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Lind, Lovisa
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Lotsari, E., Lind, L. & Kämäri, M. (2019). Impacts of hydro-climatically varying years on ice growth and decay in a subarctic river. Water, 11(10), Article ID 2058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of hydro-climatically varying years on ice growth and decay in a subarctic river
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Predicting the future changes in river ice development and impacts on seasonal sediment transport requires more in-depth examination of present river ice cover growth processes. This paper therefore investigates: (1) the impacts of hydro-climatically varying years on river ice development in a Scandinavian subarctic meandering river and (2) the accuracy of existing analytical models for predicting ice thickness growth and ice decay. Stefan's ice growth equation (version by Michel et al.) and Bilello's ice decay equation are applied to varying hydro-climatic conditions experienced in the years 2013-2019. Estimates from these equations are compared with observed field conditions such as ice thicknesses, ice clearance dates and freeze-thaw days. Overall, the equations were most accurate in the winter of 2016-2017 when the maximum mid-winter snow thickness value was high, the number of freeze-thaw days was the closest to the long-term average of northern Scandinavia, and the rate of thermal snow-melt in the subsequent spring was slow. The equations would need to be adjusted to take into account expected future changes to conditions such as shorter winters, less snow formation and increased frequency of air temperatures crossing 0 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Freeze-thaw, River ice processes, Subarctic, Thermal ice decay, Thermal ice growth, Climate models, Freezing, Rivers, Sediment transport, Snow, Thawing, Ice decay, Ice growth, River ice process, Ice, climate conditions, freeze-thaw cycle, hydrometeorology, ice cover, ice thickness, river ice, seasonal variation, snowmelt, subarctic region
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75733 (URN)10.3390/w11102058 (DOI)000495598400102 ()2-s2.0-85073225733 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2020-01-17
Su, X., Polvi, L. E., Lind, L., Pilotto, F. & Nilsson, C. (2019). Importance of landscape context for post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation. Freshwater Biology, 64(5), 1015-1028
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of landscape context for post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation
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2019 (English)In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1015-1028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We tested whether the recovery of riparian vegetation along rapids that have been restored after channelisation for timber floating can be predicted based on floristic and geomorphic characteristics of surrounding landscape units. Our study was located along tributary stream networks, naturally fragmented in rapids, slow-flowing reaches, and lakes (i.e. process domains), in the Vindel River catchment in northern Sweden. We tested whether landscape characteristics, specifically to what extent the geomorphology (affecting local abiotic conditions), species richness, and species composition (representing the species pool for recolonisation), as well as the proximity to various upstream process domains (determining the dispersal potential), can predict post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation. Our results indicate that post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation richness or composition is not strongly related to landscape-scale species pools in these streams. The restored rapids were most similar to upstream rapids, geomorphically and floristically, including plant traits. Species richness of adjacent landscape units (upstream process domains or lateral upland zone) did not correlate with that of restored rapids, and proximity of upstream rapids or other process domains was only weakly influential, thus diminishing support for the hypothesis that hydrochory or other means of propagule dispersal plays a strong role in riparian vegetation community organisation after restoration in this fragmented stream network. We conclude that, in these naturally fragmented stream systems with three discrete process domains (rapids, slow-flowing reaches and lakes), hydrochory is probably not the main predictor for short-term riparian vegetation recovery. Therefore, other factors than landscape context can serve in prioritising restoration and, in these systems, local factors are likely to outweigh landscape connectivity in the recovery of riparian vegetation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019
Keywords
hydrochory, plant dispersal, riparian zone, species pool, streams
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71764 (URN)10.1111/fwb.13282 (DOI)000466805700016 ()2-s2.0-85063265512 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Lind, L., Hasselquist, E. M. & Laudon, H. (2019). Towards ecologically functional riparian zones: A meta-analysis to develop guidelines for protecting ecosystem functions and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Environmental Management, 249, 1-8, Article ID 109391.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards ecologically functional riparian zones: A meta-analysis to develop guidelines for protecting ecosystem functions and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes
