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Publications (10 of 113) Show all publications
Lopes-Lima, M., Geist, J., Egg, S., Beran, L., Bikashvili, A., Van Bocxlaer, B., . . . Froufe, E. (2024). Integrative phylogenetic, phylogeographic and morphological characterisation of the Unio crassus species complex reveals cryptic diversity with important conservation implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 195, Article ID 108046.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrative phylogenetic, phylogeographic and morphological characterisation of the Unio crassus species complex reveals cryptic diversity with important conservation implications
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2024 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 195, article id 108046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global decline of freshwater mussels and their crucial ecological services highlight the need to understand their phylogeny, phylogeography and patterns of genetic diversity to guide conservation efforts. Such knowledge is urgently needed for Unio crassus, a highly imperilled species originally widespread throughout Europe and southwest Asia. Recent studies have resurrected several species from synonymy based on mitochondrial data, revealing U. crassus to be a complex of cryptic species. To address long-standing taxonomic uncertainties hindering effective conservation, we integrate morphometric, phylogenetic, and phylogeographic analyses to examine species diversity within the U. crassus complex across its entire range. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (815 specimens from 182 populations) and, for selected specimens, whole mitogenome sequences and Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) data on ∼ 600 nuclear loci. Mito-nuclear discordance was detected, consistent with mitochondrial DNA gene flow between some species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Fossil-calibrated phylogenies based on AHE data support a Mediterranean origin for the U. crassus complex in the Early Miocene. The results of our integrative approach support 12 species in the group: the previously recognised Unio bruguierianus, Unio carneus, Unio crassus, Unio damascensis, Unio ionicus, Unio sesirmensis, and Unio tumidiformis, and the reinstatement of five nominal taxa: Unio desectus stat. rev., Unio gontierii stat. rev., Unio mardinensis stat. rev., Unio nanus stat. rev., and Unio vicarius stat. rev. Morphometric analyses of shell contours reveal important morphospace overlaps among these species, highlighting cryptic, but geographically structured, diversity. The distribution, taxonomy, phylogeography, and conservation of each species are succinctly described.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press Inc., 2024
Keywords
Conservation, Freshwater mussels, Phylogeography, Unionida
National Category
Ecology Zoology Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-99271 (URN)10.1016/j.ympev.2024.108046 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189094828 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-09 Created: 2024-04-09 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Filipsson, K., Bergman, E., Erlandsson, A., Greenberg, L., Österling, M. & Watz, J. (2024). Temperature during embryonic development in brown trout influences juvenile behaviour in encounters with predators. Journal of Zoology, 322(3), 241-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature during embryonic development in brown trout influences juvenile behaviour in encounters with predators
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 322, no 3, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variation in thermal conditions during embryogenesis can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to behavioural variation. Many animals, such as salmonids, exhibit behavioural trade-offs related to foraging and predator avoidance. How embryonic temperature affects these behaviours has remained unexplored. Not only abiotic conditions during embryogenesis but also biotic factors such as predator conditioning may affect fish behaviour, especially anti-predator responses. We examined how elevated temperatures and predator odours throughout embryogenesis affect the behaviour of 28-37 mm young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) in encounters with predators, namely Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; 20 cm) and burbot (Lota lota; 40 cm). Juvenile brown trout were more active and aggressive if they were incubated in warmer water as eggs than if they were incubated in colder water, and trout remained inactive longer when encountering predators if they were cold incubated. Brown trout were less active and aggressive when an Atlantic salmon was present than when a burbot or no predator was present. Behavioural responses did not differ between trout that had been subjected to water with versus without predator odours during embryogenesis, possibly because brown trout were not subjected to conspecific alarm cues during egg incubation. This study shows that thermal conditions during embryogenesis can influence fish behaviour early in life and thus contribute to behavioural variation, with potential effects on life history. Considering the rapid warming of northern regions, elevated embryonic temperatures may contribute substantially to variation in salmonid behaviour in the near future. Variation in environmental conditions during embryogenesis of salmonids can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to variation in anti-predator behaviour. In a laboratory experiment, we showed that elevated temperatures throughout embryogenesis increased the activity and aggression of 28-37 mm brown trout fry and reduced the time to first movement in encounters with predators (burbot and Atlantic salmon). Predator odour during embryogenesis did not affect brown trout fry behaviour.image

