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Soussan, C., Andersson, M. & Kjellgren, A. (2018). The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A qualitative study of the users' own perspectives. International journal on drug policy, 52, 71-78
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A qualitative study of the users' own perspectives
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 52, s. 71-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users’ self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively.

Methods

The self-reported reasons of a self-selected sample of 613 international NPS users were collected via an online survey promoted at the international drug discussion forum bluelight.org and later analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis.

Results

The analysis showed that the participants used NPS because these compounds reportedly: 1) enabled safer and more convenient drug use, 2) satisfied a curiosity and interest about the effects, 3) facilitated a novel and exciting adventure, 4) promoted self-exploration and personal growth, 5) functioned as coping agents, 6) enhanced abilities and performance, 7) fostered social bonding and belonging, and 8) acted as a means for recreation and pleasure. The consumption of NPS was also driven by 9) problematic and unintentional use.

Conclusion

The present study contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the users’ own and self-reported reasons for using NPS, which needs to be acknowledged not only in order to minimize drug related harm and drug user alienation but also to improve prevention efforts and reduce the potentially counter-intuitive effects of strictly prohibitive policies.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2018
Emneord
novel psychoactive substances; motivation; drugs; legal highs; internet
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65428 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.003 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-18 Laget: 2017-12-18 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2017). Characterizing the experience of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A phenomenological study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 12, 53-59
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Characterizing the experience of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A phenomenological study
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 12, s. 53-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Among the anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is currently the most treatment resistant, suggesting that treatment protocols could be enhanced. A promising treatment of GAD is flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique), which in earlier studies has been shown to alleviate symptoms in GAD. Although, research on flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has shown promising results no study has explored how the treatment is experienced. By applying a phenomneological perspective the present study aims to characterize the experience of undergoing flotation-REST treatment while suffering from GAD. Nine participants with GAD, as defined with self-report measures, participated. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews that were conducted after the completion of a twelve session treatment profram with flotaiton-REST. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological (EPP) method was usedfor gathering and analyzing the data. The analysis resulted in six themes that characterize the experience of undergoing a flotation-REST treatment while having GAD: (1) obstacles in treatment, (2) a relaxed and safe vantage point, (3) non-ordinary states of consciousness, (4) connecting with oneself, (5) new attitudes and coping strategies, (6) enhanced life-quality. The results highlights that flotation-REST treatment of GAD was experienced as a comprehensive processes that were both challenging and pleasant. The results indicated that the method positively affected symptoms and the core issue associated with GAD on an experiential level. The present study also genereated some initial understanding regarding potential mechanisms that migh mediate and maintain positive treatment effects when flotation-REST is applied as an intervention of GAD. 

Emneord
Anxiety, Generalized anxiety disorder, Phenomenology, Flotation-REST, Sensory isolation, Flotation-tank therapy
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65365 (URN)10.1016/j.eujim.2017.04.011 (DOI)000414230000008 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-11 Laget: 2017-12-11 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-08bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, M., Persson, M. & Kjellgren, A. (2017). Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(60)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Harm Reduction Journal, ISSN 1477-7517, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 14, nr 60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines.

Methods: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users’ own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/, http://bluelight.org, and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study.

Results: The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum—finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines.

Conclusions: These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
BioMed Central, 2017
Emneord
Migraine, Cluster headache, Alternative treatments, Psychedelic tryptamines, Harm reduction, Internet support groups, Discussion forum
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi inr. medicinsk psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-63840 (URN)10.1186/s12954-017-0186-6 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-20 Laget: 2017-09-20 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-27
Andersson, M. & Kjellgren, A. (2017). The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 34(3), 217-229
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 217-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the effects experienced by users of a novel psychoactive substance, the benzodiazepine flubromazolam, by analysing users' own accounts on the Swedish forum Flashback.org. Method: A thematic analysis of anonymous self-reports published on the forum was performed and generated five general themes describing effects and experiences by flubromazolam users. Results: The themes which emerged were: Onset and duration, Desired effects, Adverse effects and addiction, Loss of control, General estimations and evaluations. The main reported characteristics of flubromazolam were heavy hypnotic and sedative effects, long-lasting amnesiac effects and the rapid development of tolerance. Flubromazolam was also anxiolytic and acted as a muscle relaxant for many users. Some users experienced euphoria or intense wellbeing. Other prominent characteristics were loss of control (leading to poor choices and actions, with unpleasant consequences) and long-lasting, often severe withdrawals. There were also serious incidents where users had been admitted to hospital, acute psychiatric treatment or taken into custody by the police. Conclusion: Flubromazolam appears to be a highly addictive and precarious benzodiazepine with many, possibly severe, side effects. The substance is generally described as very potent and with long-lasting effects. Memory loss and loss of control are common adverse effects, and withdrawals appear to be severe for many users

