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  • Public defence: 2020-06-11 10:00 11D121, Karlstad
    Höglund, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Naturbaserade insatser i socialt arbete: En studie av lantgårdsbaserade dagverksamheter med sociala mål2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim in this thesis is to describe and analyse how nature-based social services located in farm settings with animals are framed in the Swedish context, and what organisers/supervisors and participants holds as valuable aspects in the intervention in a selection of services. Social aspects, environmental aspects and activities, and the dynamics between them has been of specific interest. The study focuses on services targeted at people in need of work-oriented rehabilitation and persons with disabilities. Similar nature-based interventions located in farm settings have previously been mapped and raised interest among researchers in countries like Norway, the Netherlands, and Britain. Nature-based interventions is an interdisciplinary and developing field of knowledge with a variety of different practice initiatives that use nature and animals to promote health and social well-being. So far the area has just generated a small amount of research in Social Work even though the users of the services are mutual with clients in social work services.

    The thesis has had an explorative approach that includes three sub studies and a variety of data sources and methods. The first study was a national survey in the Swedish context that identified 55 ongoing services. A selective sample of services was the setting for participant observations of the daily practice, and interviews with supervisors and participants. To study the participants perspective “go-along” interviewing where used as a complement to more traditional forms of data collection.

    Conclusions from the studies show that the three key elements, social context, where even animals play an important role, farm environment and farm based activities are important as resources in the daily practice from both supervisors’ and participants’ perspectives. The supervisors use the performativity of the farm-environment to provide support and the participants experience them as supportive, even though from their point of view the supervisor role is superior for their experience of sense of coherence in the context.  

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  • Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Berglund, Ingrid
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svensk yrkeslärarutbildning efter reformen 2011: Lärarstudenters uppfattningar om antagning, VFU och läraranställning2020In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 21-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a survey to former vocational teacher students at two universities in Sweden, we explore their perceptions of admission, practicum internship during vocational teacher education, and employment as a vocational teacher after education, since teacher education reform in 2011. The questionnaire used in the survey was answered by 140 former teacher students and the result contributes with knowledge about which vocational subjects were applied for, and which subjects the students later were admitted to, how long the former studentsᅵ professional experience was when they applied for the education. The result shows that measures should be taken to support the application process. The study also illustrates how students perceive their practicum at schools and to what extent they were taught in their vocational subjects, and how they value the supervision during the practicum at schools. Here, we can draw conclusions from the questionnaire about differences between different vocational programmes regarding the supervision. Finally, we examined what happened after the vocational teacher education and we see that a large majority of former students have employment as vocational teachers, but that the possibilities of competence development and the broadening of the competencies for more vocational subjects vary.

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  • Giota, Joanna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Adolescent Academic, Social and Future Achievement Goal Orientations: Implications for Achievement by Gender and Parental Education2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on social aspects of academic motivation is scarce. Based on twonationally representative cohorts within the Swedish longitudinal ETFproject,the study examined (a) relationships between academicmastery/performance, social and future achievement goal orientations inthe Swedish grade 9 compulsory school (2008/2014); (b) theirimplications for academic achievement; (c) interaction effects by genderand parental education. Social responsibility exerts the strongest effecton achievement; independently and combined. Girls strive for thesegoals more often than boys. All orientations are important forachievement; and for disadvantaged students in particular. The findingsare important for interventions on enhancing motivation and reducingachievement gaps between student groups.

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  • Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Kristianstad University.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Does flotation-rest (restricted environmental stimulation technique) have an effect on sleep?2020In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 33, p. 1-7, article id 101047Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Some therapies described within alternative and complementary medicine are advertised as sleep-promoting, including flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique). Flotation-REST induces deep relaxation through sensory isolation in a water-filled tank and is plausibly reported to mitigate insomnia problems, which have consistently been associated with stress, worry and arousal. However, the effects of flotation-REST have not been previously summarised. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of flotation-REST on sleep in clinical and non-clinical samples. Methods: A systematic search for studies on flotation-REST, involving at least one sleep-related variable, was conducted in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and PsychINFO. Thirteen full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and were considered for eligibility. Nine were included in the current review. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a structured checklist, and a standard data extraction sheet was used to summarize the ratings. Results: In all included studies, flotation-REST demonstrated beneficial effects on sleep, both in clinical and nonclinical samples. In two studies, the effects were maintained 4 or 6 months post-treatment. The quality of the sleep outcome measures were, however, low in most studies, particularly regarding the participants' nightly sleep habits, self-reported sleep problems and insomnia diagnosis. Conclusions: Flotation-REST may be a promising treatment for insomnia symptoms, but more controlled studies with established sleep measures, and on populations with clinically verified insomnia, are needed.

