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  • Muller, Jasmin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. ADULT.
    Handlin, Linda
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Harlén, Mikael
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Ekström, Anette
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees’ anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment–a randomised explorative pilot study2015In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 15, p. 1-8, article id 302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Working people’s reduced ability to recover has been proposed as a key factor behind the increase in stress-related health problems. One not yet evidence-based preventive method designed to help employees keep healthy and be less stressed is an armchair with built-in mechanical massage and mental training programmes, This study aimed to evaluate possible effects on employees’ experience of levels of “Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility”, “Detachment” and “Social Desirability” when using mechanical massage and mental training programmes, both separately and in combination, during working hours.

    Methods

    Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to the mental training programmes, n = 19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n = 19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to the mental training programmes only, n = 19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to the mental training programmes, n = 19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n = 17). In order to discover how the employees felt about their own health they were asked to respond to statements from the ”Swedish Scale of Personality” (SSP), immediately before the randomisation, after four weeks and after eight weeks (end-of-study).

    Results

    There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied (“Somatic Trait Anxiety”, “Psychic Trait Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility”, “Detachment” and “Social Desirability”) at any of the occasions. However, the massage group showed a significant decrease in the subscale “Somatic Trait Anxiety” (p = 0.032), during the entire study period. Significant decreases in the same subscale were also observed in the pause group between start and week eight (p = 0.040) as well as between week four and week eight (p = 0.049) and also in the control group between the second and third data collection (p = 0.014). The massage and mental training group showed a significant decrease in “Stress Susceptibility” between week four and week eight (p = 0.022). The pause group showed a significant increase in the subscale “Detachment” (p = 0.044).

    Conclusions

    There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied. However, when looking at each individual group separately, positive effects in their levels of “Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility” and “Detachment” could be seen. Although the results from this pilot study indicate some positive effects, mechanical chair massage and mental training programmes used in order to increase employee’s ability to recover, needs to be evaluated further as tools to increase the employees ability to recover.

  • Muller, Jasmin
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde.
    Harlén, Mikael
    University of Skövde.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde.
    Mechanical massage and mental training programs effect employees’ heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature: An exploratory pilot study2016In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 762-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Inability to relax and recover is suggested to be a key factor for stress-related health problems. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of mechanical massage and mental training, used either separately or in combination during working hours.

    Methods: Employees were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Mechanical massage combined with mental training (n = 19), ii) Mechanical massage (n = 19), iii) Mental training (n = 19), iv) Pause (n = 19), v) Control (n = 17). The study lasted for eight weeks. Heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature were measured at start, after four and after eight weeks.

    Results: Between-group analysis showed that heart rate differed significantly between the groups after 4 weeks (p = 0.020) and tended to differ after eight weeks (p = 0.072), with lowest levels displayed in the massage group and the control group. Blood pressure and fingertip temperature did not differ between the groups. Within-group analysis showed that mechanical massage decreased heart rate (p = 0.038) and blood pressure (systolic p = 0.019, diastolic p = 0.026) and increased fingertip temperature (p = 0.035). Mental training programs reduced heart rate (p = 0.036). Combining the two methods increased diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.028) and decreased fingertip temperature (p = 0.031). The control group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure during the first four weeks of the study (p = 0.038)

    Conclusion: Receiving mechanical massage and listening to mentaltraining programs, either separately or in combination, during working hours had some positive effects on the employees’ heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature. The effects were especially strong for employees who received mechanical massage only

  • Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Wagman, Petra
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Intervention and Implementation Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete.
    Workplace health in dental care – a salutogenic approach2018In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose was to explore self-reported psychosocial health and work environments among different dental occupations and workplaces from a salutogenic perspective. A further purpose was to analyse possible associations between three salutogenic measurements: The Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS).

    Methods

    Employees in the Public Dental Service in a Swedish county council (n = 486) were invited to respond to a self-reported web survey including demographics, work-related factors, the SOC, the SHIS and the WEMS.