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Sage Publications, 2017
Emneord
addiction, benzodiazepine, drug discussion forum, flubromazolam, harm reduction, novel psychoactive substance, NPS
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65705 (URN)10.1177/1455072517706304 (DOI)000406313600006 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-18 Laget: 2018-01-18 Sist oppdatert: 2018-07-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, M. & Kjellgren, A. (2016). Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 7(3)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Several hundred new synthetic drugs, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or “legal highs” have in recent years appeared on the drug market. These can effortlessly be obtained from on-line vendors, offering an easy access to a plethora of new and untested substances, often with unknown or dangerous effects. Several different attempts to reduce the availability of NPS and to prevent accidents and fatalities have been applied by governments around the world. Nonetheless this complex and constantly evolving situation provides palpable dilemmas and challenges to legislators and prevention strategists. One unintended consequence from prohibition and current drug policies occurs when possibly more precarious substances are used to substitute older and more well-known illicit drugs; so called “substance displacement”. We have performed extensive research on the use of NPS, by analyzing Internet resources (drug discussion forum, on-line questionnaires), and published several NPS studies. During our research we observed how substance displacement is a common issue, with implications for both clinical practices, drug prevention strategies, as well as for legislators. In the present review we discuss two common themes of substance displacement: 1) Synthetic cannabinoids replace herbal cannabis, and 2) Different attempts for self-medication using NPS. Incitements for substance displacement, that exposes the user to possibly more harmful substances, are founded both in legislation (availability of substances and fear of legal repercussions) as well as from certain policies or cultural perceptions of various medical conditions. We offer no obvious solutions to these complications, but would like to contribute to awareness of how these factors effects drug users and how measures intended to reduce harm in many cases have the opposite effects. Further studies on the divergent motivations and different groups of NPS users are highlighted as imperative to find new and realistic solutions going forward. 

Emneord
Substance displacement; Novel psychoactive substances; Legal highs; Drug abuse; Addiction
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45336 (URN)10.4172/2155-6105.1000283 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-16 Laget: 2016-08-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-08-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Ahlin, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2016). Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights. Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, 6(3)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Several authors have suggested demands and requirements for teaching mindfulness and meditation. In the scientific literature there is however a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively. This study aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in the field of mindfulness and meditation and it investigates how mindfulness and meditation teachers describe the prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation.

Method: The method of Thematic Analysis, TA, was utilized to analyse the data from semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve experienced teachers, from different mindfulness and meditation traditions. The participants are mindfulness and meditation teachers from either within the Buddhist, secular or both Buddhist and secular contexts.

Results: The analysis resulted in three main themes and nine subthemes, such as for example the main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills. The results suggest a flexible and pragmatic view on how mindfulness and meditation teaching should be provided. Instead of a fixed set of requirements for the teacher and the student, what makes mindfulness and meditation teaching effective has to do with the ability to recognize the potential in every unique situation with an understanding of the impermanent and interdependent relationship between teacher, student and context.

Conclusion: Being and becoming a teacher is a continuous process and anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher. It is dependent on the students and the context. A formalized education is not a prerequisite but what is required is sufficient compassion and insight. For the teacher’s compassion and insight to ripen and for the student to learn, non-ideal conditions and suffering, is required and it is helpful with supportive fellow practitioners, teachers, especially if they themselves practice what they teach and share what they know.

