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Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2023). Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks. Paper presented at 2023 European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks
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2023 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The lack of consideration for application delay requirements in standard loss-based congestion control algorithms (CCAs) has motivated the proposal of several alternative CCAs. As such, Copa is one of the most recent and promising CCAs, and it has attracted attention from both academia andindustry. The delay performance of Copa is governed by amostly static latency-throughput tradeoff parameter, δ. However,a static δ parameter makes it difficult for Copa to achieve consistent delay and throughput over a range of bottleneck bandwidths. In particular, the coexistence of 4G and 5G networks and the wide range of bandwidths experienced in NG-RANs can result in inconsistent CCA performance. To this end, we propose a modification to Copa, Copa-D, that dynamically tunes δ to achieve a consistent delay performance. We evaluate the modification over emulated fixed, 4G, and 5G bottlenecks. The results show that Copa-D achieves consistent delay with minimal impact on throughput in fixed capacity bottlenecks. Copa-D also allows a more intuitive way of specifying the latency-throughput tradeoff and achieves more accurate and predictable delay invariable cellular bottleneck.

Emneord
Copa, Delay, Throughput, 4G, 5G, QUIC
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94025 (URN)
Konferanse
2023 European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-03-28 Laget: 2023-03-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunstrom, A. (2023). Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks. In: 2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit: . Paper presented at 2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit). 6-9 June 2023. Gothenburg, Sweden. (pp. 508-513). IEEE
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Copa-D: Delay Consistent Copa for Dynamic Cellular Networks
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: 2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit, IEEE, 2023, s. 508-513Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The lack of consideration for application delay requirements in standard loss-based congestion control algorithms (CCAs) has motivated the proposal of several alternative CCAs. Among these new CCAs, Copa is one of the promising few CCAs that have attracted attention from both academia and industry. The delay performance of Copa is governed by a mostly static latency-throughput tradeoff parameter, δ. However, a static δ parameter makes it difficult for Copa to achieve consistent delay and throughput over a range of bottleneck bandwidths. In particular, the coexistence of 4G and 5G networks and the wide range of bandwidths experienced in NG-RANs can result in inconsistent CCA performance. To this end, we propose Copa-D, a modification to Copa that dynamically tunes δ to achieve a consistent delay performance. We evaluate the modification over fixed, 4G, and 5G emulated bottlenecks. Our results show that Copa-D achieves consistent delay with minimal impact on throughput in fixed capacity bottlenecks. Copa-D also allows a more intuitive way of specifying the latency-throughput tradeoff and achieves more accurate and predictable delay in variable cellular bottlenecks. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IEEE, 2023
Serie
European Conference on Networks and Communications, ISSN 2475-6490, E-ISSN 2575-4912
Emneord
4G, 5G, Copa, delay, QUIC, throughput, Bandwidth, Traffic congestion, Bottleneck bandwidth, Cellular network, Congestion control algorithm, Delay performance, Tradeoff parameters, 5G mobile communication systems
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-96592 (URN)10.1109/EuCNC/6GSummit58263.2023.10188233 (DOI)2-s2.0-85168418872 (Scopus ID)979-8-3503-1102-0 (ISBN)
Konferanse
2023 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit). 6-9 June 2023. Gothenburg, Sweden.
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-04 Laget: 2023-09-04 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Garcia, J., Hurtig, P. & Hammar, J. (2022). Evaluating and Modeling 5G MPTCP Performance. In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob),Thessaloniki, Greece, October 10-12, 2022. (pp. 406-411). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022-October
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Evaluating and Modeling 5G MPTCP Performance
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, Vol. 2022-October, s. 406-411Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Multipath connectivity and aggregation of multiple communication links is actively being researched with the aim to achieve higher throughput and lower latency. In this work we perform an emulation-based evaluation of the relative goodput of MPTCP and TCP in a 5G usage context. A large range of path capacity and delay conditions is explored, for both the primary and secondary paths, with over 2000 different configurations evaluated. Evaluations are performed over eight combinations of MPTCP schedulers and congestion controls. The results show that MPTCP running over two links provide lower goodput than TCP over a single link for the majority of cases. Asymmetry in link conditions is in many cases a major complication for the MPTCP scheduler. To examine the predictability of poor performance, and to obtain further insight on the structure of this phenomena, we perform regression modeling of the relative good put. In addition to the traditional approaches of Linear Regression and Random Forest, we also employ Sym-bolic Regression to obtain mathematical expressions capable of providing insight on the path conditions most contributing to poor MPTCP performance. Such regression expressions can be informative when evaluating different schedulers or link aggregation approaches. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Emneord
5G mobile communication systems, Regression analysis, Scheduling, Transmission control protocol, Delay condition, Good put, High-low, High-throughput, Low latency, Multipath, Path capacity, Path delay, Performance, Usage context, Decision trees
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92705 (URN)10.1109/WiMob55322.2022.9941555 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142724742 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-6975-3 (ISBN)
Konferanse
18th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob),Thessaloniki, Greece, October 10-12, 2022.