    Results

    This study showed positive associations between employee characteristics and self-reported overall psychosocial health as well as experienced work environment. Autonomy was reported more among men than women (P < 0.000) and to a higher degree by dentists and dental hygienists than dental nurses (P < 0.000). Meaningfulness, happiness, job satisfaction, autonomy and positive to reorganization were reported by personnels aged less than 40 years (P ≤ 0.047). Clinical coordinators reported significant better health (SOC, SHIS) and experienced more autonomy, better management and more positive to reorganization than other dental professions. Dental hygienists and nurses experienced less time pressure than dentists (P ≤ 0.007). Better health and positive work experiences were also seen in smaller clinics (P ≤ 0.29).

    Conclusion

    Dental professionals reported a high degree of overall psychosocial health as well as a positive work experience. Some variations could be seen between employee characteristics such as gender, years in dental care, professionals, managing position and workplace size. Identify resources and processes at each workplace are important and should be included in the employee's/employers dialogue.

  • Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Do, Thi Thu Hien
    Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Do, Quang Trung
    Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of oral hygiene after supervised tooth-brushing education in six-year-old children at a primary school in Vietnam2012In: Journal of behavioral health, ISSN 2146-8346, E-ISSN 0975-0851, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries is very high among Vietnamese children why methods and techniques for good oral hygiene behaviours therefore is very important in caries prevention.

    Aim: To assess oral hygiene before and after supervised tooth-brushing education in six-yearold children.

    Design: A pilot study with a pre-post-test design was used. Forty children, six years of age, at a primary school in Hanoi, participated in the study. The modified Bass tooth-brushing method were taught. Oral hygiene, i.e. dental plaque, was assessed on each tooth surface before the tooth-brushing education and after one week.

    Results: There was a distinct and significant improvement in tooth-brushing skills among sixyear- old children of both genders after the tooth-brushing education. The rate of dental plaque was reduced by 40% after the education. An improvement in cleaning could be seen on all four tooth surfaces (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal).

    Conclusion: School-based education in tooth-brushing technique are very effective for improving oral hygiene among six year olds.

  • Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Abrahamsson, Kajsa H.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Oral health-related resources - a salutogenic perspective on Swedish 19-year-olds2015In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore health-oriented resources among 19-year-olds and, specifically, how these resources interact with oral health-related attitudes and behaviour. To represent individuals with various psychosocial environments and socioeconomic areas, the participants were selected from different geographical locations of the Public Dental Service clinics in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. A structured questionnaire was distributed, including the instrument ‘sense of coherence’, for description of the study group, followed by a semi-structured thematized interview. The qualitative method used for sampling and analyses was grounded theory. Data sampling and analysis were performed in parallel procedures and ended up in a sample of ten informants (five women). In the analysis of interview data, a core category was identified, ‘Resources of Wealth and Balance in Life – a Foundation for Healthy Choices’, describing the central meaning of the informants’ perceptions of resources with an essential beneficial impact on oral health. The core category was built on five themes, which in turn had various subthemes, describing different dimensions of resources interacting with beneficial oral health-related attitudes and behaviour: ‘Security-building Resources and Support’, ‘Driving force and Motivation’,Maturity and Insight’,Health Awareness’ and ‘Environmental influences.’ The results elucidate personal and environmental health-oriented resources with influence on oral health-related attitudes and behaviours of young individuals. Such beneficial recourses should be recognized by dental personnel to promote oral health.