2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 249, p. 1-8, article id 109391Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Riparian zones contribute with biodiversity and ecosystem functions of fundamental importance for regulating flow and nutrient transport in waterways. However, agricultural land-use and physical changes made to improve crop productivity and yield have resulted in modified hydrology and displaced natural vegetation. The modification to the hydrology and natural vegetation have affected the biodiversity and many ecosystem functions provided by riparian zones. Here we review the literature to provide state-of-the-art recommendations for riparian zones in agricultural landscapes. We analysed all available publications since 1984 that have quantified services provided by riparian zones and use this information to recommend minimum buffer widths. We also analysed publications that gave buffer width recommendations to sustain different groups of organisms. We found that drainage size matters for nutrient and sediment removal, but also that a 3 m wide buffer zone acts as a basic nutrient filter. However, to maintain a high floral diversity, a 24 m buffer zone is required, while a 144 m buffer is needed to preserve bird diversity. Based on the analysis, we developed the concept of “Ecologically Functional Riparian Zones” (ERZ) and provide a step-by-step framework that managers can use to balance agricultural needs and environmental protection of waterways from negative impacts. By applying ERZ in already existing agricultural areas, we can better meet small targets and move towards the long-term goal of achieving a more functional land management and better environmental status of waterways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Agricultural, Buffer zone, Ecological functional riparian zones, Riparian zone, Vegetation, Water, agricultural land, ecosystem function, environmental protection, filter, functional role, hydrological regime, land management, land use, waterway transport, biodiversity, controlled study, crop production, freshwater environment, human, hydrology, landscape, nutrient uptake, practice guideline, Review, riparian ecosystem, rural area, sandy loam, soil property, soil texture, species composition, water quality, water temperature, agriculture, ecosystem, environmental monitoring, meta analysis, river, Aves, Rivers
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75700 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109391 (DOI)000492797500067 ()2-s2.0-85070861074 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lind, L., Schuler, M. S., Hintz, W. D., Stoler, A. B., Jones, D. K., Mattes, B. M. & Relyea, R. A. (2018). Salty fertile lakes: how salinization and eutrophication alter the structure of freshwater communities. Ecosphere, 9(9), 1-19, Article ID e02383.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salty fertile lakes: how salinization and eutrophication alter the structure of freshwater communities
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2018 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1-19, article id e02383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quality of freshwater ecosystems is decreasing worldwide because of anthropogenic activities. For example, nutrient over-enrichment associated with agricultural, urban, and industrial development has led to an acceleration of primary production, or eutrophication. Additionally, in northern areas, deicing salts that are an evolutionary novel stressor to freshwater ecosystems have caused chloride levels of many freshwaters to exceed thresholds established for environmental protection. Even if excess nutrients and road deicing salts often contaminate freshwaters at the same time, the combined effects of eutrophication and salinization on freshwater communities are unknown. Thus by using outdoor mesocosms, we investigated the potentially interactive effects of nutrient additions and road salt (NaCl) on experimental lake communities containing phytoplankton, periphyton, filamentous algae, zooplankton, two snail species (Physa acuta and Viviparus georgianus), and macrophytes (Nitella spp.). We exposed communities to a factorial combination of environmentally relevant concentrations of road salt (15, 250, and 1000 mg Cl-/L), nutrient additions (oligotrophic, eutrophic), and sunlight (low, medium, and high) for 80 d. We manipulated light intensity to parse out the direct effects of road salts or nutrients from the indirect effects via algal blooms that reduce light levels. We observed numerous direct and indirect effects of salt, nutrients, and light as well as interactive effects. Added nutrients caused increases in most producers and consumers. Increased salt (1000 mg Cl-/L) initially caused a decline in cladoceran and copepod abundance, leading to an increase in phytoplankton. Increased salt also reduced the biomass and chl a content of Nitella and reduced the abundance of filamentous algae. Added salt had no effect on the abundance of pond snails, but it caused a decline in banded mystery snails, which led to an increase in periphyton. Low light negatively affected all taxa (except Nitella) and light levels exhibited multiple interactions with road salt, but the combined effects of nutrients and salt were always additive. Collectively, our results indicate that eutrophication and salinization both have major effects on aquatic ecosystems and their combined effects (through different mechanisms) are expected to promote large blooms of phytoplankton and periphyton while causing declines in many species of invertebrates and macrophytes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