Emneord
Mindfulness; Meditation; Qualitative; Teaching; Thematic analysis; Teacher; Student
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45337 (URN)10.4172/2157-7595.1000243 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-16 Laget: 2016-08-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-08-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2016). Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16, Article ID 108.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A randomized controlled pilot trial
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: During Flotation-REST a person is floating inside a quiet and dark tank, filled with heated salt saturated water. Deep relaxation and beneficial effects on e.g. stress, sleep difficulties, anxiety and depression have been documented in earlier research. Despite that treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are effective; it is till the least successfully treated anxiety disorder, indicating that treatment protocols can be enhanced. The use of Flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has not been researched. The aim of the present study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the effects in a self-diagnosed GAD sample.

Methods: This study was a randomized, parallel group, non-blinded trial with 1:1 allocation ratio to waiting list control group (n = 25) or to a twelve session treatment with flotation-REST (n = 25). Inclusion criteria’s were: 18–65 years and GAD (as defined by self-report measures). The primary outcome was GAD-symptomatology, and secondary outcomes were depression, sleep difficulties, emotion regulation difficulties and mindfulness. Assessments were made at three time points (baseline, four weeks in treatment, post-treatment), and at six-month follow-up. The main data analyses were conducted with a two-way MANOVA and additional t-tests. Forty-six participants (treatment, n = 24; control, n = 22) were included in the analyses.

Results: A significant Time x Group interaction effect for GAD-symptomatology [F(2,88) = 2.93, p < .001, η2p = .062] was found. Further analyses showed that the GAD-symptomatology was significantly reduced for the treatment group (t(23) = 4.47, p < .001), but not for the waiting list control group (t(21) = 0.98, p > .05), when comparing baseline to post-treatment scoring. Regarding clinical significant change, 37 % in the treatment group reached full remission at post-treatment. Significant beneficial effects were also found for sleep difficulties, difficulties in emotional regulation, and depression, while the treatment had ambiguous or non-existent effects on pathological worry and mindfulness. All improved outcome variables at post-treatment, except for depression, were maintained at 6-months follow. No negative effects were found.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the method has potential as a complementary treatment alongside existing treatment for GAD. More studies are warranted to further evaluate the treatments efficacy. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
BioMed Central, 2016
Emneord
Flotation-REST, Flotation-tank, Sensory isolation, Generalized anxiety disorder, Anxiety, Emotion regulation, Relaxation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41216 (URN)10.1186/s12906-016-1089-x (DOI)000372861300001 ()
Prosjekter
Floating
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-04-04 Laget: 2016-04-04 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-11bibliografisk kontrollert
Kjellgren, A., Jacobsson, K. & Soussan, C. (2016). The quest for well-being and pleasure: experiences of the novel synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45, as reported by anonymous users online.. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 7(4)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The quest for well-being and pleasure: experiences of the novel synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45, as reported by anonymous users online.
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Two novel synthetic opioids, MT-45 and AH-7921, with mostly undocumented effects and risks, have emerged on the expanding market for recreational drugs on the Internet. The aim of the present study was to characterize the experiences of AH-7921 and MT-45 as described by the users on international drug discussion forums.

Methods: A systematic data search resulted in 96 self-reports which were collected from the leading edge resources of drug related information online. The data were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis.

Results: The experiences of MT-45 and AH-7921 were characterized by the following themes: (1) Administration of the substances, (2) Well-being and energy, (3) Sedation and reduced here-and-now awareness, (4) Tolerance and withdrawal effects, (5) Side effects, (6) Evaluation of the effects, (7) Increased appreciation, sociableness and intimacy and (8) Self-medication. The experiences appeared to include not only the general and expected opioid effects like withdrawal, analgesia, euphoria, cough suppression, fatigue, constipation, itching, involuntary muscle spasm, nausea and pupillary constriction but also a noteworthy increase in energy. Furthermore, the users also experienced reduced inhibition and a facilitation of social situations. The results also showed that users engaged in different forms of self-medicating behaviour aimed at reducing pain or withdrawal symptoms from traditional opioid use.