  • Lindmark, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Oral Health and Sense of Coherence: Health Behaviours Knowledge, Attitudes and Clinical Status2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Isabelle
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Torgé, Cristina Joy
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    Jansson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. Oral hälsa.
    Effekt på munhälsa av samarbete mellan tandhygienist och personal i äldreomsorg2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Isabelle
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Dental- and nursing care collaborations in Sweden – A way to support nursing staff in oral hygiene care for older people2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of the general health and quality of life. Yet oral health among older people requiring nursing care is often poor. Despite this group’s frequent contact with health care services, they tend to lose contact with dental care. In nursing care, nursing staff are tasked to assist with oral hygiene care, but this has become more demanding as many older people retain more teeth or have advanced prosthetic constructions. Previous research in the field emphasised the need of collaboration between dental- and nursing care to support the nursing staff in this task. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effects of these collaborations.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to examine two oral health programmes used within nursing care with different design regarding support from and collaboration with dental care.

    Methods: Quantitative research methods was used. The data in Study I comes from an oral health assessments guide (ROAG-J) performed by nursing staff in a national health register. Oral health, assessed at two occasions from older people with nursing care, were used. Study II was a controlled intervention study performed at a nursing home. The intervention involved individual coaching of nursing staff in oral hygiene care by dental hygienist for four hours per week at the ward for a period of three months. Oral assessments of older people were performed by dental hygienists and questionnaires to nursing home staff were used.

    Result: In Study I, 667 individuals aged 65 years or older, receiving nursing care services and assessed using ROAG-J between November 2011 and March 2014 were included. No statistically significant difference in any of the oral health variables was found between the first and subsequent assessments. At the first assessments, less than one third of participants had oral health problems. At the first assessment, status of the tongue differed in men and women (p < .01); at the subsequent assessment, gender differences were found in voice (p < .05), mucous membranes (p < .003), tongue (p < .01), and saliva (p < .006).

    In Study II, 33 nursing staff and 48 residents participated at the baseline measurement and 22 and 32 respectively at the 9-month follow-up. The nursing staff changed in knowledge and attitudes related to gum disease, approximal cleaning, usage of fluoride and the likelihood that older persons would express the need for oral health support. The most frequently reported oral health problems among the residents pertained to teeth and gums. The residents relatively high level of oral health was stable during the study period.

    Conclusions: The participants in the oral health programmes were able to maintain an acceptable level of oral health during the study periods although health was likely to decline. The nursing staff maintained a high level of knowledge and attitudes about oral health. However, there seems to be a discrepancy regarding the prevalence of oral health problems among older people. A collaboration between dental- and nursing care providers indicates a positive influence on providing oral hygiene care.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-20 10:00 Nyquistsalen, 9C 203, Karlstad
    Glenne, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fundamental Investigations of Adsorption in SFC2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), the eluent is composed by carbon dioxide, often with additional components, in a condition between gas and liquid. This thesis aims to reach a deeper understanding of SFC by revealing the function of the additional eluent components through systematic adsorption studies.

    In Paper I, investigation of surface excess adsorption isotherms of methanol revealed that a monolayer of methanol was formed. In Paper II, severe peak deformation effects due to this adsorption were shown. The findings in these papers revealed that a competitive additive model best predicts the solute retention at low methanol fractions whereas at higher fractions, methanol acts just as a modifier. In Paper III, the generality of the effects was proven by investigation of several co-solvent and stationary phase combinations. In Paper IV it was investigated how the robustness of SFC separations depend on the co-solvent adsorption, pressure, and temperature. In Paper V, the impact of the addition of amine additives was investigated. Two different mechanisms for solute peak deformations were observed.

    The knowledge achieved about SFC in this theses provides guidelines for development of more robust SFC methods where peak deformations/distortions can be avoided.

  • Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    et al.
    Arbetsvetenskap, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Arbetsvetenskap, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Arbetsvetenskap, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden .
    Med stallet som arbetsplats: om attraktivt arbete i hästnäringe2020In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the equine industry have shown shortcomings regarding employees’ work environment and working conditions. The purpose of this article is to identify how employees in the horse industry perceive their current work and what factors they consider important for a job to be attractive, as well as to examine differences between the current work and the employees’ ideal image of an attractive work. The study is based on a questionnaire survey with a total of 150 responses from employees. The article discusses challenges and opportunities for creating attractive work in the equine industry.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 09:15 21A342, Karlstad
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Towards Resilient and Reconfigurable Software-defined Wireless Backhaul Networks2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of mobile devices and services over the last decade has led to unprecedented mobile traffic growth. To cope with the increasing demands, fifth generation (5G) network architectures have been designed to provide the required capacity using a large number of small cells (SCs). However, a dense deployment of SCs requires a robust and scalable backhaul to transport the access traffic towards the Internet. In this thesis, we explore the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a wireless backhaul. With SDN, the data and control planes are separated and the network is managed by a centralized entity. To that end, we provide multiple contributions that focus on achieving resilient and reconfigurable wireless backhaul networks. Firstly, we propose an SDN-based architecture to manage the wireless backhaul. Our architecture is integrated in practical testbed environments, where we use an SDN controller to configure the forwarding plane and wireless backhaul links. Secondly, we evaluate SDN-based resiliency in the wireless backhaul. We achieve that by implementing fast-failover resiliency with OpenFlow group tables and by using the bidirectional-forwarding detection protocol (BFD) to monitor the state of the backhaul links. Finally, we develop algorithms that calculate the necessary reconfiguration operations to transition between different wireless backhaul topologies, while minimizing the impact on existing user traffic. We consider that the backhaul nodes can be powered on/off and are equipped with steerable antennas that can be aligned to form links with different neighbors. Our optimization problems are modeled as mixed integer linear programs (MILP) that are optimally solved using exact mathematical programming methods. In addition, we develop greedy-based heuristic algorithms that solve the same problems and obtain good quality solutions in short time.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-28 10:15 21A342, Eva Erikssonsalen, Karlstad
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Life of a Security Middlebox: Challenges with Emerging Protocols and Technologies2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of today has intermediary devices known as middleboxes that perform more functions than the normal packet forwarding function of a router. Security middleboxes are a subset of these middleboxes and face an increasingly difficult task to perform their functions correctly. These middleboxes make many assumptions about the traffic that may not hold true any longer with the advent of new protocols such as MPTCP and technologies like end-to-end encryption.

    The work in this thesis focuses on security middleboxes and the challenges they face. We develop methods and solutions to help these security middleboxes continue to function correctly. In particular, we investigate the case of using MPTCP over traditional security infrastructure as well as the case of end-to-end encryption. We study how practical it is to evade a security middlebox by fragmenting and sending traffic across multiple paths using MPTCP. We then go on to propose possible solutions to detect such attacks and implement them. The potential MPTCP scenario where security middleboxes only have access to part of the traffic is also investigated and addressed. Moreover, the thesis contributes a machine learning based approach to help security middleboxes detect malware in encrypted traffic without decryption.

  • Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Shulman, Yefim
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Psychological Effects and Their Role in Online Privacy Interactions: A Review2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 21236-21260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increasing dependency on online technologies in even the most ordinary activities, people have to make privacy decisions during everyday online interactions. Visual design often influences their choices. Hence, it is in the hands of choice architects and designers to guide users towards specific decision outcomes. This “nudging” has gained much interest among scholars in interdisciplinary research, resulting in experimental studies with visual cues that may have the potential to alter attitudes and behaviors. Attitude and behavior changes are often attributed to several psychological effects manifesting in cognitive processing and decision-making. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review carried out to identify which psychological effects have been previously studied in the context of online privacy interactions. Subsequently, fifteen articles were selected and thoroughly reviewed, resulting in the identification of twenty psychological effects. The visual cues triggering these effects were recognized and classified against their capabilities to alter privacy attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, the visual cues were divided into two categories: privacy-enhancing and privacy-deteriorating. This review discusses the applicability of such cues in research and UI design. Further, the findings are discussed against the existing research on digital nudges. The authors conclude with a discussion on issues of research quality in the privacy-related field and outline the road to improvement.