algae, eutrophication, food web, freshwater ecosystems, macrophyte, salinization, zooplankton
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70078 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2383 (DOI)000446834100008 ()
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Stoler, A. B., Walker, B. M., Hintz, W. D., Jones, D. K., Lind, L., Mattes, B. M., . . . Relyea, R. A. (2017). Combined Effects Of Road Salt And An Insecticide On Wetland Communities. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(3), 771-779
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Effects Of Road Salt And An Insecticide On Wetland Communities
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 771-779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the numbers of chemical contaminants in freshwater ecosystems increase, it is important to understand whether contaminants interact in ecologically important ways. The present study investigated the independent and interactive effects of 2 contaminants that frequently co-occur in freshwater environments among higher latitudes, including a commonly applied insecticide (carbaryl) and road salt (NaCl). The hypothesis was that the addition of either contaminant would result in a decline in zooplankton, an algal bloom, and the subsequent decline of both periphyton and periphyton consumers. Another hypothesis was that combining the contaminants would result in synergistic effects on community responses. Outdoor mesocosms were used with communities that included phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, amphipods, clams, snails, and tadpoles. Communities were exposed to 4 environmentally relevant concentrations of salt (27 mg Cl- L-1, 77 mg Cl- L-1, 277 mg Cl- L-1, and 727 mg Cl- L-1) fully crossed with 4 carbaryl treatments (ethanol, 0 mu gL(-1), 5 mu g L-1, and 50 mu g L-1) over 57 d. Contaminants induced declines in rotifer and cladoceran zooplankton, but only carbaryl induced an algal bloom. Consumers exhibited both positive and negative responses to contaminants, which were likely the result of both indirect community interactions and direct toxicity. In contrast to the hypothesis, no synergistic effects were found, although copepod densities declined when high concentrations of both chemicals were combined. The results suggest that low concentrations of salt and carbaryl are likely to have mostly independent effects on aquatic communities. (C) 2016 SETAC

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Aquatic invertebrates, Deicer, Ecotoxicology, Lithobates clamitans, Mixtures
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70082 (URN)10.1002/etc.3639 (DOI)000394698700022 ()27775179 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Stoler, A. B., Mattes, B. M., Hintz, W. D., Jones, D. K., Lind, L., Schuler, M. S. & Relyea, R. A. (2017). Effects of a common insecticide on wetland communities with varying quality of leaf litter inputs. Environmental Pollution, 226, 452-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a common insecticide on wetland communities with varying quality of leaf litter inputs
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 226, p. 452-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination. Using the common insecticide malathion, we hypothesized that inputs of nutrient-rich and labile leaf litter (e.g., elm [Ulmus spp.] or maple [Acer spp.]) would reduce the negative effects of insecticides on wetland communities relative to inputs of recalcitrant litter (e.g., oak [Quercus spp.]). We exposed artificial wetland communities to a factorial combination of three litter species treatments (elm, maple, and oak) and four insecticide treatments (no insecticide, small weekly doses of 10 mu g L-1, and either early or late large doses of 50 mu g L-1). Communities consisted of microbes, algae, snails, amphipods, zooplankton, and two species of tadpoles. After two months, we found that maple and elm litter generally induced greater primary and secondary production. Insecticides induced a reduction in the abundance of amphipods and some zooplankton species, and increased phytoplanlcton. In addition, we found interactive effects of litter species and insecticide treatments on amphibian responses, although specific effects depended on application regime. Specifically, with the addition of insecticide, elm and maple litter induced a reduction in gray tree frog survival, oak and elm litter delayed tree frog metamorphosis, and oak and maple litter reduced green frog tadpole mass. Our results suggest that attention to local forest composition, as well as the timing of pesticide application might help ameliorate the harmful effects of pesticides observed in freshwater systems. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, Larval anuran, Hyla versicolor, Lithobates clamitans, Organophosphate
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70080 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.019 (DOI)000405881800048 ()28431762 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Schuler, M. S., Hintz, W. D., Jones, D. K., Lind, L., Mattes, B. M., Stoler, A. B., . . . Relyea, R. A. (2017). How common road salts and organic additives alter freshwater food webs: in search of safer alternatives. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(5), 1353-1361