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
anti-predator behaviour, climate change, development, embryogenesis, incubation temperature, salmonid
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-97834 (URN)10.1111/jzo.13135 (DOI)001118606000001 ()2-s2.0-85179367718 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Karlstad University
Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Geist, J., Thielen, F., Lavictoire, L., Hoess, R., Altmueller, R., Baudrimont, M., . . . Zajac, T. (2023). Captive breeding of European freshwater mussels as a conservation tool: A review. Aquatic conservation, 33(11), 1321-1359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Captive breeding of European freshwater mussels as a conservation tool: A review
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2023 (English)In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1321-1359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Freshwater mussels are declining throughout their range. Their important ecological functions along with insufficient levels of natural recruitment have prompted captive breeding for population augmentation and questions about the usefulness and applicability of such measures. This article reviews the current state of captive breeding and rearing programmes for freshwater mussels in Europe. It considers the various species, strategies, and techniques of propagation, as well as the different levels of effort required according to rearing method, highlighting the key factors of success. Within the last 30 years, 46 breeding activities in 16 European countries have been reported, mainly of Margaritifera margaritifera and Unio crassus. Some facilities propagate species that are in a very critical situation, such as Pseudunio auricularius, Unio mancus, and Unio ravoisieri, or multiple species concurrently. In some streams, the number of released captive-bred mussels already exceeds the size of the remaining natural population. Rearing efforts range from highly intensive laboratory incubation to lower intensity methods using in-river mussel cages or silos. Most breeding efforts are funded by national and EU LIFE(+) grants, are well documented, and consider the genetic integrity of the propagated mussels. Limited long-term funding perspectives, the availability of experienced staff, water quality, and feeding/survival during early life stages are seen as the most important challenges. Successful captive breeding programmes need to be combined with restoration of the habitats into which the mussels are released. This work will benefit from an evidence-based approach, knowledge exchange among facilities, and an overall breeding strategy comprising multiple countries and conservation units.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
aquaculture, captive breeding, conservation translocation, freshwater mussel culturing, Margaritifera margaritifera, propagation, reintroduction, Unio crassus
National Category
Ecology Zoology Fish and Aquacultural Science
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-97093 (URN)10.1002/aqc.4018 (DOI)001073083600001 ()2-s2.0-85171757350 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-19 Created: 2023-10-19 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Filipsson, K., Erlandsson, A., Greenberg, L., Österling, M., Watz, J. & Bergman, E. (2023). Do predator odours and warmer winters affect growth of salmonid embryos?. Ecology of Freshwater Fish (1), Article ID e12747.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do predator odours and warmer winters affect growth of salmonid embryos?
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2023 (English)In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 1, article id e12747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conditions early in ontogeny can have considerable effects later on in life. Many salmonids spawn during the autumn, and temperature during subsequent embryogenesis may have far-reaching effects on life-history traits, especially when considering ongoing climate change. Even biotic conditions during embryogenesis, such as predation threat, may affect later life stages. Here, we examined how predator odours and increased temperatures affect embryonic growth and development of a fish (brown trout Salmo trutta). We found that embryos had lower body mass and greater yolk volume close to hatching when subjected to predator odours. Trout embryos incubated at temperatures representing natural winter conditions were larger than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, although the latter hatched earlier. Fry sizes at emergence did not differ between treatments, perhaps because of compensatory growth during spring. This study shows that predator presence can have similar effects on embryonic growth of salmonids as warming winters, with possible impact later in ontogeny. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
brown trout, climate change, development, egg incubation, predation, yolk
National Category
Ecology Zoology Fish and Aquacultural Science
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-96852 (URN)10.1111/eff.12747 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170696207 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Karlstad University
Available from: 2023-10-02 Created: 2023-10-02 Last updated: 2023-12-11Bibliographically approved
Ferreira-Rodríguez, N., Beggel, S., Geist, J. P., Modesto, V., Österling, M., Riccardi, N., . . . Urbańska, M. (2023). Freshwater Mussels as Sentinels for Safe Drinking Water Supply in Europe. ACS - ES & T Water, 3(12), 3730-3735
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freshwater Mussels as Sentinels for Safe Drinking Water Supply in Europe
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2023 (English)In: ACS - ES & T Water, E-ISSN 2690-0637, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 3730-3735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the context of the European Union (EU) Drinking Water Directive, freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida: Bivalvia) can help us face the challenges of safe drinking water provisions for all citizens in the EU. Specifically, the implementation of high frequency noninvasive (HFNI) valvometers allows the early detection of eventual pollution events in drinking water treatment plants. Currently real-time behavioral analysis is deployed in a number of EU countries, and we foresee a bright future as new technological advances are developed concerning HFNI valvometers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-97683 (URN)10.1021/acsestwater.3c00012 (DOI)001121856500001 ()38094916 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85178132069 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-11 Created: 2023-12-11 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Filipsson, K., Åsman, V., Greenberg, L., Österling, M., Watz, J. & Bergman, E. (2023). Winter Behavior of Juvenile Brown Trout in a Changing Climate: How Do Light and Ice Cover Affect Encounters with Instream Predators?. Fishes, 8(10), Article ID 521.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Winter Behavior of Juvenile Brown Trout in a Changing Climate: How Do Light and Ice Cover Affect Encounters with Instream Predators?
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2023 (English)In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 521Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

