activist Practices in an Era of Mediatized Surveillance. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>“All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace”: Activist Practices in an Era of Mediatized Surveillance
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

One of the defining features of contemporary zeitgeist is that we live in an era of mediatization – a metaprocess, through (and by) which all everyday relations increasingly depend on networked media technologies and online communication channels.

Due to rapid developments in digital electronics, all these Internet- or mobile-enabled platforms, and devices, are prone to the processes of quantification and datafication, and as such, surveillance is a principal dimension that lies at the core of mediatization.

Through five peer-reviewed academic articles and the cover text, this dissertation provides a multi-faceted analysis of the complex relationships – built by Azerbaijan’s and Turkey’s state intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies with a number of local, and global, private information, entertainment and telecommunications companies. The articles are focused on different cases: the complete dispersion of commercial social media based oppositional activists in Azerbaijan, and the arrests of Anonymous led hacktivists in Turkey, both happening in 2011; and, the mass mobilization of millions of Turkish citizens during the Gezi Park protests of 2013. The current compilation puts forth in-depth accounts and scrutiny of how various social movements (in general), and individual activists (in particular), are affected by an amalgamation of public, political; and, private, economic, surveillance practices and seeks to illuminate the abusive extents of this transformation – vis-à-vis the changing media and communication environment – by way of using mediatization as an analytical tool.

Overall, this dissertation contributes a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between the increasingly mediatized natures of activism and surveillance in semi-authoritarian states. The conclusions have relevance and significance – in considering both similar country contexts and on a global scale – in the light of contemporary technological and political transformations.

Abstract [en]

One of the defining features of contemporary zeitgeist is that we live in an era of mediatization – a metaprocess, through (and by) which all everyday relations increasingly depend on networked media technologies and online communication channels – and surveillance is a principal dimension that lies at its core.

Through five peer-reviewed academic articles and the cover text, this dissertation provides a multi-faceted analysis of the complex relationships built by Azerbaijan’s and Turkey’s state intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies with a number of local, and global, private information, entertainment and telecommunications companies. The current compilation puts forth in-depth accounts and scrutiny of how various social movements and individual activists are affected by an amalgamation of public, political; and, private, economic, surveillance practices and seeks to illuminate the abusive extents of this transformation by way of using mediatization as an analytical tool.

Overall, this dissertation contributes a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between the increasingly mediatized natures of activism and surveillance in semi-authoritarian states.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017. s. 88
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:8
Nyckelord
Azerbaijan, mediatized activism, mediatized surveillance, surveillative apparatuses, rhizomated subactivism, Turkey
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47924 (URN)978-91-7063-754-4 (ISBN)978-91-7063-755-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-03-31, 12A 138 Geijersalen, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-13 Skapad: 2017-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2017). Azerbaijani Mediatized Activism vs. Mediatized Surveillance: Online Resistance and Reproduction of the State Rule. In: : . Paper presented at The Formation of Normative Orders International “International Dissidence: Rule and Resistance in a Globalized World”. Goethe University Frankfurt Cluster of Excellence. Frankfurt, GERMANY, 2-4 March 2017.. Frankfurt, GERMANY
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Azerbaijani Mediatized Activism vs. Mediatized Surveillance: Online Resistance and Reproduction of the State Rule
2017 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The turbulent Arab Spring, blustering across the Middle East between the years 2011 and 2012, has inspired various sorts of new insurgent oppositional movements around the world. Azerbaijan’s online opposition, enthused by the initial success of revolutions in North Africa and organized almost exclusively on social networking sites, was not an exception within this scope. As the socio-political transformation of primarily Muslim geographies of the region was gaining pace, it was not long before that Azerbaijani activists, impressed by the possibilities purportedly brought about by social media’s online networking affordances, started to organize their resistance mainly on mediated social networks.

The response of the Azerbaijani government to the events, where hundreds of activists took to the streets of Baku to protest against corruption and demand respect for human rights was very harsh. State officials immediately halted all demonstration authorizations, and police officers quickly, and quite often violently, dispersed unauthorized ones. Thus, with all the demonstrations forcefully dismantled, and a number of protesters taken into custody or arrested, the Azerbaijani government was able to completely liquidate these protests in a short period of time,.

The reproduction of the state rule was achieved through a series of digital interventions into the Azerbaijani Internet and mobile telecom infrastructures, with close collaboration of and intensive help received from a range of global companies specializing in various surveillance hardware, software and service provision.