Forskningsfinansiär
.SE (The Internet Infrastructure Foundation)Knowledge Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-12-09 Laget: 2022-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2022-12-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunstrom, A. (2022). Performance of QUIC congestion control algorithms in 5G networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Workshop on 5G and Beyond Network Measurements, Modeling, and Use Cases - Part of SIGCOMM 2022: . Paper presented at SIGCOMM '22: ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 22, 2022. (pp. 15-21). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Performance of QUIC congestion control algorithms in 5G networks
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Workshop on 5G and Beyond Network Measurements, Modeling, and Use Cases - Part of SIGCOMM 2022, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, s. 15-21Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The deployment of the next generation of cellular networks (5G) is expanding to enable new services and improve the quality of existing ones. Despite the benefits of 5G networks, they also present new challenges for the performance of classical and recently-proposed congestion control algorithms (CCAs), e.g., Bottleneck bandwidth and round-trip propagation time (BBR) and Copa. Despite their successful adoption in the Internet, BBR has been shown to overestimate the bottleneck bandwidth in cellular networks, and Copa has not been independently tested on a similar scale and detail as BBR in cellular networks. In this work, we compare the performance of these fairly recent CCAs as well as the widely deployed CUBIC CCA, and a modification to BBR for cellular networks (RBBR) at 5G rates. The evaluation is performed using the emerging QUIC protocol and uses both emulations and live experiments. Our results show that in 5G networks, CUBIC, BBR, and Copa suffer from significant bufferbloat, longer packet delays, and lower throughput, respectively. We also observe that in cases where the bottleneck is largely in the 5G link, RBBR can offer a significant delay reduction compared to BBR and CUBIC. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Emneord
Bandwidth, Queueing networks, Traffic congestion, Wireless networks, 5g, BBR, Bottleneck bandwidth, Cellular network, Congestion control, Congestion control algorithm, Copa, CUBIC, Performance, QUIC, 5G mobile communication systems
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92184 (URN)10.1145/3538394.3546040 (DOI)2-s2.0-85138238036 (Scopus ID)
Konferanse
SIGCOMM '22: ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 22, 2022.
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-10-12 Laget: 2022-10-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2022). RBBR: A Receiver-driven BBR in QUIC for Low-latency in Cellular Networks. IEEE Access, 10, 18707-18719
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>RBBR: A Receiver-driven BBR in QUIC for Low-latency in Cellular Networks
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, s. 18707-18719Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

BBR is a promising new congestion control algorithm (CCA) that has been shown to result in significantly lower latency compared to conventional loss-based CCAs. However, in cellular networks, where there is a high variability in the available rate, BBR does not perform as well as expected. In such scenarios, BBR tends to overestimate the available capacity and create queues that cause longer packet delays. In this work, we propose Receiver-driven BBR (RBBR), a modified version of BBR that uses rate estimates made at the receiver side rather than at the sender side. We employ a Kalman filter to make a more accurate estimate of the available bandwidth, and we implement the algorithm in QUIC. An evaluation of the proposed CCA is done through extensive 4G trace-based emulations, real 4G network tests and mmWave trace-based emulations representing a 5G scenario. The results show that RBBR is able to achieve an RTT reduction of up to 80\% with a worst-case throughput loss of about 30\%. The results also show that in real 4G networks, RBBR flows experience a more predictable and consistent RTT than what BBR flows do.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IEEE, 2022
Emneord
4G, 5G, BBR, congestion control, Kalman filer, QUIC, RTT, throughput
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88378 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3148998 (DOI)000760731600001 ()2-s2.0-85124204137 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-02-04 Laget: 2022-02-04 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2021). End-to-end congestion control approaches for high throughput and low delay in 4G/5G cellular networks. Computer Networks, 186, 1-22