  • Åberg, Linnéa
    Arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs Universitet .
    Interprofessionellt arbete och standardisering: spänningar i kvalitetssäkring av samhällsorientering för nyanlända2020In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration initiatives aimed at newly arrived immigrants have been criticized for a lack of equivalence and a weak knowledge base. This article is about the interprofessional work to produce a standardized, national information material to improve civic orientation. In the study a process was followed when various occupational groups worked together to produce the material about Swedish society. The analysis shows how the work was characterized by ambiguities when the different groups oriented themselves towards different sub-goals: to create the scientifically correct, the pedagogically simplified, the politically neutral or the relevant for the newly arrived immigrants.

  • Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Televiserad arbetsetik, arbetsförmedlingens utvärderingsverksamhet, personalförsörjning och karriärutveckling, arbetsdelningens återkomst, återhämtning efter arbetet samt kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, no 3-4, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Wendell, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Teaching and Learning Historical Explanation: Teacher and Student Cases from Lower and Upper Secondary History2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and analyse how teachers and students understand the concept of historical explanation in the context of classroom teaching practices. The thesis is made up of four studies that investigate different aspects of understanding, focusing on either teacher or student understanding as expressed in words and actions.

     

    The different studies employ differing methods, including classroom observations, interviews with teachers, and analysis of student answers to prompts intended for assessment. The studies include cases from both lower and upper secondary school in Sweden. The four studies provide empirical results that are presented in each individual study, and furthermore subjected to an aggregated analysis in order to find patterns of commonality. The aggregated analysis draws upon Rüsen's theory of historical knowledge, as well as a progression model for historical explanation based on results from previous research.

     

    The results of the study show a clear difference between lower and upper secondary school in how students at each stage construct historical explanations, indicating differing expectations of what students are supposed to do with explanations in each stage. Teachers' practices are more varied: while a majority of the included teachers manifest a disciplinary understanding of historical explanation, in line with previous research about historical explanation in educational contexts, other approaches with other emphases are also present. These include an emphasis of learning explanations as sets of facts, as well as approaches that aim for making the knowledge of historical explanation useful outside of the history subject. Examples of such aims found in the study are to enhance empathetic understanding of other people, and helping students to orient themselves in relation to present-day issues.

  • Stawreberg, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Recommendations for revising the energy label system for dishwashers: Supporting sustainable development and usage through the interaction of energy labels, technical improvements and consumer behaviour2019In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, domestic chores such as washing dishes were all done by hand. Today it is estimated that 44% of the households in the EU are equipped with a dishwasher. In this article, we discuss the connections between technical developments, consumer behaviour and the test standard for energy labels. The aim of this study is to provide recommendations for future work that would strengthen the role of the energy label in order to promote the more sustainable technical development of household appliances. Technical developments are compared with the consequences of different consumer behaviour. It was found that technical developments could reduce annual energy use, but depending on the implemented technology, this is often complex and requires additional components. On the other hand, a consumer can easily increase energy usage by 50% without being aware of doing so, when goods are pre-treated, appliances incorrectly loaded, or inappropriate programs selected. Our recommendation is first of all to encourage the use of dishwashers as they consume less energy and water compared with washing up manually. A holistic approach should be taken to updating the energy labelling system. Actual consumer behaviour must be taken into account and, perhaps most importantly, as dishwashers are becoming ever more energy efficient, consumers must be educated in using the machines in an environmentally friendly way. We conclude that the energy labelling system is outdated; it must be fundamentally revised and must take into account consumer behaviour.