During winter, stream fishes are vulnerable to semi-aquatic predators like mammals and birds and reduce encounters by being active in darkness or under surface ice. Less is known about the behavior of fishes towards instream piscivorous fishes. Here, we examined how surface ice and light affected the anti-predator behavior of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) in relation to piscivorous burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus, 1758) and northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758) at 4 degrees C in experimental flumes. Trout had lower foraging and swimming activity and spent more time sheltering when predators were present than when absent. In daylight, trout's swimming activity was not affected by predators, whereas in darkness trout were less active when predators were present. Trout consumed more drifting prey during the day when ice was present, and they positioned themselves further upstream when under ice cover, regardless of light conditions. Trout stayed closer to conspecifics under ice, but only in the presence of pike. Piscivorous fishes thus constitute an essential part of the predatory landscape of juvenile trout in winter, and thus loss of ice cover caused by climate warming will likely affect trout's interactions with predators.

Keywords
anti-predator, global changer, diel behavior, foraging, piscivores, predators
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88204 (URN)10.3390/fishes8100521 (DOI)001089943500001 ()2-s2.0-85175046960 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Karlstad University
Note

This paper was included as a manuscript in doctoral thesis entitled "Early life stages of brown trout - Anti-predator responses under warming winters" 2022:2

Available from: 2022-01-26 Created: 2022-01-26 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Zieritz, A., Sousa, R., Aldridge, D. C., Douda, K., Esteves, E., Ferreira-Rodriguez, N., . . . Vaz, A. S. (2022). A global synthesis of ecosystem services provided and disrupted by freshwater bivalve molluscs. Biological Reviews, 97, 1967-1998
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A global synthesis of ecosystem services provided and disrupted by freshwater bivalve molluscs
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2022 (English)In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 97, p. 1967-1998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Identification of ecosystem services, i.e. the contributions that ecosystems make to human well-being, has proven instrumental in galvanising public and political support for safeguarding biodiversity and its benefits to people. Here we synthesise the global evidence on ecosystem services provided and disrupted by freshwater bivalves, a heterogenous group of >1200 species, including some of the most threatened (in Unionida) and invasive (e.g. Dreissena polymorpha) taxa globally. Our systematic literature review resulted in a data set of 904 records from 69 countries relating to 24 classes of provisioning (N = 189), cultural (N = 491) and regulating (N = 224) services following the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES). Prominent ecosystem services included (i) the provisioning of food, materials and medicinal products, (ii) knowledge acquisition (e.g. on water quality, past environments and historical societies), ornamental and other cultural contributions, and (iii) the filtration, sequestration, storage and/or transformation of biological and physico-chemical water properties. About 9% of records provided evidence for the disruption rather than provision of ecosystem services. Synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem services were observed. For instance, water filtration by freshwater bivalves can be beneficial for the cultural service 'biomonitoring', while negatively or positively affecting food consumption or human recreation. Our evidence base spanned a total of 91 genera and 191 species, dominated by Unionida (55% of records, 76% of species), Veneroida (21 and 9%, respectively; mainly Corbicula spp.) and Myoida (20 and 4%, respectively; mainly Dreissena spp.). About one third of records, predominantly from Europe and the Americas, related to species that were non-native to the country of study. The majority of records originated from Asia (35%), with available evidence for 23 CICES classes, as well as Europe (29%) and North America (23%), where research was largely focused on 'biomonitoring'. Whilst the earliest record (from 1949) originated from North America, since 2000, annual output of records has increased rapidly in Asia and Europe. Future research should focus on filling gaps in knowledge in lesser-studied regions, including Africa and South America, and should look to provide a quantitative valuation of the socio-economic costs and benefits of ecosystem services shaped by freshwater bivalves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
biofiltration, biomonitoring, Corbicula, cultural services, Dreissena, ecosystem services, freshwater mussels, provisioning services, regulating services, Unionida
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-91271 (URN)10.1111/brv.12878 (DOI)000818770200001 ()35770724 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133523308 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-08 Created: 2022-07-08 Last updated: 2022-11-03Bibliographically approved
Watz, J., Aldvén, D., Andreasson, P., Aziz, K., Blixt, M., Calles, O., . . . Piccolo, J. (2022). Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Understanding river management through the ecosystem services lens. Fish and Fisheries, 23(2), 478-491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Understanding river management through the ecosystem services lens