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>End-to-end congestion control approaches for high throughput and low delay in 4G/5G cellular networks
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 186, s. 1-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellular networks have evolved to support high peak bitrates with low loss rates as observed by the higherlayers. However, applications and services running over cellular networks are now facing other difficult congestion-related challenges, most notably a highly variable link capacity and bufferbloat. To overcome theseissues and improve performance of network traffic in 4G/5G cellular networks, a number of in-network and end-to-end solutions have been proposed. Fairness between interacting congestion control algorithms (CCAs) has played an important role in the type of CCAs considered for research and deployment. The placement of content closer to the user and the allocation of per-user queues in cellular networks has increased the likelihood of a cellular access bottleneck and reduced the extent of flow interaction between multiple users. This has resulted in renewed interest in end-to-end CCAs for cellular networks by opening up room for researchand exploration. In this work, we present end-to-end CCAs that target a high throughput and a low latency over highly variable network links, and classify them according to the way they address the congestion control. The work also discusses the deployability of the algorithms. In addition, we provide insights into possible future research directions, such as coping with a higher degree of variability, interaction of CCAs in as hared bottleneck, and avenues for synergized research, such as CCAs assisted by software defined networking and network function virtualization. We hope that this work will serve as a starting point for systematically navigating through the expanding number of cellular CCAs.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2021
Emneord
TCP, QUIC, Wireless, Mobile, 4G, 5G, Congestion control, Survey
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82281 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2020.107692 (DOI)000694954000008 ()2-s2.0-85098985052 (Scopus ID)
Prosjekter
5th Generation End-to-end Network, Experimentation, System Integration, and Showcasing (5GENESIS)
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horizon 2020, 815178
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-01-06 Laget: 2021-01-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Haile, H. K., Grinnemo, K.-J., Ferlin-Reiter, S., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2021). WIP: Leveraging QUIC for a Receiver-driven BBR for Cellular Networks. In: 2021 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM): . Paper presented at The 22nd IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Pisa, Italy. (pp. 252-255). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>WIP: Leveraging QUIC for a Receiver-driven BBR for Cellular Networks
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: 2021 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, s. 252-255Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Cellular networks are continuously evolving to allow improved throughput and low latency performance for applications. However, it has been shown that, due to buffer over-provisioning, TCP’s standard loss-based congestion control algorithms (CCAs) can cause long delays in cellular networks. The QUIC transport protocol and the Bottleneck Bandwidth and Round-trip propagation time (BBR) congestion control are both proposed in response to shortcomings observed in TCP and loss-based CCAs. Despite its notable advantages, BBR can experience suboptimal delay performance in cellular networks due to one of its underlying design choices: the maximum bandwidth filter at the sender. In this work, we leverage QUIC’s extensibility to enhance BBR. Instead of using the ACK rate observed at the sender side, we apply a more fitting delivery rate calculated at the receiver. Our 5G-trace-based emulation experiments in CloudLab suggest that our modified QUIC could significantly improve latency without any notable effect on the throughput: In particular, in some of our experiments, we observe up to 39% reduction of the round-trip time (RTT) with a worst case throughput reduction of 2.7%.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
Emneord
QUIC, BBR, cellular, delay, throughput, congestion control, feedback
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-83737 (URN)10.1109/WoWMoM51794.2021.00046 (DOI)000855656300034 ()2-s2.0-85112431263 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-2263-5 (ISBN)
Konferanse
The 22nd IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Pisa, Italy.