Focusing on the case of Azerbaijan, this presentation details and discusses interlinked aspects of increased mediatization of activism on the one hand, and state backlash on the other – thus aiming to contribute to an empirically based, nuanced conception of the shortcomings of mediatized activism today.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Frankfurt, GERMANY: , 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48075 (URN)
Konferens
The Formation of Normative Orders International “International Dissidence: Rule and Resistance in a Globalized World”. Goethe University Frankfurt Cluster of Excellence. Frankfurt, GERMANY, 2-4 March 2017.
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-05 Skapad: 2017-03-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). Alternative Media, Video Activism and the Proliferation of Unintentional Surveillance in Turkey. In: : . Paper presented at ICA 2016: "Communicating with Power". ICA (International Communication Association), Fukuoka, JAPAN, 9-13 June 2016.. Fukuoka, JAPAN
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Alternative Media, Video Activism and the Proliferation of Unintentional Surveillance in Turkey
2016 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This article explores the conduct of video activism in Turkey through a case study on now dispersed Karahaber, an Ankara-based video activist collective formed in 2005 - through a question of whether the group’s videos provided an empowerment for the socially excluded strata of Turkish society or did they further facilitate the spectacle/surveillance culture? The main source of information for the article comes from the semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with eight core Karahaber members in Istanbul and Ankara. The secondary source is comprised by the 175 Karahaber videos, published on collective’s website http://www.karahaber.org. Relying on the theoretical framework structured by the works of Guy Debord, David Lyon and Thomas Mathiesen, article claims that Karahaber’s practices of video activism created an enforcement of synoptic urge through the facilitation of voyeuristic tendencies of protesters, thus reinforcing the effect of unintentional surveillance.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Fukuoka, JAPAN: , 2016
Nyckelord
Alternative Media, Activist Video, Turkey
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45382 (URN)
Konferens
ICA 2016: "Communicating with Power". ICA (International Communication Association), Fukuoka, JAPAN, 9-13 June 2016.
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-18 Skapad: 2016-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization. Social Sciences, 5(4), 1-17, Article ID 60.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1-17, artikel-id 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context of the post-“Arab Spring” era of mediatized connectivity and collective political engagement, this article looks into and analyzes how Azerbaijani women participate in different online and offline social and political movements, and if (and how) they are impeded by the increased state authoritarianism in Azerbaijan. Using data, obtained from online information resources, yearly reports of human rights organizations, focus group discussions, and interviews, the study detects four major activist constellations within the Azerbaijani field of gendered politics. Based on the analysis of conditions of detected groups, the article claims that flash mobs, a tactic employed mainly by liberal activists, emerge as the promising way in overcoming the normative nature of Azerbaijani patriarchal society, thus providing an opportunity for normalization and internalization of the feeling of being on the street and acting in concert with others—the practices which might lead towards an increasing participation of (especially young) women in the political processes of the country.

Nyckelord
Azerbaijan; oppressive politics; political opposition; surveillance; women activists
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46451 (URN)10.3390/socsci5040060 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-12 Skapad: 2016-10-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). "Fortress Europe", FRONTEX, and Readmission Agreement with Turkey. In: : . Paper presented at ICA 2016: "Communicating with Power". ICA (International Communication Association), Fukuoka, JAPAN, 9-13 June 2016.. Fukuoka, JAPAN
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>"Fortress Europe", FRONTEX, and Readmission Agreement with Turkey
2016 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The main focus of article is on the most recent readmission agreement signed by European Union and Turkey in late 2013 - although expanding over this protocol article as well explores the sprawling power of EU over the Mediterranean Sea countries and the extent this hegemonic widening of domination effects the irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers who often risk their lives desperately trying to reach the southern and eastern shores of European continent. The agreement functions as a springboard to explore conceptual issues of (out-sourced) sovereignty, border externalization and ex-territorial forms of power in the control of migration and creation of transnational mobility regimes by the European Union and its member states.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Fukuoka, JAPAN: , 2016
Nyckelord
Turkey, Territorial Sovereignty, Mediterranean Sea
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45381 (URN)
Konferens
ICA 2016: "Communicating with Power". ICA (International Communication Association), Fukuoka, JAPAN, 9-13 June 2016.
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-18 Skapad: 2016-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). Gender, Activism and Surveillance: Azerbaijani Women Protesters Online and Offline. In: : . Paper presented at CASCADE International Conference "The Democracy-Security Nexus in and around the Caucasus". CASCADE (Exploring the Security-Democracy Nexus in the Caucasus), Brussels, Belgium, 20-21 October 2016. Brussels
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gender, Activism and Surveillance: Azerbaijani Women Protesters Online and Offline
2016 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The so-called “Arab Spring” has caused all kinds of new insurgent oppositional movements all around the world to emerge. Azerbaijani online opposition, inspired by the ‘success’ of revolutions in Middle East and organized mostly on social media was not an exception within this scope. However, Azerbaijan is also one of the best examples to clearly show that the technically savvy state and its surveillative potentials are constantly developing themselves as well. Mainly based on Evgeny Morozov’s concept of the net delusion this presentation looks at Azerbaijan and its new media based oppositional movements and aims to show how these efforts are crushed down by surveillative state apparatus.