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How common road salts and organic additives alter freshwater food webs: in search of safer alternatives
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1353-1361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. The application of deicing road salts began in the 1940s and has increased drastically in regions where snow and ice removal is critical for transportation safety. The most commonly applied road salt is sodium chloride (NaCl). However, the increased costs of NaCl, its negative effects on human health, and the degradation of roadside habitats has driven transportation agencies to seek alternative road salts and organic additives to reduce the application rate of NaCl or increase its effectiveness. Few studies have examined the effects of NaCl in aquatic ecosystems, but none have explored the potential impacts of road salt alternatives or additives on aquatic food webs. 2. We assessed the effects of three road salts (NaCl, MgCl2 and ClearLane (TM)) and two road salts mixed with organic additives (GeoMelt (TM) and Magic Salt (TM)) on food webs in experimental aquatic communities, with environmentally relevant concentrations, standardized by chloride concentration. 3. We found that NaCl had few effects on aquatic communities. However, the microbial breakdown of organic additives initially reduced dissolved oxygen. Additionally, microbial activity likely transformed unusable phosphorus from the organic additives to usable phosphorus for algae, which increased algal growth. The increase in algal growth led to an increase in zooplankton abundance. Finally, MgCl2 - a common alternative to NaCl - reduced compositional differences of zooplankton, and at low concentrations increased the abundance of amphipods. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that alternative road salts (to NaCl), and road salt additives can alter the abundance and composition of organisms in freshwater food webs at multiple trophic levels, even at low concentrations. Consequently, road salt alternatives and additives might alter ecosystem function and ecosystem services. Therefore, transportation agencies should use caution in applying road salt alternatives and additives. A comprehensive investigation of road salt alternatives and road salt additives should be conducted before wide-scale use is implemented. Further research is also needed to determine the impacts of salt additives and alternatives on higher trophic levels, such as amphibians and fish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
beet juice, deicer, distillation by-product, freshwater contaminants, Hyalella azteca, indirect effects, land-use, organic additives, wetlands
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70079 (URN)10.1111/1365-2664.12877 (DOI)000410678700008 ()
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, C., Sarneel, J. M., Palm, D., Gardeström, J., Pilotto, F., Polvi, L. E., . . . Lundqvist, H. (2017). How do biota respond to additional physical restoration of restored streams?. Ecosystems (New York. Print), 20(1), 144-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do biota respond to additional physical restoration of restored streams?
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2017 (English)In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Restoration of channelized streams by returning coarse sediment from stream edges to the wetted channel has become a common practice in Sweden. Yet, restoration activities do not always result in the return of desired biota. This study evaluated a restoration project in the Vindel River in northern Sweden in which practitioners further increased channel complexity of previously restored stream reaches by placing very large boulders (> 1 m), trees (> 8 m), and salmonid spawning gravel from adjacent upland areas into the channels. One reach restored with basic methods and another with enhanced methods were selected in each of ten different tributaries to the main channel. Geomorphic and hydraulic complexity was enhanced but the chemical composition of riparian soils and the communities of riparian plants and fish did not exhibit any clear responses to the enhanced restoration measures during the first 5 years compared to reaches restored with basic restoration methods. The variation in the collected data was among streams instead of between types of restored reaches. We conclude that restoration is a disturbance in itself, that immigration potential varies across landscapes, and that biotic recovery processes in boreal river systems are slow. We suggest that enhanced restoration has to apply a catchment-scale approach accounting for connectivity and availability of source populations, and that low-intensity monitoring has to be performed over several decades to evaluate restoration outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
fish, geomorphic complexity, hydraulics, ice, landscape scale, restoration, riparian chemistry, riparian plants, Sweden
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69293 (URN)10.1007/s10021-016-0020-0 (DOI)000392317000015 ()
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2020-05-26Bibliographically approved
Jones, D. K., Mattes, B. M., Hintz, W. D., Schuler, M. S., Stoler, A. B., Lind, L., . . . Relyea, R. A. (2017). Investigation of road salts and biotic stressors on freshwater wetland communities. Environmental Pollution, 221, 159-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of road salts and biotic stressors on freshwater wetland communities