  • Lunde, Torodd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Undersökande och verklighetsanknuten undervisning i ett allmänbildningsperspektiv2019In: Kemi för alla: Bidrag från konferensen 1-2 oktober 2018 i Stockholm arrangerad av Kemilärarnas resurscentrum / [ed] Karin Stolpe & Gunnar Höst, Linköping:: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019, p. 59-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att det finns stor enighet om att undervisning i de naturvetenskapligaämnena ska vara allmänbildande, finns det inte motsvarandeenighet om vad en sådan undervisning innebär. I denna artikel diskuterarjag några centrala begrepp inom didaktisk forskning för att redaut olika sätt att förstå allmänbildningsbegreppet i de naturvetenskapligaämnena, samt konsekvenser för undervisningen. Jag presenterarett ramverk för vardagsanknuten och undersökande undervisning.Ramverket består av tre delar där första delen är en vardags- ellersamhällsfråga med naturvetenskapligt innehåll, nästa del en undersökandeaktivitet och sista delen en återkoppling till ursprungsfrågan.Detta ramverk diskuteras utifrån olika perspektiv med stöd i de ämnesdidaktiskabegrepp som presenteras. Några skisser till undervisningsuppläggför olika stadier från mellanstadiet till gymnasiet presenteras.

  • Sadek, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad Universtity.
    Very high cycle fatigue of automotive steels: Testing and computation at 20 kHz2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical fatigue failure occurs in components subjected to cyclic loading. A crack initiates at critical regions in the component and propagates during repeated loading. The expected fatigue life depends on the level, type and frequency of the loading. Generally, as implied by the Wohler’s SN curve, higher applied cyclic load leads to lower fatigue lifes and vice versa. When designing mechanical components carrying cyclic loading, engineers take into account the fatigue limit, i.e. the material specific maximum load allowed for the desired fatigue life. In automotive machinery, components are often required to withstand a very high amount of load cycles before failing. Hence, fatigue data for the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime becomes significant.

    In this thesis, an ultrasonic fatigue testing system, with 20 kHz loading frequency, was used to determine the fatigue properties of three high strength low alloyed automotive steels (a ferritic-pearlitic, a martensitic and a carburizing martensitic steel) in the VHCF regime. Theoretical modelling taking into account the influence of the high load frequency was developed and utilized to control the experimental testing. Fatigue strength, crack initiation mechanisms and crack propagation behaviour in the VHCF regime were studied. More specifically, fatigue strength (σN) at 108 cycles, in both uniaxial and bending loading, crack growth rate (da/dN) and threshold behaviour (ΔKth) in the low stress intensity factor regime were determined using specially designed specimens and test rigs.

    The fatigue failure of the automotive steels in the VHCF regime, revealed fracture surfaces with fine granular area (FGA) formation close to the initiation point, with a transition to flat transgranular crack growth inside the fish-eye area. The stress intensity thresholds of FGA and fish-eye transitions are described and related to crack tip plastic zone sizes and steel strength.

    The effect of damping at 20 kHz, on automotive steels, was thoroughly studied by experimental measurements and theoretical investigations. The effect of introducing damping in dynamic analysis of stress and stress intensity computations for fatigue strength and crack growth testing at 20 kHz was clarified. Best practice for theoretical modelling and computation of stress intensities in crack growth testing at 20 kHz, including the effect of damping, along with guidelines for best practice testing procedure are provided.

  • Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lessons from the welding booth: theories in practice in vocational education2020In: Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1877-6337, E-ISSN 1877-6345, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from a Learning study in which two university based researchers collaborate with a vocational teacher at an upper secondary vocational school. During three iterative cycles, two different theories (Conversational Analysis and Variation Theory) have gradually been incorporated when teaching how to TIG-weld. Through concrete empirical examples from video recorded lessons the article explores how these theoretical perspectives (termed CAVTA) can be used together and integrated in practice when analysing the teaching and learning processes that take shape when teacher and students interact in relation to the object of learning to TIG-weld, and how these theories can be used as didactical tools. The analyses highlights concrete changes in the teacher’s teaching, and it is argued that the approach used in the study can lead to a development where we can find forms for teaching specific subject content within vocational education.