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  • Lovaas, Kari
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Be for meg også: Om forkrøpling og lengsel etter forløsning i moderne litteratur og poetikk2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the ways in which the biblical narrative of the Fall, and more specifically the predicament of creatureliness (connoting innocence as well as depravation), can be traced as a cryptotheological motif within widely dissimilar modernist poetics and literary strategies. Postsecular theory and the return to the apostle Paul in recent political theology provide the backdrop for the seemingly disparate approaches of my case studies. Their common theme may be spelled out as the “groaning of creation” and its call for possibly redemptive responses of literature and language. In the first case study, I argue that the postwar poet Paul Celan, influenced as he may be by the condemnation of informational, “fallen” language in the thinking of Martin Heidegger and Walter Benjamin, reformulates the task of the poet into one of witnessing from within fallen language on behalf of fallen creatures. In the second case study, I compare two novels by the contemporary Norwegian authors Hanne Ørstavik and Kristine Næss, both of them dealing with a crisis of authorial legitimacy. Applying a psychoanalytic perspective, I suggest that whereas Ørstavik’s protagonist seems to suffer from a rigid fixation with a certain calling as mediated by the “paternal function”, Næss’ protagonist suffers from the lack of any such call. In the third case study, I discuss how the spirit of revenge animating the protagonist of Knut Hamsun’s debut novel Hunger (1890), is performatively deactivated. Through a complex series of negotiations on dignity, the sovereign power over “bare life” is transposed into a comic register. The notion of deactivation also plays a decisive role in Giorgio Agamben’s interpretation of Pauline messianism. In the fourth case study, I compare Agamben’s reading of Paul’s “now-time” with the Swedish author Lars Ahlin’s take on the same motif. I argue that while Agamben envisions the messianic calling simply as a deactivation of every calling, Ahlin inscribes it into the ethical relation to the neighbor. Following Walter Benjamin, this thesis outlines two distinct though interconnected visions of redemption: “profanation” on the one hand, releasing the creature from “mythical guilt”, manifested on various levels as the compulsion to repeat; and “remembrance” on the other hand, manifested as a receptivity for the unfinished, failed and thwarted in collective or personal history, demanding correction and fulfillment.

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  • Mussa, Abdulbaset
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    A study on wear characteristics of high strength steels under sliding contact2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, significant improvements regarding the design, materials and technology of rock drills have been made. Likewise, in sheet metal forming, forming tools experience very high contact pressures when processing high strength steel sheets. In both applications components operate under extremely tough contact conditions that result in an accelerated component failure. Enhancements on mechanical properties of components material subjected to extreme contact conditions are highly required in order to withstand the application loads and prevent severe wear.

    The present thesis was focused on understanding of machinery component damage mechanisms under severe contact conditions. A case study of worn components used in rock drilling and sheet metal cold work was carried out. Thread joints from rock drilling and punches from sheet metal pressing were selected for the investigation. For these components, sliding contact under high contact pressure is a common load condition under the components usage. Then, to understand and quantify the influence of contact parameters, load and surface quality on material performance, laboratory simulations were performed. The results were used for a comparative analysis of the typical damage mechanisms observed in the tests and the case study of the components.

    The case study results showed that the threaded surfaces underwent severe plastic deformation due to the high-pressure sliding contact. The microstructure beneath the worn surface was altered and surface cracks and delamination were frequently observed at the worn surface. The dominant damage mechanism found on the investigated punches was adhesive wear. Material transfer adds friction stresses at the punch surface and ultimately, with repeated punch strokes, it leads to initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks.

    Wear process in thread joint and punch wear was simulated using the SOFS. The worn specimens tested experimentally showed similar wear mechanisms obtained in the case study. The thread joint wear simulation showed that the total damage at the worn surface was a result of adhesive wear, plastic deformation, and initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. In addition, the results showed that the type of motion had a significant influence on the worn volume and crack initiation, and more severe wear was observed at reciprocal motion. The punch wear simulation showed that the friction quickly increased as work material from metal sheets transferred to the disc surface. The rate of the material transfer was strongly dependent on the combination of sheet material and tool steel. Further, the present experimental simulations were applicable to characterize and predict wear of components in the application.

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