The presentation looks at the online practices of oppositional politics from the perspective of gender dynamics and conducts gender-based categorization of Internet based protesters, with the political, economic and social classifications. Such a categorization of women activists, done together with the historical overview of networked practices of offline political struggle, helps to determine how different strata of society are affected by surveillative apparatuses of the state.

Presentation insists that only Internet and social media based politics are not enough, as the gender perspective of the topic clearly shows – since women protesters are the most affected ones by oppressive politics of the state.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Brussels: , 2016
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46966 (URN)
Konferens
CASCADE International Conference "The Democracy-Security Nexus in and around the Caucasus". CASCADE (Exploring the Security-Democracy Nexus in the Caucasus), Brussels, Belgium, 20-21 October 2016
Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-30 Skapad: 2016-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). The Uncanny Relationship of Mediatization and Surveillance in Developing Countries. In: : . Paper presented at 7th Biennial Surveillance & Society Conference: "Surveillance: Power, Performance & Trust". SSN (Surveillance Studies Network), Barcelona, SPAIN, 20-23 April 2016.. Barcelona, SPAIN
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Uncanny Relationship of Mediatization and Surveillance in Developing Countries
2016 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Despite being a relatively young field of academic inquiry, mediatization research is already considered to be a prominent theoretical framework for understanding the long term effects of contemporary media saturation. Yet, the empirical research on mediatization conducted so far have focused primarily on Western countries, and was implemented mainly in Europe. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that especially within the context of developing countries (and also an alarming number of developed ones) media technologies and ICTs are increasingly being used for control over information - together with the heavy surveillance of dissidents and activists. Intertwined merging of mediatized electronic communication with the processes of digitalization; and convergence of various media forms (shortly called the meta-process of mediatization) inevitably leads to increase in the possibilities of their monitoring - and as the recent revelations of the NSA contractor Edward Snowden and the whistle blower organization WikiLeaks about the global pervasive state surveillance conducted by US and European intelligence agencies in close cooperation with a number of private companies clearly showed, transforms the society into the ‘surveillance society’ (Lyon, 2001). Thus, in line with Stig Hjarvard’s detection that whether the “mediatization has positive or negative consequences cannot be determined in general terms; it is a concrete, analytical question that needs to be addressed in terms of specific contexts, where the influence of specific media over certain institutions is gauged” (2008, p. 114) this presentation aims to focus upon the negative consequences of mediatization and its relationship to increased public and private surveillance with a study on Azerbaijan - where mediatization process is promoted by the modernization upgrades of telecommunications and mobile telephony infrastructure through a number of foreign aids and grants, provided by international organizations and NGOs for the purposes of adjustment towards the governing European and global standards.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Barcelona, SPAIN: , 2016
Nyckelord
Mediatization; Azerbaijan; Surveillance; ICT4D
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45379 (URN)
Konferens
7th Biennial Surveillance & Society Conference: "Surveillance: Power, Performance & Trust". SSN (Surveillance Studies Network), Barcelona, SPAIN, 20-23 April 2016.
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-18 Skapad: 2016-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2016). When States Strike Back: Failures of Mediatized Activism in Azerbaijan and Turkey. tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, 14(2), 496-515
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>When States Strike Back: Failures of Mediatized Activism in Azerbaijan and Turkey
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 496-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This article is an empirically grounded conceptual investigation of the failures of mediatized activism in 2011 in Azerbaijan and Turkey. By analyzing two specific cases, namely the complete dispersion of corporate social media based opposition in Azerbaijan, and arrests of Anonymous led hacktivistsin Turkey, the article aims to contribute to the discussion on the future of mediatized activism in the face of the growing pervasive surveillance, conducted by state intelligence agencies in collaboration with private infotainment and telecommunications companies. By elaborating on the shortcomings and the promises of social media based activism and hacktivism, the article discusses the possibility of building alternative online spaces, which can bring these two types of mediatized activism together, and help to connect activists with the rest of the society—especially the otherwise consenting middle classes of semi-authoritarian countries.