Conclusion: The spread of unpredictable, potent and novel opioids constitutes a public health concern which needs to be further monitored in order to minimize potential harm. 

Emneord
Novel psychoactive substances; Opioid; Opiate; MT-45; AH-7921
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-45338 (URN)10.4172/2155-6105.1000287 (DOI)
Prosjekter
Internetdroger
Forskningsfinansiär
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-16 Laget: 2016-08-16 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Soussan, C. & Kjellgren, A. (2016). The users of Novel Psychoactive Substances: Online survey about their characteristics, attitudes and motivations. International journal on drug policy, 32, 77-84
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The users of Novel Psychoactive Substances: Online survey about their characteristics, attitudes and motivations
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 32, s. 77-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The increasing number of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for public health agencies and researchers worldwide. Scientific studies about NPS and their users are limited and there is a need to explore the general motivations for NPS use but also to examine if and how the motivations differ between substances from separate effect classes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics, including attitudes and motivations, of a self-selected sample of international NPS users.

Methods: An online survey containing questions about drug use history, attitudes, motivations for use, and WHO-5 Wellbeing Index was promoted at the drug discussion forum bluelight.org. The data was analysed using SPSS. Results: The sample consisted of 619 international NPS users with overall good emotional well-being despite extensive experience of both traditional and novel drugs. The main incentive for use of NPS in general was pleasure and enjoyment. However, going beyond the general approach to NPS revealed significant variations between drug groups. For example, the use of hallucinogens was substantially motivated by self-exploration and spiritual attainment and showed very low levels of addiction potential while the use of opioids and especially GABA activating substances was mainly motivated by coping and showed much higher levels of addiction potential. Synthetic cannabinoids were the least appreciated and least likely to be used again, and were mainly motivated by circumstances such as availability and legality.

Conclusion: Understanding the different motivations for NPS use in terms of drug groups could enable more effective prevention and consequently a reduction in harm. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
elsevier: , 2016
Emneord
Novel Psychoactive Substances, Motivation, Drugs, Legal highs, Internet
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42038 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.03.007 (DOI)000378457700012 ()
Prosjekter
Ungdomar och Internetdroger
Forskningsfinansiär
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-17 Laget: 2016-05-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-18bibliografisk kontrollert
Soussan, C. & Kjellgren, A. (2015). Chasing the High: Experiences of Ethylphenidate as Described on International Internet Forums. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment (9), 9-16
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Chasing the High: Experiences of Ethylphenidate as Described on International Internet Forums
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, ISSN 1178-2218, E-ISSN 1178-2218, nr 9, s. 9-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance with undocumented effects, risks, and motivation for use. In this study, we investigated the experience of ethylphenidate by analyzing self-reports published on Internet forums, which revealed seven overarching themes: (1) compulsive redosing and addiction; (2) impacts on the mental state; (3) bodily agitation; (4) increased sociableness; (5) administration; (6) diverse evaluations based on intention; and (7) safety and precaution. Ethylphenidate appeared as a potent psychostimulant with an imminent abuse potential. It was mainly used for recreational purposes. The effects included not only pleasurable stimulation, euphoria, and cognitive enhancement but also indecisiveness, anxiety, and cognitive frag- mentation. The users reported an increase in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, but they also experienced profuse sweating and muscle ten- sion. Ethylphenidate acted as a social lubricant, enhancing intimacy, communication, and social skills. Two opposing user mentalities were uncovered: (1) pleasure seeking and risk neglecting, and (2) safety-first orientation. This information could be of importance to legislators, public health personnel, and prevention strategists. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Libertas Academica, 2015
Emneord
ethylphenidate, novel psychoactive substance, legal high, research chemical, Internet drug, drug use
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35773 (URN)10.4137/SART.S22495 (DOI)000213885000003 ()
Prosjekter
Internetdroger
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish National Institute of Public Health
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-07 Laget: 2015-04-07 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-18bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5668-0469