Prosjekter
Högkvalitativa Nätverkstjänster i En Mobil Värld, Karlstad Universitet (HITS)
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-22 Laget: 2021-04-22 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Yedugundla, K., Hurtig, P. & Brunström, A. (2019). Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019 2-4 May, Heraklion, Greece (pp. 111-119). SciTePress
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER, SciTePress, 2019, s. 111-119Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Internet traffic is comprised of data flows from various applications with unique traffic characteristics. For many cloud applications, end-to-end latency is a primary factor affecting the perceived user experience. As packet losses cause delays in the communication they impact user experience, making efficient handling of packet losses an important function of transport layer protocols. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a modification to TCP that enables simultaneous use of several paths for a TCP flow. MPTCP is known to improve throughput. However, the performance of MPTCP is not optimal when handling certain loss scenarios. Efficient packet loss recovery is thus important to achieve desirable flow completion times for interactive cloud-based applications. In this paper we evaluate the performance of MPTCP in handling tail losses using traffic traces from various cloud-based applications. Tail losses, losses that occur at the end of a flow or traffic burst, are particularly challenging from a latency perspective as they are difficult to detect and recover in a timely manner. Tail losses in TCP are handled by using a tail loss probe (TLP) mechanism which was adapted to MPTCP from TCP. We investigate the performance of TLP in MPTCP, comparing the standard implementation to a recently proposed, less conservative approach. Our experimental results show that a less conservative implementation of TLP performs significantly better than the standard implementation in handling tail losses, reducing the average burst completion time of cloud based applications when tail loss occurs by up to 50% in certain cases.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
SciTePress, 2019
Emneord
Multipath TCP, Cloud Applications, Latency, Loss Recovery, Performance Evaluation, Measurements.
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70749 (URN)10.5220/0007723801110119 (DOI)000571051500010 ()2-s2.0-85067484825 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-365-0 (ISBN)
Konferanse
9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019 2-4 May, Heraklion, Greece
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-20 Laget: 2019-02-20 Sist oppdatert: 2020-10-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Ahlgren, B., Grinnemo, K.-J., Arahamsson, H., Brunström, A. & Hurtig, P. (2019). Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019.: . Paper presented at The Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019..
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019., 2019Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

We present the latency-aware multipath schedulerZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities ininformation-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is touse the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows,and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimatorcalled zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiplepaths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths sothat the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is,so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow withoutcreating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation usingsimulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72439 (URN)
Konferanse
The Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019.
Prosjekter
HITS
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-12 Laget: 2019-06-12 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-20bibliografisk kontrollert
Hurtig, P., Grinnemo, K.-J., Brunström, A., Ferlin, S., Alay, Ö. & Kuhn, N. (2019). Low-Latency Scheduling in MPTCP. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1, 302-315, Article ID 8584135.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Low-Latency Scheduling in MPTCP
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 1, s. 302-315, artikkel-id 8584135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The demand for mobile communication is continuously increasing, and mobile devices are now the communication device of choice for many people. To guarantee connectivity and performance, mobile devices are typically equipped with multiple interfaces. To this end, exploiting multiple available interfaces is also a crucial aspect of the upcoming 5G standard for reducing costs, easing network management, and providing a good user experience. Multi-path protocols, such as multi-path TCP (MPTCP), can be used to provide performance optimization through load-balancing and resilience to coverage drops and link failures, however, they do not automatically guarantee better performance. For instance, low-latency communication has been proven hard to achieve when a device has network interfaces with asymmetric capacity and delay (e.g., LTE and WLAN). For multi-path communication, the data scheduler is vital to provide low latency, since it decides over which network interface to send individual data segments. In this paper, we focus on the MPTCP scheduler with the goal of providing a good user experience for latency-sensitive applications when interface quality is asymmetric. After an initial assessment of existing scheduling algorithms, we present two novel scheduling techniques: the block estimation (BLEST) scheduler and the shortest transmission time first (STTF) scheduler. BLEST and STTF are compared with existing schedulers in both emulated and real-world environments and are shown to reduce web object transmission times with up to 51% and provide 45% faster communication for interactive applications, compared with MPTCP's default scheduler.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IEEE, 2019
Emneord
asymmetric paths., low-latency, MPTCP, scheduling, Transport protocols, Mobile telecommunication systems, Scheduling algorithms, Wireless telecommunication systems, asymmetric paths, Interactive applications, Low latency, Low-latency communication, Performance optimizations, Real world environments, 5G mobile communication systems
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71263 (URN)10.1109/TNET.2018.2884791 (DOI)000458851600022 ()2-s2.0-85058877698 (Scopus ID)
Prosjekter
HITS, 4707
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-21 Laget: 2019-02-21 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8731-2482