Nyckelord
Azerbaijan, Hacktivism, Social Media Activism, Surveillance, Turkey
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47449 (URN)000392621200010 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-05 Skapad: 2016-12-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2015). Applying Critical Media Sociology: Mapping the Intersections of Media and Communication Research with Surveillance Studies. In: Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination: Abstract Book. Paper presented at ESA 2015: The 12th Conference of the European Sociological Association "Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination". ESA (European Sociological Association), Prague, Czech Republic, 25-28 August 2015. Prague: Institute of Sociology CAS
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Applying Critical Media Sociology: Mapping the Intersections of Media and Communication Research with Surveillance Studies
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination: Abstract Book, Prague: Institute of Sociology CAS , 2015Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The revelations of otherwise confidential intelligence files by Chelsea Manning, Edward Snowden and journalistic organization WikiLeaks showed once more that we live in an era of intensified and all-encompassing communications surveillance, conducted by secret services, intelligence agencies and private companies. This is an era of rapid transformations in the sphere of media and communication, which, according to Robert W. McChesney, “veers toward a classic definition of fascism” (McChesney 2013, 171). Thus it becomes urgent that better sociological conceptualizations of the stance of media and communication as an academic field within these metamorphoses is conducted - together with the explorations of what comprises the fast growing field of surveillance studies.

Within such scope this presentation attempts to sociologically map the academic branch of surveillance studies from the perspective of the scholarly field of media and communication, and to seek out boundaries, limitations, strengths, and weaknesses of the currently conducted research. To be able to properly map out the field and mark important points within the landscape, the Journal of Surveillance & Society, a premier interdisciplinary journal in the field of surveillance, is chosen as a point of departure. Analysis of reiterating topics within the surveillance studies field is conducted based on 296 articles from 40 issues published between 2002 and 2013. While providing the analysis of the frequent topics and thus mapping out the field, the article also engages in the argumentative discussion of the missing points and aspects believed to be in the need of fortification and wider coverage.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Prague: Institute of Sociology CAS, 2015
Nyckelord
Media and Communication; Surveillance Studies; Critical Media Sociology; Mapping Academic Field; Content Analysis
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37858 (URN)
Konferens
ESA 2015: The 12th Conference of the European Sociological Association "Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination". ESA (European Sociological Association), Prague, Czech Republic, 25-28 August 2015
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-07 Skapad: 2015-09-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Mehrabov, I. (2015). Copyleft Production of Music for Social Change: Exploring the Alternatives. In: : . Paper presented at NordMedia 2015: "Media Presence - Mobile Modernities". Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 August 2015. Copenhagen
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Copyleft Production of Music for Social Change: Exploring the Alternatives
2015 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Political music has always been one of the most important and impact generating weapons inside the arsenal of available tools for promotion of social change within the struggle for more just and egalitarian society - with an enormous potential for political mobilization of otherwise contesting middle classes. Yet, the effort of the small-scale, politically conscious and critically oriented music bands to establish themselves as the independent actors within the contemporary reality of commercialized musical scene dominated by transnational media moguls most often becomes a struggle by itself. The notion of copyleft - a creative attempt to juxtapose copyright and disrupt power structures built around it, thus enabling the full retransformation of the existing musical communication order - becomes an important topic to consider within this scope.

This presentation focuses on the issues related with the copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, radical music collective with strong political and oppositional stance, which became immensely popular in Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De Te Fabula Narratur online in 2009 for free under the copyleft scheme and in no time formed itself as the leading oppositional music band in Turkey.

Presentation analyzes the copyleft structure devised by Bandista, following the classical Marxist differentiation of use-value and exchange-value of commodities, and argues that the Bandista's copyleft experience emerges as an essential and in many ways revolutionary innovation tool for new music bands, offering an important empowerment strategy in the form of a two-fold liberation tactic.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Copenhagen: , 2015
Nyckelord
Copyleft, Music for Social Change, Bandista, Turkey
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37857 (URN)
Konferens
NordMedia 2015: "Media Presence - Mobile Modernities". Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 August 2015
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-07 Skapad: 2015-09-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-07-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8225-3447

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