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2022 (English)In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Known as the “king of fishes”, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, Salmonidae) is an iconic freshwater species whose contribution to human wellbeing has long been recognized, as have widespread declines in its abundance, partly due to river regulation. To understand how salmon conservation has been addressed within the ecosystem services (ES) framework, we synthesized the peer-reviewed literature on ES provided by salmon in regulated rivers. We developed a search string to capture allusions to provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ES and assessed the results to identify knowledge gaps. The effects of hydropower on fisheries catches and on modelled populations were shown is several publications. Overall, few studies focused explicitly on ES from salmon and hydropower; this is surprising given the considerable body of literature on salmon in regulated rivers. Wild salmon as a food source and other provisioning services are less important today than historically. Because predators such as salmon are important for facilitating biodiversity by cycling nutrients and controlling food webs, there is a scope of work for future assessments of these regulating and supporting services. Few papers explicitly addressed cultural ES, despite the salmon’s longstanding iconic status; this is a knowledge gap for future ES assessments in relation to hydropower. The influence of ES assessments for policy makers is growing through the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the post-2020 biodiversity strategy. Explicitly addressing ES poses an opportunity for river managers to raise awareness of aquatic conservation efforts and well-informed decision-making for sustaining ES.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Aquatic Science, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Oceanography
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-87195 (URN)10.1111/faf.12628 (DOI)000716334500001 ()2-s2.0-85118708794 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Commission, LIFE18 NAT/SE/000742Knowledge Foundation, 20170129
Available from: 2021-11-16 Created: 2021-11-16 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Rock, S. L., Watz, J., Nilsson, P. A. & Österling, M. (2022). Effects of parasitic freshwater mussels on their host fishes: a review. Parasitology, 149(14), 1958-1975
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of parasitic freshwater mussels on their host fishes: a review
2022 (English)In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 149, no 14, p. 1958-1975Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Freshwater mussels in the order Unionida are highly adapted to parasitize fish for the primary purpose of dispersal. The parasitic larval stage affixes itself to the gills or fins of the host where it becomes encysted in the tissue, eventually excysting to develop into a free-living adult. Research on the parasitic interactions between unionids and their host fishes has garnered attention recently due to the increase in worldwide preservation efforts surrounding this highly endangered and ecologically significant order. With the exception of heavy infestation events, these mussels cause minor effects to their hosts, typically only observable effect in combination with other stressors. Moreover, the range of effect intensities on the host varies greatly with the species involved in the interaction, an effect that may arise from different evolutionary strategies between long- and short-infesting mussels; a distinction not typically made in conservation practices. Lower growth and reduced osmotic potential in infested hosts are commonly observed and correlated to infestation load. These effects are typically also associated with increases in metabolic rate and behaviour indicative of stress. Host fish seem to compensate for this through a combination of rapid wound healing in the parasitized areas and higher ventilation rates. The findings are heavily biased towards Margaritifera margaritifera, a unique mussel not well suited for cross-species generalizations. Furthermore, the small body of molecular and genetic studies should be expanded as many conclusions are drawn from studies on the ultimate effects of glochidiosis rather than proximate studies on the underlying mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2022
Keywords
Conservation, freshwater mussel, glochidia, host effects, Unionida
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92190 (URN)10.1017/S0031182022001226 (DOI)000861626100001 ()36050917 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85138174333 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Karlstad UniversityEuropean Commission, LIFE18 NAT/SE/000742
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Harbicht, A., Nilsson, P. A., Österling, M. & Calles, O. (2021). Environmental and anthropogenic correlates of migratory speeds among Atlantic salmon smolts. Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, 37(3), 358-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and anthropogenic correlates of migratory speeds among Atlantic salmon smolts
2021 (English)In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dams, weirs, and hydropower facilities are often cited as migratory barriers which impart significant reductions in fitness among migratory fish species. Even where upstream and downstream passage options are available, barrier passage can still often result in energetic or physical costs which compound delays or cause mortality. Past studies have identified variables associated with such fitness reductions, though few examine their effects in the context of the whole river scale. To this end, we assessed the migratory rates and downstream passage of radio-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts through nine river sections (including two reservoir sections and one dammed section) along a 20 km stretch of river. Migration stoppages were not found to be elevated in reservoir or dammed sections, while migration rates were best described by physical river properties (width), biological traits (smolt total length), and seasonal variables (diel period) rather than anthropogenic factors. These results suggest the negative effect of reservoirs may primarily be due to their influence on river width and may be negligible when width is largely unaffected by an impoundment. Similarly, spilling water during fish migrations as a mitigative measure appears to make delays negligible. These conditions and actions may not completely marginalize the effect of dams, however, as a negative trend was still observed resulting from passage effects at the dam.

Keywords
anthropogenic delay, migration barriers, Salmo salar, smolt, time&#8208, to&#8208, event analysis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82500 (URN)10.1002/rra.3760 (DOI)000601923900001 ()2-s2.0-85098069592 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-21 Created: 2021-01-21 Last updated: 2022-05-11Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6758-5857

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