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 221, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of road deicing salts has led to the salinization of freshwater ecosystems in northern regions worldwide. Increased chloride concentrations in lakes, streams, ponds, and wetlands may negatively affect freshwater biota, potentially threatening ecosystem services. In an effort to reduce the effects of road salt, operators have increased the use of salt alternatives, yet we lack an understanding of how these deicers affect aquatic communities. We examined the direct and indirect effects of the most commonly used road salt (NaCl) and a proprietary salt mixture (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2), at three environmentally relevant concentrations (150, 470, and 780 mg Cl-/L) on freshwater wetland communities in combination with one of three biotic stressors (control, predator cues, and competitors). The communities contained periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and two tadpole species (American toads, Anaxyrus americanus; wood frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus). Overall, we found the two road salts did not interact with the natural stressors. Both salts decreased pH and reduced zooplankton abundance. The strong decrease in zooplankton abundance in the highest NaCl concentration caused a trophic cascade that resulted in increased phytoplankton abundance. The highest NaCl concentration also reduced toad activity. For the biotic stressors, predatory stress decreased whereas competitive stress increased the activity of both tadpole species. Wood frog survival, time to metamorphosis, and mass at metamorphosis all decreased under competitive stress whereas toad time to metamorphosis increased and mass at metamorphosis decreased. Road salts and biotic stressors can both affect freshwater communities, but their effects are not interactive. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Species interactions, Copepod, Cladoceran, Ecotoxicology, Novel environment, Tolerance
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70083 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.060 (DOI)000392767900015 ()27939632 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hintz, W. D., Mattes, B. M., Schuler, M. S., Jones, D. K., Stoler, A. B., Lind, L. & Relyea, R. A. (2017). Salinization triggers a trophic cascade in experimental freshwater communities with varying food-chain length. Ecological Applications, 27(3), 833-844
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salinization triggers a trophic cascade in experimental freshwater communities with varying food-chain length
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2017 (English)In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 833-844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of road deicing salts in northern regions worldwide is changing the chemical environment of freshwater ecosystems. Chloride levels in many lakes, streams, and wetlands exceed the chronic and acute thresholds established by the United States and Canada for the protection of freshwater biota. Few studies have identified the impacts of deicing salts in stream and wetland communities and none have examined impacts in lake communities. We tested how relevant concentrations of road salt (15, 100, 250, 500, and 1000mgCl(-)/L) interacted with experimental communities containing two or three trophic levels (i.e., no fish vs. predatory fish). We hypothesized that road salt and fish would have a negative synergistic effect on zooplankton, which would then induce a trophic cascade. We tested this hypothesis in outdoor mesocosms containing filamentous algae, periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, several macroinvertebrate species, and fish. We found that the presence of fish and high salt had a negative synergistic effect on the zooplankton community, which in turn caused an increase in phytoplankton. Contributing to the magnitude of this trophic cascade was a direct positive effect of high salinity on phytoplankton abundance. Cascading effects were limited with respect to impacts on the benthic food web. Periphyton and snail grazers were unaffected by the salt-induced trophic cascade, but the biomass of filamentous algae decreased as a result of competition with phytoplankton for light or nutrients. We also found direct negative effects of high salinity on the biomass of filamentous algae and amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and the mortality of banded mystery snails (Viviparus georgianus) and fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile). Clam mortality was dependent on the presence of fish, suggesting a non-consumptive interactive effect with salt. Our results indicate that globally increasing concentrations of road salt can alter community structure via both direct and indirect effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
ecosystem services, freshwater contaminants, lake ecosystem, land use, macroinvertebrates, novel ecosystems, osmoregulation, predation, primary producers, salinity, sublethal effects
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70081 (URN)10.1002/eap.1487 (DOI)000398577200010 ()27992971 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
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